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Astoria, Oregon

Astoria is a port city and the seat of Clatsop County, United States. Founded in 1811, Astoria is the oldest city in the state of Oregon and was the first American settlement west of the Rocky Mountains. Astoria is located on the south shore of the Columbia River, where the river meets the Pacific Ocean; the city is named for John Jacob Astor, an investor from New York City whose American Fur Company founded Fort Astoria at the site. Astoria was incorporated by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on October 20, 1876; the city is served by the deepwater Port of Astoria. Transportation includes the Astoria Regional Airport with U. S. Route 30 and U. S. Route 101 as the main highways, the 4.1-mile Astoria–Megler Bridge connecting to neighboring Washington across the river. The population was 9,477 at the 2010 census; the Lewis and Clark Expedition spent the winter of 1805–1806 at Fort Clatsop, a small log structure southwest of modern-day Astoria. The expedition had hoped a ship would come by to take them back east, but instead they endured a torturous winter of rain and cold returning the way they came.

Today the fort is now a historical park. In 1811, British explorer David Thompson, the first person known to have navigated the entire length of the Columbia River, reached the constructed Fort Astoria near the mouth of the river, he arrived just two months after the Tonquin. The fort constructed by the Tonquin party established Astoria as a U. S. rather than a British, became a vital post for American exploration of the continent and was used as an American claim in the Oregon boundary dispute with European nations. The Pacific Fur Company, a subsidiary of John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company, was created to begin fur trading in the Oregon Country. During the War of 1812, in 1813, the company's officers sold its assets to their Canadian rivals, the North West Company; the fur trade would remain under British control until U. S. pioneers following the Oregon Trail began filtering into the town in the mid-1840s. The Treaty of 1818 established joint U. S. – British occupancy of the Oregon Country.

In 1846, the Oregon Treaty divided the mainland at the 49th parallel north, the southern portion of Vancouver Island south of this line was awarded to the British. Washington Irving, a prominent American writer with a European reputation, was approached by John Jacob Astor to mythologize the three-year reign of his Pacific Fur Company. Astoria, written while Irving was Astor's guest, cemented the importance of the region in the American psyche. In Irving's words, the fur traders were "Sinbads of the wilderness", their venture was a staging point for the spread of American economic power into both the continental interior and into the Pacific; as the Oregon Territory grew and became more colonized by Americans, Astoria grew as a port city near the mouth of the great river that provided the easiest access to the interior. The first U. S. post office west of the Rocky Mountains was established in Astoria in 1847 and official state incorporation in 1876. Astoria attracted a host of immigrants beginning in the late 19th century: Nordic settlers Swedes, Swedish speaking Finns and Chinese soon became larger parts of the population.

The Nordic settlers lived in Uniontown, near the present-day end of the Astoria–Megler Bridge, took fishing jobs. By the late 1800s, 22% of Astoria's population was Chinese. In 1883, again in 1922, downtown Astoria was devastated by fire because it was wood and raised off the marshy ground on pilings. After the first fire, the same format was used, the second time around the flames spread again, as collapsing streets took out the water system. Frantic citizens resorted to dynamite, blowing up entire buildings to stop the fire from going further. Astoria has served as a port of entry for over a century and remains the trading center for the lower Columbia basin, although it has long since been eclipsed by Portland and Seattle, Washington, as an economic hub on the coast of the Pacific Northwest. Astoria's economy centered on fishing, fish processing, lumber. In 1945, about 30 canneries could be found along the Columbia; the lumber industry declined. From 1921 to 1966, a ferry route across the Columbia River connected Astoria with Pacific County, Washington.

In 1966, the Astoria–Megler Bridge was opened. The bridge completed U. S. Route 101 and linked Astoria with Washington on the opposite shore of the Columbia, replacing the ferry service. Today, Astoria's growing art scene, light manufacturing are the main economic activities of the city. Logging and fishing at a fraction of their former levels, it is a port of call for cruise ships since 1982, after $10 million in pier improvements to accommodate these larger ships. To avoid Mexican ports of call during the Swine Flu outbreak of 2009, many cruises were re-routed to include Astoria; the floating residential community MS The World visited Astoria in June 2009. The town's seasonal sport fishing tourism has been active for several decades and has now been supplanted with visitors coming for the historic elements of the city; the more recent microbrewery/brewpub scene and a weekly street market have helped popularized the area as a destination. In ad

Under a Woodstock Moon

Under a Woodstock Moon is an album by saxophonist David Newman recorded in 1996 and released on Herbie Mann's Kokopelli label. In his review for AllMusic, Scott Yanow states "Veteran David Newman is heard in fine form on his excellent CD, switching between tenor and flute, he is joined by a supportive rhythm section and four strings for a cheerful set of ballads and originals.... despite the relaxed tempos, it is one of David Newman's stronger straight-ahead efforts and is recommended for Newman's appealing tenor playing". All compositions by David Newman except where noted "Nature Boy" – 4:36 "Amandla" – 5:15 "Up Jumped Spring" – 4:24 "Spring Can Really Hang You up the Most" – 5:11 "Autumn in New York" – 4:38 "Sky Blues" – 2:56 "Another Kentucky Sunset" – 4:58 "Summertime" – 4:56 "Sunrise" – 5:35 "A Nightingale Sang in Berkeley Square" – 6:14 "Skylark" – 4:49 "Under a Woodstock Moon" – 5:32 David Newman – tenor saxophone, alto saxophone, flute David Leonhardtpiano, arranger Bryan Carrottvibraphone Steve Novoselbass Winard Harperdrums String section conducted by Torrie Zito Charles Libove, Eugene Moye, Matthew Raimondi, Ronald Carbone Bob Freedman – arranger

Cars & Trains

Tom Filepp, better known by his stage name Cars & Trains, is an American multi-instrumentalist from Portland, Oregon. Sputnikmusic described him as "an excellent songwriter if anything else"; the singer of this band unabashedly loves halva and has mixed feelings on the state of Connecticut but knows it is worse than New Jersey. Cars & Trains' first album, Rusty String, was released on Circle into Square in 2007, his second album, The Roots, the Leaves, was released on Fake Four Inc. in 2010. He released the third album, We Are All Fire, in early 2012. We Are All Storms, a companion EP to the album, was released that year. Rusty String The Roots, the Leaves We Are All Fire Dust Fictions Consumer Confidence Vol. 1 Consumer Confidence Vol. 2 The Roots, the Remix Live on KBOO 2AM Little Song We Are All Storms "The Sun Always Sets" b/w "The Leaves" Factor - "Every Morning" from Lawson Graham Sole - "My Veganism" from No Wising Up No Settling Down Noah23 - "Nuts" from Fry Cook on Venus Official website Cars & Trains discography at Discogs

Škoda 15 cm K10 gun

The Škoda 15 cm K10 was a naval gun of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, used by the Austro-Hungarian Navy during World War I. The gun was 149.1 mm, but the classification system for artillery rounded up to the next highest centimeter. The 15 cm K10 was called cannon 149/47 by the Italians and was used by the Italian Navy as coastal artillery during World War II; the Škoda 15 cm K10 was built by Škoda at the Pilsen works. The barrel was made of steel with a horizontal sliding breech block and the gun used separate loading ammunition with a cartridge case and bagged charge, they were used as secondary armament on the four battleships of the Tegetthoff-class. Each ship had six guns per side mounted on pedestal mounts in casemates amidships. After World War I SMS Tegetthoff was delivered to Italy as a war reparation. Tegetthoff was decommissioned and remained in Venice until 1923 when it was moved to La Spezia to be scrapped in 1925; the guns recovered from Tegetthof were assigned to coastal batteries in Libya and Croatia where they were used in World War II.

The barrel and semi-circular armored shield from the casemates were reused, but the mounts were modified to increase elevation to +35 ° and traverse to 360°. The only remaining complete 15 cm/50 gun of the four-gun battery Batterie Madonna is located on the island of Veli Brioni near Pula Croatia; the engravings on this gun have been obscured by rust, but it appears that this gun is serial number 15 and was manufactured in 1912. Ammunition was of separate loading type with a cartridge case and a bagged charge which weighed 37 kilograms; the gun was able to fire: Armor Piercing - John. Naval Weapons of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4. Http://

Cloyd Boyer

Cloyd Victor Boyer Jr. is a former right-handed pitcher and pitching coach in Major League Baseball who played between 1949 and 1955 for the St. Louis Cardinals and Kansas City Athletics. Boyer was born in Missouri, he was the eldest son in a family that included Clete Boyer. Ken, 1964 National League Most Valuable Player, an 11-time Major League Baseball All-Star and five-time Gold Glove Award winner, had a 15-year big-league career with the Cardinals, New York Mets, Chicago White Sox and Los Angeles Dodgers. In a five-season career, Cloyd Boyer posted a 20-23 record with 198 strikeouts and a 4.73 earned run average in 395⅔ innings pitched, including 13 complete games, three shutouts, two saves. Boyer played for the Duluth Dukes, a Cardinals minor league team, in 1947. During the 1947 season in Duluth, Boyer compiled a record of 16 wins against 9 losses, he took the strikeout lead in the Northern League. After that season, he was sold to the Houston Buffs, for whom he played in 1948. After his playing career, Boyer became a scout, minor league pitching instructor and major league pitching coach—spending much of his time in the New York Yankees organization.

He was the pitching coach during Bobby Cox's first term as manager of the Atlanta Braves. Boyer is credited with helping Fritz Peterson become a star pitcher. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet

1908 New York Giants season

The 1908 New York Giants season was the franchise's 26th season. The team finished in second place in the National League with a 98–56 record, one game behind the Chicago Cubs. Paced by Turkey Mike Donlin, the offense scored the most runs in the league. Donlin was second in batting to Honus Wagner. Future Hall of Famer Christy Mathewson earned the pitching triple crown with 37 wins, 259 strikeouts, a 1.43 ERA. However, he lost the last game of the season to Three Finger Brown of the Chicago Cubs, the Giants finished one game back in the pennant race; that one-game playoff became necessary after Giants rookie Fred Merkle failed to touch second base at the end of a previous contest, costing them a win. In addition, they were beaten by another rookie, Phillies pitcher Harry Coveleski, three times in five days late in the season. Coveleski was subsequently nicknamed "The Giant Killer"; the Giants opened the season on the road with a 3–1 victory over the Philadelphia Phillies. The Giants took five of their first six games of the season.

The home opener at the Polo Grounds was the biggest in club history, as the Giants attracted over 25,000 fans. The Brooklyn Superbas took a 2–1 lead into the bottom of the ninth. Fred Merkle pinch got a ground rule double. Merkle safely advanced to third base on a sacrifice bunt. Fred Tenney hit Merkle was caught off third. Captain Donlin hit a two run home run over the right field wall to win the home opener for the Giants by a score of 3–2. On July 4, Hooks Wiltse had a perfect game heading into the ninth inning. With two out in the ninth, the perfect game was still intact. George McQuillan was hit by a pitch and Wiltse lost the perfect game. On August 27, the Giants won 18 of their last 23 to take the lead in the National League for the first time since April. During the Giants four game sweep of the Pirates in late August, the electric scoreboard made its debut in New York; the first electric scoreboard was outside Madison Square Garden, there was another near the Gotham Theatre on 125th Street.

On Wednesday, September 23, against the Chicago Cubs, 19-year-old Fred Merkle committed a base running error that became known as "Merkle's Boner", earned Merkle the nickname of "Bonehead." In the bottom of the 9th inning, he came up to bat with two outs, the score tied 1–1. At the time, Moose McCormick was on first base. Merkle singled, McCormick advanced to third. Al Bridwell, the next batter, followed with a single of his own. McCormick went home scoring the winning run of the game; the fans in attendance, under the impression that the game was over, ran onto the field to celebrate. Meanwhile, trying to escape the mob of people, ran to the Giants' clubhouse without touching second base. Cubs second baseman Johnny Evers noticed this, after retrieving a ball and touching second base, he appealed to umpire Hank O'Day to call Merkle out; the validity of the ball was disputed – numerous accounts have Giants pitcher Joe McGinnity intercepting the real ball before Evers could get it. However, since Merkle had not touched the base, the umpire called him out on a force play, McCormick's run did not count.

Since the run was nullified, the Giants' victory was erased, the score of the game remained tied. The thousands of fans on the field prevented resumption of the game, it was declared a tie; the Giants and the Cubs would end the season deadlocked atop the standings and would have a rematch at the Polo Grounds, on October 8. The Cubs won this makeup game, 4–2, thus the National League pennant. Giants manager John McGraw never blamed Merkle for the second-place finish. However, the rookie was hounded by fans for years thereafter. July 8, 1908: Bob Spade was claimed off waivers by the Giants from the Cincinnati Reds. July 10, 1908: Bob Spade and $5,000 were traded by the Giants to the Cincinnati Reds for Jake Weimer and Dave Brain. Note: Pos = Position. = Batting average. = Batting average.