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Astrid Kirchherr

Astrid Kirchherr is a German photographer and artist and is well known for her association with the Beatles, her photographs of the band's original members – John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Stuart Sutcliffe and Pete Best – during their early days in Hamburg. Kirchherr met artist Sutcliffe in the Kaiserkeller bar in Hamburg in 1960, where he was playing bass with the Beatles, was engaged to him, before his death in 1962. Although Kirchherr has taken few photographs since 1967, her early work has been exhibited in Hamburg, London, New York City, Washington, D. C. Tokyo, Vienna and at the Rock'n' Roll Hall of Fame, she has published three limited-edition books of photographs. Astrid Kirchherr was born in 1938 in Hamburg, is the daughter of a former executive of the German branch of the Ford Motor Company. During World War II she was evacuated to the safety of the Baltic Sea where she remembered seeing dead bodies on the shore and the destruction in Hamburg when she returned. After her graduation, Kirchherr enrolled in the Meisterschule für Mode, Grafik und Werbung in Hamburg, as she wanted to study fashion design but demonstrated a talent for black-and-white photography.

Reinhard Wolf, the school's main photographic tutor, convinced her to switch courses and promised that he would hire her as his assistant when she graduated. Kirchherr worked for Wolf as his assistant from 1959 until 1963. In the late 1950s and early 1960s Kirchherr and her art school friends were involved in the European existentialist movement whose followers were nicknamed "Exis" by Lennon. In 1995 she told BBC Radio Merseyside: "Our philosophy because we were only little kids, was wearing black clothes and going around looking moody. Of course, we hadn't a clue. We got inspired by all the French artists and writers, because, the closest we could get. England was so far away, America was out of the question. So France was the nearest. So we got all the information from France, we tried to dress like the French existentialists... We wanted to be free, we wanted to be different, tried to be cool, as we call it now." Kirchherr and Vollmer were friends who had all attended the Meisterschule, shared the same ideas about fashion and music.

Voormann became Astrid's boyfriend, moved into the Kirchherr home, where he had his own room. In 1960, after Kirchherr and Vollmer had had an argument with Voormann, he wandered down the Reeperbahn and heard music coming from the Kaiserkeller club. Voormann walked in and watched a performance by a group called the Beatles: Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Best, their drummer at the time. Voormann asked Kirchherr and Vollmer to listen to this new music, after being persuaded to visit the Kaiserkeller, Kirchherr decided that all she wanted to do was to be as close to the Beatles as she could; the trio of friends had never heard Rock n' Roll before, having listened to only Trad jazz, with some Nat King Cole and The Platters mixed in. The trio visited the Kaiserkeller every night, arriving at 9 o'clock and sitting by the front of the stage. Kirchherr said: "It was like a merry-go-round in my head, they looked astonishing... My whole life changed in a couple of minutes. All I wanted was to be with them and to know them."Kirchherr said that she and Vollmer felt guilty about being German, about Germany's recent history.

Meeting the Beatles was something special for her, although she knew that English people would think that she ate sauerkraut, would comment on her heavy German accent, but they made jokes about it together. Lennon would make sarcastic remarks from the stage, saying "You Krauts, we won the war," knowing that few Germans in the audience spoke English, but any English sailors present would roar with laughter. Sutcliffe was fascinated by the trio, but Kirchherr, thought they looked like "real bohemians". Bill Harry said that when Kirchherr walked in, every head would turn her way, that she always captivated the whole room. Sutcliffe wrote to a friend that he could hardly take his eyes off her and had tried to talk to Kirchherr during the next break, but she had left the club. Sutcliffe managed to meet them and learned that all three had attended the Meisterschule, the same type of art college that Lennon and Sutcliffe had attended in Liverpool.. Kirchherr asked the Beatles if they would mind letting her take photographs of them in a photo session, which impressed them, as other groups had only snapshots that were taken by friends.

The next morning Kirchherr took photographs with a Rolleicord camera, at a fairground in a municipal park called Hamburger Dom, close to the Reeperbahn, in the afternoon she took them all to her mother's house in Altona. Kirchherr's bedroom, was decorated for Voormann, with whom she had a relationship, although after the visits to the Kaiserkeller their relationship became purely platonic. Kirchherr started dating Sutcliffe. Kirchherr supplied Sutcliffe and the other Beatles

Anna Carter Florence

Anna Carter Florence is the Peter Marshall Professor of Preaching at Columbia Theological Seminary and an ordained minister in the Presbyterian Church. She is known for her work on the historical, theological and performative dimensions of preaching. Anna Carter Florence received a B. A. from Yale University, an M. Div from Princeton Theological Seminary, a Ph. D. from Princeton Theological Seminary. She was ordained in the Presbyterian Church in 1988 by the Presbytery of the Twin Cities Area, she was an Associate Pastor for Youth and Young Adults at Westminster Presbyterian Church, Minneapolis, MN before becoming a Teaching Assistant in Preaching and Instructor in Preaching at Princeton Theological Seminary. Beginning in 1998, Anna Carter Florence became an Instructor in Preaching at Columbia Theological Seminary, where she has since held the positions of Assistant Professor of Preaching, Associate Professor of Preaching, Peter Marshall Associate Professor of Preaching, she serves as the Peter Marshall Professor of Preaching at Columbia Theological Seminary.

Anna Carter Florence has focused much of her research on testimony, feminist theology, the relationship of preaching to other fields and traditions. In addition to teaching and lecturing around the world on these topics, she has written several books and contributed a number of chapters and essays to others, she is a frequent contributor to Lectionary Homiletics and other journals. She is a proponent of preaching as both testimony and witness, as well as a proponent of preaching exegetical sermons based on the texts provided in the lectionary, she believes that "the authority for authentic preaching is based on the depth of the preacher’s engagement with the text. It is the job of the preacher to encounter the text on a personal level and testify to what he/she has seen and heard." She advocates preachers to think of themselves as "people who have seen and heard something, who have to tell about it. We are the people who pay attention in the first place: we pay attention to sacred texts and to human life, we try to describe what we see when it is beyond belief.”

Anna Carter Florence has developed the method of reading biblical scripture by focusing on the verbs that are given and chosen by the characters. She states," It's what we don't do that preoccupies human beings, and it’s the verbs we cannot imagine for ourselves that the church offers, that we reach for, week after week." Preaching as Testimony. Westminster John Knox Press, 2007. Inscribing the Word: Sermons and Prayers of Walter Brueggemann. Editor. Fortress, 2004; the Word in Rehearsal. The Lyman Beecher Lectures in Preaching. Westminster John Knox Press. A is for Alabaster: An Alphabet of Preachers. Twenty-six “preachers” drawn from New Testament texts, each of whom shows a different angle of the richly diverse homiletics at work in scripture.. Lectionary Homiletics, 2007-2008, Year A: A Liturgical Year of 1000 word essays Put Away Your Sword! Taking the Torture out of the Sermon, in What’s the Matter with Preaching Today? Edited by Mike Graves. Westminster John Knox Press, 2004. "Preaching IS Personal," in Preaching and the Personal, edited by J. Dwayne Howell.

Wipf and Stock. "Preacher as One ‘Out of Your Mind,’" in Slow of Speech and Unclean Lips, edited by Robert Stephen Reid. Wipf and Stock, 2010. "Who do you say that I am? Luke 9:18-27," in Preaching the Incarnation, edited by Peter K. Stevenson. Westminster John Knox Press, 2010. "Put Away Your Sword! Taking the Torture out of the Sermon," in What’s the Matter with Preaching Today? Edited by Mike Graves. Westminster John Knox Press, 2004. "The Preaching Imagination," in Teaching Preaching as a Christian Practice: A New Approach to Homiletical Pedagogy, edited by Thomas G. Long and Leonora Tubbs Tisdale. Westminster John Knox Press, 2008. "The Voice You Find May Be Your Own," in Get Up Off Your Knees! Preaching the U2 Catalogue, edited by Raewynne J. Whitely. Cowley, 2003. "Mud and Meeting People," in Renewing the Vision: Reformed Faith for the 21st Century, edited by Cynthia M. Campbell. Geneva Press, 2000. "Fourth Sunday of Advent," in The Abingdon Women’s Preaching Annual, Series 2, Year B, edited by Leonora Tubbs Tisdale.

Abingdon, 1999. "Second Sunday of Easter," in The Abingdon Women’s Preaching Annual, Series 2, Year B, edited by Leonora Tubbs Tisdale. Abingdon, 1999. "The River’s Edge," in A Chorus of Witnesses: Model Sermons for Today’s Preacher, edited by Thomas G. Long and Cornelius Plantinga. Eerdmans, 1994. "The River’s Edge," in Sacred Strands, edited by Barbara Mraz. Lone Oak Press, 1991. "7 Essential Books for Preaching," in The Christian Century, Oct. 20, 2009. "Homiletical Perspective: John 3:1-17," in Feasting on the Word: Preaching the Revised Common Lectionary, Year A, Vol. 2, edited by David Bartlett and Barbara Brown Taylor. Westminster John Knox Press, 2011. "Homiletical Perspective: John 4:5-42" in Feasting on the Word: Preaching the Revised Common Lectionary, Year A, Vol. 2, edited by David Bartlett and Barbara Brown Taylor. Westminster John Knox Press, 2011. "Homiletical Perspective: John 9:1-41," in Feasting on the Word: Preaching the Revised Common Lectionary, Year A, Vol. 2, edited by David Bartlett and Barbara Brown Taylor.

Westminster John Knox Press, 2011. "A Prodigal Preaching Story: Paul and Bored-to-Death Youth," in Theology Today, 64.2. "You Are Out of Your Mind," in Journal for Preachers. "Smashing Beauty," in Journal for Preachers. "Blessing the Way: Birth and Beyond," in Journal for Preacher


Sataf was a Palestinian village in the Jerusalem Subdistrict depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. It was located 10 km west of Jerusalem, with Sorek Valley bordering to the east. Two springs, Ein Sataf and Ein Bikura flow from the site into the riverbed below. A monastery located across the valley from Sataf, i.e. south of Wadi as-Sarar, known by local Arabs as Ein el-Habis, is called Monastery of Saint John in the Wilderness. Today it is a tourist site showcasing ancient agricultural techniques used in the Jerusalem Mountains. Remains of a 4,000 BCE Chalcolithic village were discovered at the site; the related traces of agricultural activities number among the oldest in the region. Most ancient remains date to the Byzantine period; the first written mention of the site is from the Mamluk era. Sataf was noted in the Ottoman tax records of 1525-1526 and 1538-1539, as being located in the Sanjak of Al-Quds. According to archaeological work, the village originated in the late 16th century, with the use of several cave−dwellings.

Houses were erected in front of the caves. In 1838 it was located in the Beni Hasan district, west of Jerusalem. In 1863, Victor Guérin found a village of eighty people, he further noted that their houses were standing on the slopes of a mountain, that the mountainside was covered by successive terraces. An Ottoman village list from about 1870 counted 38 houses and a population of 115, whereby only men were counted. In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Setaf as "a village of moderate size, of stone houses, perched on the steep side of a valley, it has a spring lower down, on the north."In 1896 the population of Sataf was estimated to be about 180 persons. By the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Sataf had a population of 329. All the Christians were Roman Catholic; the 1931 census lists 381 inhabitants. In the 1945 statistics the population of Sataf was 540, all Muslims, the total land area was 3,775 dunams, according to an official land and population survey.

Of this, 928 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 465 for cereals, while 22 dunams were built-up land. On July 13–14, 1948 the Arab village was depopulated by the Har'el Brigade, during Operation Danny. Sataf and the surrounding area became part of the newly created State of Israel. A short time after the 1948 War, a small group of Jewish immigrants from North Africa settled for a few months in the village area. Subsequently the IDF's Unit 101 and paratroopers used it for training purposes. In the 1980s the Jewish National Fund began the restoration of ancient agricultural terraces, the area around the springs has been turned into a tourist site. A forest around the site was planted by the Jewish National Fund. In 1992, Sataf was described as follows: "Many half-destroyed walls still stand, some still have arched doorways; the walls of a few houses with collapsed roofs are intact.... The area around the village spring, located to the east next to the ruins of a rectangular stone house, has been turned into an Israeli tourist site.

A Jewish family has settled on the west side of the village, have fenced in some of the village area." The shrine of ` Ubayd, southwest of the village site, contains three rooms. According to Tawfiq Canaan, Sheikh'Ubayd "is said to kill any goat or sheep who enters his cave." Welcome To Sataf in Sataf, from Zochrot Survey of Western Palestine, Map 17: IAA, Wikimedia commons Map, 1946

List of fictional portrayals of the NYPD

The New York City Police Department has been the subject of many fictional or fictionalized portrayals in popular culture. The following novels, plays and works of short fiction feature the NYPD: Shafer City Stories by Jesse Aaron Darkhouse by Alex Barclay Ellie Hatcher novels by Alafair Burke Heat Wave, Naked Heat, Heat Rises by Richard Castle One Police Plaza, Black Sand, Exceptional Clearance, Cleopatra Gold, Chains of Command written by William Caunitz, who retired at the rank of Lieutenant from the NYPD and commanded a detective squad while serving in the department A Spirit of Evil by Lisa Cotoggio To Kill a Cop by Robert Daley Lincoln Rhyme novels by Jeffery Deaver Precinct by Michael Grant The Leavenworth Case by Anna Katharine Green The Cop and the Anthem, a well-known short story by O. Henry Mad Bull 34 manga by Kazuo Koike. Adapted into a four episode OVA and spawned a sequel manga, Mad Bull 2000 Detective First Grade by Dan Mahoney Fort Freak, a mosaic novel edited by George R. R. Martin -FAKE- manga by Sanami Matoh 87th Precinct novels by Ed McBain.

D. Robb ) The following films feature the NYPD: The following music videos feature the NYPD: "Breathe" by Fabolous "Dick in a Box" by Justin Timberlake and Andy Samberg "Fairytale of New York" by The Pogues "Hate It or Love It" by The Game and 50 Cent "Locked Up" by Akon "Nookie" by Limp Bizkit "One Mic" by Nas "If I Were a Boy" by Beyoncé The following television programs feature the NYPD: The following video games feature the NYPD or fictionalized versions of the NYPD: Battlefield 3, in which the protagonists use a stolen NYPD police car to chase down a terrorist. Battle Arena Toshinden, which features NYPD Officer Tracy Driver: Parallel Lines by Reflections Interactive Fahrenheit by Quantic Dream The following Grand Theft Auto games feature the Liberty City Police Department, based on the NYPD: Grand Theft Auto III Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories Grand Theft Auto IV Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars Hotel Dusk: Room 215 by Cing Max Payne by Remedy Entertainment/Rockstar Games Max Payne 2: The Fall of Max Payne by Remedy Entertainment/Rockstar Games Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty by Konami Parasite Eve by Square Enix PAYDAY 2 by Overkill Software The following Spider-Man games: Spider-Man by Activision Spider-Man 2 by Activision Ultimate Spider-Man by Activision Spider-Man 3 by Activision Spider-Man by Insomniac Games The Warriors by Rockstar Games The Godfather: The Game by Electronic Arts Tom Clancy's The Division by Ubisoft True Crime: New York City by Activision

Carbon nanotube computer

Carbon nanotube computer refers to a computer built using carbon nanotubes based transistors. Researchers from Stanford University said that they had built a carbon nanotube computer and their research paper published on 25 September 2013 in the journal Nature, they named their first carbon nanotube computer Cedric. It has a one-bit processor containing just 178 transistors. In 2019, a team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology created the 16-bit processor called RV16X-NANO. With 14 000 transistors it is the largest computer chip yet to be made from carbon nanotubes, it was able to execute a "Hello, World!" program with a message: “Hello, world! I am RV16XNano, made from CNTs”, it is based on the RISC-V instruction set and runs standard 32-bit instructions on 16-bit data and addresses

A History of Medicine

A History of Medicine is a book by Scottish surgeon Douglas Guthrie, published in 1945 by Thomas Nelson and Sons. It came to wide attention after it was reviewed by the playwright George Bernard Shaw and marked the beginning for Guthrie of a new career in teaching the history of medicine. Guthrie's objective was to bring to a wide audience and in chronological order, the past achievements in the history of medicine, from Imhotep to William Osler; the first edition of the book consisted of 20 chapters, 448 pages and 72 plates, beginning with "The Genesis of Medicine" and ending with a chapter focussed on medical journalism. In the preface, Guthrie paid tribute to his mentor, the Scottish physician John Comrie, who had introduced him to the subject of medical history, Alexander Miles who "read the original manuscript and supplied much helpful criticism in the early stages of the work", the librarian of the Royal Society of Medicine G. F. Home and to J. C. Corson from Edinburgh University Library who prepared the index.

After 10 years' research, the book was published in 1945, the same year that Guthrie retired from clinical work. It was published in Britain by Thomas Nelson and Sons, in an American edition. Translations followed in Spanish and Italian; the book received at least 53 English-language reviews which Guthrie kept in a scrapbook, passed to his friend Haldane Philp Tait and is now in the collections of the Lothian Health Service Archive. Nearly all of the reviews were positive and the book was favourably compared with the few contemporary general histories of medicine available Charles Singer's A Short History of Medicine and Garrison's An introduction to the History of Medicine; the British Medical Journal and The Lancet gave favourable reviews and the Journal of the American Medical Association recommended it to all physicians, but the Bulletin of the History of Medicine responded more critically, identifying a number of inaccurate names and dates. This intense criticism came from George Rosen, of the opinion that Guthrie should have included social context.

Guthrie's response, as documented in his scrapbook, described it as "the only adverse criticism by a disgruntled reviewer who thinks he could have done better himself". The book came to wider attention following a 3,000-word review by George Bernard Shaw in The Observer. Shaw wrote, "I am floored by the extraordinary discrepancy between his knowledge and my knowledge... Dr Guthrie's job of packing it into 400 pages is learnedly and readably done". Shaw did criticise Guthrie for his omission of practitioners of alternative medicine including osteopaths and homoeopaths, which Shaw believed was because "Dr Guthrie either does not know about them or considers them beneath the dignity of a history of medicine". Guthrie's response was. Aware that Shaw's review had increased the profile and popularity of the book he modestly wrote that "many who had no particular interest in the topic or the author, bought the book just because GBS had reviewed it. Shaw's review was published in the New York Journal-American, an American daily newspaper which brought the book to the attention of a large readership in the United States.

In 1956, Guthrie wrote an article "On Writing a History of Medicine", included in his book, Janus in the Doorway. This book included chapters on "The Value of Reviews" and "Hints for Historiographers". Following reprints in 1945, 1946 and 1947, American and German versions, a new and revised British edition was published in 1958. Most of the revisions were made by amendments to the text but some of the more lengthy notes were collected at the end of the book as a ten-page supplement; this revised book was reprinted in 1960. This critical acclaim made Guthrie's name well-known in history of medicine circles around the world, he made lecture tours, based on the book, to Central America, Africa and the United States in 1954, 1957 and 1961. "An Introduction to the History Of Medicine" by Fielding Hudson Garrison, published by W. B. Saunders Company A Short History of Medicine, by Charles Singer, E. Ashworth Underwood, published by Oxford at the Clarendon Press