click links in text for more info


Astrochemistry is the study of the abundance and reactions of molecules in the Universe, their interaction with radiation. The discipline is an overlap of chemistry; the word "astrochemistry" may be applied to both the interstellar medium. The study of the abundance of elements and isotope ratios in Solar System objects, such as meteorites, is called cosmochemistry, while the study of interstellar atoms and molecules and their interaction with radiation is sometimes called molecular astrophysics; the formation and chemical composition and fate of molecular gas clouds is of special interest, because it is from these clouds that solar systems form. As an offshoot of the disciplines of astronomy and chemistry, the history of astrochemistry is founded upon the shared history of the two fields; the development of advanced observational and experimental spectroscopy has allowed for the detection of an ever-increasing array of molecules within solar systems and the surrounding interstellar medium. In turn, the increasing number of chemicals discovered by advancements in spectroscopy and other technologies have increased the size and scale of the chemical space available for astrochemical study.

Observations of solar spectra as performed by Athanasius Kircher, Jan Marek Marci, Robert Boyle, Francesco Maria Grimaldi all predated Newton's 1666 work which established the spectral nature of light and resulted in the first spectroscope. Spectroscopy was first used as an astronomical technique in 1802 with the experiments of William Hyde Wollaston, who built a spectrometer to observe the spectral lines present within solar radiation; these spectral lines were quantified through the work of Joseph Von Fraunhofer. Spectroscopy was first used to distinguish between different materials after the release of Charles Wheatstone's 1835 report that the sparks given off by different metals have distinct emission spectra; this observation was built upon by Léon Foucault, who demonstrated in 1849 that identical absorption and emission lines result from the same material at different temperatures. An equivalent statement was independently postulated by Anders Jonas Ångström in his 1853 work Optiska Undersökningar, where it was theorized that luminous gases emit rays of light at the same frequencies as light which they may absorb.

This spectroscopic data began to take upon theoretical importance with Johann Balmer's observation that the spectral lines exhibited by samples of hydrogen followed a simple empirical relationship which came to be known as the Balmer Series. This series, a special case of the more general Rydberg Formula developed by Johannes Rydberg in 1888, was created to describe the spectral lines observed for Hydrogen. Rydberg's work expanded upon this formula by allowing for the calculation of spectral lines for multiple different chemical elements; the theoretical importance granted to these spectroscopic results was expanded upon the development of quantum mechanics, as the theory allowed for these results to be compared to atomic and molecular emission spectra, calculated a priori. While radio astronomy was developed in the 1930s, it was not until 1937 that any substantial evidence arose for the conclusive identification of an interstellar molecule - up until this point, the only chemical species known to exist in interstellar space were atomic.

These findings were confirmed in 1940, when McKellar et al. identified and attributed spectroscopic lines in an as-of-then unidentified radio observation to CH and CN molecules in interstellar space. In the thirty years afterwards, a small selection of other molecules were discovered in interstellar space: the most important being OH, discovered in 1963 and significant as a source of interstellar oxygen, H2CO, discovered in 1969 and significant for being the first observed organic, polyatomic molecule in interstellar spaceThe discovery of interstellar formaldehyde - and other molecules with potential biological significance such as water or carbon monoxide - is seen by some as strong supporting evidence for abiogenetic theories of life: theories which hold that the basic molecular components of life came from extraterrestrial sources; this has prompted a still ongoing search for interstellar molecules which are either of direct biological importance – such as interstellar glycine, discovered in 2009 – or which exhibit biologically relevant properties like Chirality – an example of, discovered in 2016 - alongside more basic astrochemical research.

One important experimental tool in astrochemistry is spectroscopy through the use of telescopes to measure the absorption and emission of light from molecules and atoms in various environments. By comparing astronomical observations with laboratory measurements, astrochemists can infer the elemental abundances, chemical composition, temperatures of stars and interstellar clouds; this is possible because ions and molecules have characteristic spectra: that is, the absorption and emission of certain wavelengths of light not visible to the human eye. However, these measurements have limitations, with various types of radiation able to detect only certain types of species, depending on the chemical properties of the molecules. Interstellar formaldehyde was the first organic molecule detected in the interstellar medium; the most powerful technique for detection of individual chemical species is radio astronomy, which has resulted in the detection of over a hundred interstellar species, including radicals and ions, organic compounds, such as alcohols, acids and ketones.

One of the most abundant int

Connaught Village

Connaught Village is a commercial and residential area just west of Marble Arch and just north of Hyde Park within the City of Westminster, London. As part of the Hyde Park Estate, it is owned by the Church Commissioners of England. Numerous boutiques, designer shops and restaurants; the couture store of famous shoemaker Jimmy Choo was located here. Tony Blair, former leader of the Labour Party and Prime Minister, lives in Connaught Square. Paddington Notting Hill Marble Arch Hyde Park Speakers' Corner Connaught Square Official Connaught Village Website Official Hyde Park Estate Website

Erg√ľn Berisha

Ergün Berisha is a Turkish retired footballer. Born in Zürich with Swiss nationality, Berisha started his career at Grasshopper Club Zürich and on 25 June 2009 joined Udinese. After failing to make an appearance for Udinese, he left for Turkish Süper Lig side İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor on loan until the end of season on 1 February 2010. Berisha made his club debut at Turkish Cup, his loan was extended in July 2010 but registered at Turkish Football Federation on 19 January 2011. He played 1 game in 2010–11 season, played 2 games in the reserve league. On 4 February 2013, he signed for Swiss Challenge League team FC Wil, he is former member of the Turkey national under-17 football team at 2005 FIFA U-17 World Championship and current member of the Turkey national under-21 football team. Her played his first U21 match on 18 November 2009, a 0–0 draw with Estonia U21. Ergün Berisha – Fussballdaten – Die Fußball-Datenbank Ergün Berisha – FIFA competition record Ergün Berisha at the Turkish Football Federation Ergün Berisha Profile at Ergün Berisha at

Atelopus exiguus

Atelopus exiguus is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Ecuador and only known from the area of its type locality in the Azuay Province of southern Ecuador, in the sub-páramo and páramo of Cordillera Occidental. Adult males measure 21–27 mm and females 29–35 mm in snout–vent length; the body robust with thick legs. The snout is acuminate; the dorsum and flanks are bright yellowish-green to blackish-green, the venter is yellow to orange. The iris is entirely black; the dorsal surfaces have some warts. Tympanum is absent, its natural habitats are sub-páramo and páramo at elevations of 3,000–4,000 m above sea level, although it has been recorded in pastureland. This abundant species is believed to have declined. Both habitat loss and invasive trout are threats; the species occurs in the Cajas National Park and Mazán Protected Forest

Ai Deshita

"Ai Deshita." is a release by the Japanese boyband Kanjani8. The single was announced on April 17, 2012, as the theme song of the TBS drama, "Papa Doru" which starred the group's own Nishikido Ryo in the lead, that it would be on sale sometime in June. On May 11, 2012, official information and details were released on the single stating that there would be two versions of the release, a limited and regular edition, that the single will be sold on June 13, 2012. On May 18, the jacket details were released and on May 31, information about a lottery tickets inserted in the single towards a free live at Osaka's Kyocera Dome were announced; the song, Ai Deshita. is a standard pop-rock ballad. It incorporates guitars and strings into the overall composition. Vocally, the song is split with harmonies between Ryuhei Maruyama and Yuu Yokoyama, Shota Yasuda and Shingo Murakami, Subaru Shibutani and Ryo Nishikido on lead. Along with Shibutani and Nishikido, Tadayoshi Ohkura sings solo verses; the short version music video for "Ai Deshita." was debuted on m-on's Sukidori on May 31, 2011.

The music video opens up with Nishikido sleeping on a leather couch in an empty apartment. The video cuts to the band performing in an empty field before jump cutting between each member singing against a white wall; the video continues to alternate between band scenes, solo shots against the white wall, scenes of each member interacting with each other in the apartment or outside the apartment. The short version of the music video fades out during the instrumental break. "Ai Deshita." "Midare sake Romance" "Merry Go Round" "Rurarira" "Ai Deshita." "Midare sake Romance" "Merry Go Round" "Rurarira" "Ai Deshita." "Midare sake Romance" "Ai Deshita." Music Clip and Making


Seifhennersdorf is a town in the district Görlitz, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the border with the Czech Republic, the Czech towns of Rumburk and Varnsdorf lie across the border to the north-east and south of town. Seifhennersdorf is 14 km west of Zittau. During World War II, a subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located in the town. Rudolf Otto Neumann and bacteriologist Bruno Paul, illustrator, interior designer, furniture designer. Anna Strohsahl, first female city councillor of Cuxhaven Rica Reinisch, Olympic swimmer