An astrophysical maser is a occurring source of stimulated spectral line emission in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This emission may arise in molecular clouds, planetary atmospheres, stellar atmospheres, or various other conditions in interstellar space. Like a laser, the emission from a maser is stimulated and monochromatic, having the frequency corresponding to the energy difference between two quantum-mechanical energy levels of the species in the gain medium which have been pumped into a non-thermal population distribution; however occurring masers lack the resonant cavity engineered for terrestrial laboratory masers. The emission from an astrophysical maser is due to a single pass through the gain medium and therefore lacks the spatial coherence and mode purity expected from a laboratory maser. Due to the differences between engineered and occurring masers, it is stated that astrophysical masers are not "true" masers because they lack oscillation cavities; the distinction between oscillator-based lasers and single-pass lasers was intentionally disregarded by the laser community in the early years of the technology, so the insistence by some in scientific circles upon the presence of an oscillation cavity as the distinguishing criterion for "maser" status seems somewhat arbitrary and contrived.
This fundamental incongruency in language has resulted in the use of other paradoxical definitions in the field. For example, if the gain medium of a laser is emission-seeded but non-oscillating radiation, it is said to emit amplified spontaneous emission or ASE; this ASE is regarded as unwanted or parasitic: that is, the users wish the system to behave as a laser. The emission from astrophysical masers is, in fact, ASE but is sometimes termed superradiant emission to differentiate it from the laboratory phenomenon; this adds to the confusion, since both sources are superradiant. In some laboratory lasers, such as a single pass through a regeneratively amplified Ti:Sapph stage, the physics is directly analogous to an amplified ray in an astrophysical maser. Furthermore, the practical limits of the use of the m to stand for microwave in maser are variously employed. For example, when lasers were developed in the visible portion of the spectrum they were called optical masers. Townes advocated that the m stand for molecule since energy states of molecules provide the masing transition.
Along these lines, some will use the term laser to describe any system which exploits an electronic transition and the term maser to describe a system which exploits a rotational or vibrational transition, regardless of the output frequency. Some astrophysicists use the term iraser to describe a maser emitting at a wavelength of a few micrometres though the optics community has similar sources which they call lasers; the term taser has been used to describe laboratory masers in the terahertz regime although astronomers might call these sub-millimeter masers and laboratory physicists call these gas lasers or alcohol lasers in reference to the gain species. The electrical engineering community limits the use of the word microwave to frequencies between 1 GHz and 300 GHz - that is, wavelengths between 30 cm and 1 mm, respectively; the simple existence of a pumped population inversion is not sufficient for the observation of a maser. For example, there must be velocity coherence along the line of sight so that Doppler shifting does not prevent inverted states in different parts of the gain medium from radiatively coupling.
While polarisation in laboratory lasers and masers may be achieved by selectively oscillating the desired modes, polarisation in natural masers will arise only in the presence of a polarisation-state dependent pump or of a magnetic field in the gain medium. The radiation from astrophysical masers can be quite weak and may escape detection due to the limited sensitivity of astronomical observatories and due to the sometimes overwhelming spectral absorption from unpumped molecules of the maser species in the surrounding space; this latter obstacle may be surmounted through the judicious use of the spatial filtering inherent in interferometric techniques very long baseline interferometry. The major use of maser study is that they give valuable information on the conditions in space, such as temperature, number density, magnetic field, velocity, in the most interesting of environments — including stellar birth and death, the centres of galaxies containing black holes; the conditions involved in these events still need more accurate measuring so that theoretical models can be refined or revised.
In 1965 an unexpected discovery was made by Weaver et al.: emission lines in space, of unknown origin, at a frequency of 1665 MHz. At this time many researchers still thought that molecules could not exist in space, so the emission was at first attributed to an unknown form of interstellar matter named Mysterium, but the emission was soon identified as line emission from OH molecules in compact sources within molecular clouds. More discoveries followed, with H2O emission in 1969, CH3OH emission in 1970 and SiO emission in 1974, all coming from within molecular clouds; these were termed "masers", as from their narrow line-widths and high effective temperatures it became clear that these sources were amplifying microwave radiation. Masers were discovered around evolved Late-type stars. First was OH emission in 1968 H2O emission in 1969 and SiO emission in 1974. Masers
Siin me oleme! is a 1979 Estonian movie written and directed by Sulev Nõmmik. The script was compiled on Juhan Smuul's motifs from Suvitajad. Together with Viimne reliikvia, Noor pensionär and Mehed ei nuta, Siin me oleme! is one of the most memorable Estonian movies from the Soviet era. Decades Smuul's catchphrases popularised by the movie, such as'We're from Tallinn, we'll pay!' are recognised and recycled by Estonian people. Lia Laats as Kohviveski Ervin Abel as John Renate Karter as Lõke Karl Kalkun as Ärni Eva Meil as Ärni's wife Kadri Jäätma as Liina Sulev Nõmmik as Aadu Väino Puura as Mart Lauri Nebel as Timmu Siin me oleme! at the Estonian Public Broadcasting Archives Siin me oleme! on IMDb
Hong Kong Disneyland Hotel is the second Disney hotel in the Hong Kong Disneyland Resort in Penny's Bay, Lantau Island, Hong Kong. The theme of the hotel is of a Victorian style, is located near Disneyland Harbour; the hotel is built on reclaimed land and opened on 12 September 2005. The hotel has a convention centre with ballrooms and function rooms; the Convention Centre offers three ballrooms. It is in Islands District. "Micktorian" architecture style, a blend of "Mickey" with "Victorian", was adopted by the hotel. For example, "hidden Mickey" is gossiped to be found behind the Mickey-eared silhouette, such as carpet design and dinnerware; this specific design is interpreted as feng shui in Cantonese culture. Warmth is another magic of the hotel; the hotel service specialized in "wake-up calls" and "character greeting", which shred its focus not only on the parents, but on the children and their grandparents. Walt Disney Imagineering drew these two design elements from Disney's Grand Floridian Resort and Spa at the Walt Disney World Resort, as well as the Disneyland Hotel at Disneyland Paris.
Students from invited institutions can apply for either of the following section in ImagiNations Hong Kong Semiar 2017, Community Built Playground, or Family Storytelling, the Neighborhood Developmental Project. Result will be announced in January 2018. There are five restaurants in the hotel; the hotel has one shop located on the lobby next to the main entrance. The shop sells park merchandise, toys and T-shirts, it is Victorian themed, like the hotel itself. There are 2 pools in 1 indoors and 1 outdoors; the hotel offers other facilities including a tennis court, a multi-function court, a Mickey-shaped maze and a grass field in which some kids activities take place in. The hotel has a Victorian Spa which contains a gym; every day and evening a talented jazz band plays in the main area of the hotel. Disney's Hollywood Hotel Disney Explorers Lodge Hong Kong Disneyland Resort Hong Kong Disneyland Sunny Bay Station Disneyland Resort Line Airport Express Hong Kong International Airport Hong Kong International Theme Parks Hong Kong government Walt Disney company Walt Disney Parks and Resorts Walt Disney Imagineering Official Website
Tinted Windows is an American rock supergroup formed by guitarist James Iha of The Smashing Pumpkins, singer Taylor Hanson of Hanson, bassist Adam Schlesinger of Fountains of Wayne and Ivy, Bun E. Carlos of Cheap Trick. Josh Lattanzi often performs with the band as the second guitarist; the first performance by the band was on March 18, 2009 at Cain's Ballroom in Tulsa, Oklahoma in a small show at the side-stage. The band made their South by Southwest Festival debut in Austin, Texas on Friday, March 20, 2009 at the Levi/Fader Fort, followed by a set at Pangaea; the band played at The Bamboozle music festival in New Jersey on May 3, 2009. On February 19, 2009, it was announced that the band signed with S-Curve Records, the label best known for releasing such acts as Joss Stone, Fountains of Wayne and Tom Jones. On April 21, 2009, it was confirmed that their self-titled album Tinted Windows had been released on that label. On February 24, the band digitally released, through their website and on Rolling Stone magazine's website, their debut single "Kind of a Girl" alongside a promotional video, with a segment from a fictional music show Rock After Dark.
They performed the song on Late Show with David Letterman on April 21. They performed on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon on April 24. Syndicated FM radio, ranging from metal programs to Little Steven Van Zandt's Underground Garage, continued playing multiple cuts from the album through 2009. Tinted Windows played concerts in the US in June and September 2009, in Japan in January 2010; the band's Facebook page has not had a post since December 6, 2009. And while the band appeared on their record label S-Curve Records' website, they were removed from the artist lineup sometime between June 6 and August 8, 2011, but in 2014, band member Taylor Hanson mentioned the band to the press a number of times. In an interview published October 9, 2014 with Coup De Main Magazine, Hanson stated that the band was still together and there was "some process going on now to make a new album." However, since and as of 2019, no news, material, or concerts have been announced. Tinted Windows Tinted Windows SXSW Interview Taylor Hanson discusses Hanson and Tinted Windows on Huffington Post
Phara Anacharsis is a French athlete who specializes in the 400 metres and the 400 metres hurdles. She was born in Fort-de-France. In the 200 metres she won the bronze medal at the 2005 Jeux de la Francophonie, in the 400 meters the silver medal at the 2005 Mediterranean Games, she competed at the 2002 World Junior Championships, the 2005 European Indoor Championships and the 2006 European Championships without reaching the final. She turned to the hurdles, won the gold medal at the 2009 Mediterranean Games. In the 4 x 400 metres relay she finished seventh at the 2006 European Championships, competed at the 2007 World Championships and the 2008 Olympic Games without reaching the final. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, she was part of the French team. At the 2014 European championships, she ran in the heats but not the final, when France won the gold. In the 400 m hurdles, she did not reach the final, her personal best times are 23.39 seconds in the 200 metres, achieved in August 2007 in La Chaux-de-Fonds.
Lydia Manley Henry DSc was the first female graduate in medicine from the University of Sheffield. She served with the Scottish Women's Hospitals for Foreign Service during the First World War, she was awarded the Croix de Guerre by the French government. For her thesis on gangrene, based on her wartime experience, she was awarded the degree of MD, the first woman to graduate with this degree from the University of Sheffield. Lydia Henry was born in Macduff, the daughter of William Paterson Henry and his wife Elizabeth Dawson Murdoch, her father died of tuberculosis. Her mother moved to Sheffield leaving her daughter to be brought up by an aunt in Macduff. At the age of 14 she relocated to Sheffield to join her mother, who had begun work at the Day Training College for Teachers in Sheffield and in 1905 became Vice-Principal of the City Training College. At this time she felt able to care for her daughter again. Henry was educated at the Sheffield High School for Girls; the Sheffield University Medical School had been founded in 1905 and she enrolled in 1909.
In June 1916 she graduated with an MB ChB, along with fellow student Florence Elizabeht Millard, together they were the first women to receive a medical degree from the University. The next day she became the first woman to work as a hospital doctor in Sheffield. Henry had further experience working as a house officer in Sheffield Royal Infirmary and the Sheffield Royal Hospital. During the World War I, it became easier for women doctors to find posts in teaching hospitals, as many male doctors were serving in the armed forces, her experience included working in the Sheffield Royal Infirmary women's clinic for venereal diseases, the first woman doctor to do so. The day after finishing as a house officer and becoming qualified to practise medicine, Henry enlisted in the Scottish Women's Hospitals for Foreign Service, working in the hospital set up in Royaumont Abbey, north-east of Paris, she was the youngest doctor on the staff. There, as an assistant surgeon, she had charge of the Blanche de Castille ward.
She served at the associated SWH hospital at Villers-Cotterêts, which treated French rather than British soldiers. After the war the French government awarded her the Croix de Guerre. After the war, Henry worked on her MD thesis, on gangrene, based on her experiences with the condition at Royaumont. With this thesis, in 1920 she graduated from the University of Sheffield with the degree of MD, the first woman to do so. Appointment as assistant medical officer of health for Blackburn, followed, her success in this post led to her appointment as head of the Social Services Department at the King's College for Women of the University of London, she went on to become a member of its Senate. Henry married, becoming Mrs J. Stewart Henry, she stopped practising as a physician. During the World War II she returned to Scotland, providing assistance onshore for the submarine crews operating out of north-east Scotland. In 1978, the University of Edinburgh medical school awarded her the degree of DSc, on the occasion of its 150th anniversary.
She died in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada, on 27 March 1985. A memorial to her memory was erected in her birthplace, Scotland