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Astrobiology

Astrobiology known as exobiology, is an interdisciplinary scientific field concerned with the origins, early evolution and future of life in the universe. Astrobiology considers the question of whether extraterrestrial life exists, if it does, how humans can detect it. Astrobiology makes use of molecular biology, biochemistry, astronomy, physical cosmology and geology to investigate the possibility of life on other worlds and help recognize biospheres that might be different from that on Earth; the origin and early evolution of life is an inseparable part of the discipline of astrobiology. Astrobiology concerns itself with interpretation of existing scientific data, although speculation is entertained to give context, astrobiology concerns itself with hypotheses that fit into existing scientific theories; this interdisciplinary field encompasses research on the origin of planetary systems, origins of organic compounds in space, rock-water-carbon interactions, abiogenesis on Earth, planetary habitability, research on biosignatures for life detection, studies on the potential for life to adapt to challenges on Earth and in outer space.

Biochemistry may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the Universe was only 10–17 million years old. According to the panspermia hypothesis, microscopic life—distributed by meteoroids and other small Solar System bodies—may exist throughout the universe. According to research published in August 2015 large galaxies may be more favorable to the creation and development of habitable planets than such smaller galaxies as the Milky Way. Nonetheless, Earth is the only place in the universe. Estimates of habitable zones around other stars, sometimes referred to as "Goldilocks zones," along with the discovery of hundreds of extrasolar planets and new insights into extreme habitats here on Earth, suggest that there may be many more habitable places in the universe than considered possible until recently. Current studies on the planet Mars by the Curiosity and Opportunity rovers are searching for evidence of ancient life as well as plains related to ancient rivers or lakes that may have been habitable.

The search for evidence of habitability and organic molecules on the planet Mars is now a primary NASA and ESA objective. If extraterrestrial life is never discovered, the interdisciplinary nature of astrobiology, the cosmic and evolutionary perspectives engendered by it, may still result in a range of benefits here on Earth; the term was first proposed by the Russian astronomer Gavriil Tikhov in 1953. Astrobiology is etymologically derived from the Greek ἄστρον, astron, "constellation, star"; the synonyms of astrobiology are diverse. A close synonym is exobiology from the Greek Έξω, "external"; the term exobiology was coined by Nobel Prize winner Joshua Lederberg. Exobiology is considered to have a narrow scope limited to search of life external to Earth, whereas subject area of astrobiology is wider and investigates the link between life and the universe, which includes the search for extraterrestrial life, but includes the study of life on Earth, its origin and limits. Another term used in the past is xenobiology, a word used in 1954 by science fiction writer Robert Heinlein in his work The Star Beast.

The term xenobiology is now used in a more specialized sense, to mean "biology based on foreign chemistry", whether of extraterrestrial or terrestrial origin. Since alternate chemistry analogs to some life-processes have been created in the laboratory, xenobiology is now considered as an extant subject. While it is an emerging and developing field, the question of whether life exists elsewhere in the universe is a verifiable hypothesis and thus a valid line of scientific inquiry. Though once considered outside the mainstream of scientific inquiry, astrobiology has become a formalized field of study. Planetary scientist David Grinspoon calls astrobiology a field of natural philosophy, grounding speculation on the unknown, in known scientific theory. NASA's interest in exobiology first began with the development of the U. S. Space Program. In 1959, NASA funded its first exobiology project, in 1960, NASA founded an Exobiology Program, now one of four main elements of NASA's current Astrobiology Program.

In 1971, NASA funded the search for extraterrestrial intelligence to search radio frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum for interstellar communications transmitted by extraterrestrial life outside the Solar System. NASA's Viking missions to Mars, launched in 1976, included three biology experiments designed to look for metabolism of present life on Mars. Advancements in the fields of astrobiology, observational astronomy and discovery of large varieties of extremophiles with extraordinary capability to thrive in the harshest environments on Earth, have led to speculation that life may be thriving on many of the extraterrestrial bodies in the universe. A particular focus of current astrobiology research is the search for life on Mars due to this planet's proximity to Earth and geological history. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that Mars has had a considerable amount of water on its surface, water being considered an essential precursor to the development of carbon-based life.

Missions designed to search for current life on Mars were the Viking progra

John Coyle

John Cohen Coyle was a Scottish footballer. Coyle started his career with Dundee United for whom he signed in 1950, his early years were interrupted by his National Service, while he spent time on loan to Brechin City. As a result, by the beginning of the 1955-56 season he had made only eight first team appearances. From that point onwards however, his form was a revelation, with 77 goals in 88 appearances in the following two and a half seasons. Despite Coyle's goals, United could do no better than mid-table mediocrity in the Division Two and when Clyde expressed interest in December 1957, Coyle expressed his desire to move to the Division One side. An £8,000 deal was concluded and Coyle moved to Glasgow where he made an immediate impression with the Bully Wee, scoring during the second half of the 1957-58 season, he scored the winning goal in the 1958 Scottish Cup Final, as Clyde defeated Hibernian 1-0 at Hampden Park. Coyle's meteoric rise was confirmed when he was selected in the Scotland squad for the 1958 FIFA World Cup that summer.

He did not make an appearance during the finals in Sweden however and indeed never played for the Scottish national side. Coyle's younger brother Jimmy was a professional footballer, being signed for Dundee United during the same period as his brother and playing alongside him at Tannadice Park for a season, he died on 14 May 2016. DUNDEE UNITED: 1946/47 - 2008/09, Post War English & Scottish Football League A - Z Player's Transfer Database CLYDE: 1946/47 - 2008/09, Post War English & Scottish Football League A - Z Player's Transfer Database

The Emperor's Bridge Campaign

The Emperor's Bridge Campaign is a San Francisco-based nonprofit whose mission is to honor the life and advance the legacy of Joshua Abraham Norton, better known as the 19th-century San Francisco eccentric, Emperor Norton. The Campaign was launched on 28 September 2013 as a project to carry forward the call of a 1 August 2013 Change.org petition to name the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge—long known locally as "the Bay Bridge"—for Emperor Norton, who set out the original vision for the bridge with three newspaper proclamations published in 1872. Subsequently, the organization has positioned this bridge-naming project within a larger public mission that includes research and documentation; the Campaign incorporated as a nonprofit in October 2014. In June 2013, a resolution was introduced in the California State Assembly to name the Western crossing of the state-owned San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge—the section from San Francisco to Yerba Buena Island—for former Assembly Speaker and former San Francisco mayor Willie Brown.

A few weeks San Francisco-based writer John Lumea wrote and published a Change.org petition calling for the entire Bay Bridge, from San Francisco to Oakland, to be named for Emperor Norton, who in 1872—with three proclamations published in the African-American-owned abolitionist weekly The Pacific Appeal—called for a bay-spanning suspension bridge linking San Francisco and Oakland via Goat Island, the present-day Yerba Buena Island. In the six weeks from the launch of the Change.org petition until the final California State Senate vote approving the resolution naming the Bay Bridge's Western crossing for Willie Brown, the petition attracted 3,800 signatures. It received media coverage from the San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco Bay Guardian, KQED, SFist, Laughing Squid, San Jose Mercury News and the Los Angeles Times, among others; the petition is at more than 5,700 signatures. Encouraged by this response, Lumea set up a Facebook group on 26 August 2013 for a potential new organization that he called "The Emperor's Bridge Campaign."A launch party for the effort was held on 28 September 2013 at Emperor Norton's Boozeland, an Emperor Norton-themed bar in San Francisco.

Over the course of its first year, the Campaign continued to engage in the call to name the Bay Bridge for Emperor Norton. The organization identified a couple of state naming practices that it used to develop a naming approach that it saw as a more politically and financially realistic than a wholesale "renaming" of the bridge; the Campaign observed: while the State of California recognizes "Willie L. Brown, Jr. Bridge" as the official name for the Bay Bridge's Western crossing, the state — separately and independently — continues to recognize the unofficial name "San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge" for the entire bridge system. There exists the precedent of state-owned bridges for which the State of California recognizes multiple names, either multiple official names or some combination of official and unofficial names. On this basis, the organization introduced the option of adding an official name like "Emperor Norton Bridge" for the Bay Bridge as a whole, rather than replacing the longtime unofficial name.

While The Emperor's Bridge Campaign remained active on the bridge-naming front, it expanded its mission to include historical research and documentation, public education, about the full life and legacy of Emperor Norton. Via its Web site and social media channels, as well as in public talks, the Campaign began to document its historical discoveries about Emperor Norton and to highlight art, music and other creative efforts that are inspired by him; the Campaign began to produce public commemorative events to mark and celebrate various aspects of the Emperor Norton story. In October 2014, The Emperor's Bridge Campaign incorporated as a nonprofit, with a "specific purpose...to foster public awareness and appreciation of the life and legacy of Joshua Abraham Norton, the self-proclaimed "Norton I, Emperor of the United States," known as Emperor Norton. Official Web site