Asturias the Principality of Asturias, is an autonomous community in north-west Spain. It is coextensive with the province of Asturias and contains some of the territory, part of the larger Kingdom of Asturias in the Middle Ages. Divided into eight comarcas, the autonomous community of Asturias is bordered by Cantabria to the east, by León to the south, by Lugo to the west, by the Bay of Biscay to the north. Asturias is situated in a mountainous setting with vast greenery and lush vegetation, making it part of Green Spain; the region has a maritime climate. It receives plenty of annual rainfall and little sunshine by Spanish standards and has moderated seasons, most averaging in the lower 20's celsius. Heat waves are rare due to mountains blocking southerly winds. Winters are mild for the latitude near sea level; the most important cities are the communal capital, the seaport and largest city Gijón, the industrial town of Avilés. Other municipalities in Asturias include Cangas de Onís, Cangas del Narcea, Gozón, Langreo, Laviana, Llanes, Siero, Valdés, Villaviciosa.

Asturias is home of the Princess of Asturias Awards. Asturias was inhabited, first by Homo erectus by Neanderthals. Since the Lower Paleolithic era, during the Upper Paleolithic, Asturias was characterized by cave paintings in the eastern part of the area. In the Mesolithic period, a native culture developed, that of the Asturiense, with the introduction of the Bronze Age and tumuli were constructed. In the Iron Age, the territory came under the cultural influence of the Celts. Today the Astur Celtic influence persists in place names, such as those of mountains. With the conquest of Asturias by the Romans under Augustus, the region entered into recorded history; the Astures were subdued by the Romans but were never conquered. After several centuries without foreign presence, they enjoyed a brief revival during the Germanic invasions of the late 4th century AD, resisting Suevi and Visigoth raids throughout the 5th Century AD, ending with the Moorish invasion of Spain. However, as it had been for the Romans and Visigoths, the Moors did not find mountainous territory easy to conquer, the lands along Spain's northern coast never became part of Islamic Spain.

Rather, with the beginning of the Moorish conquest in the 8th century, this region became a refuge for Christian nobles, in 722, a de facto independent kingdom was established, the Regnum Asturorum, to become the cradle of the incipient Reconquista. In the 10th century, the Kingdom of Asturias gave way to the Kingdom of León, during the Middle Ages the geographic isolation of the territory made historical references scarce. Through the rebellion of Henry II of Castile in the 14th century, the Principality of Asturias was established; the most famous proponents of independence were Gonzalo Peláez and Queen Urraca, while achieving significant victories, were defeated by Castilian troops. After its integration into the Kingdom of Spain, Asturias provided the Spanish court with high-ranking aristocrats and played an important role in the colonisation of America. Since 1388, the heir to the Castilian throne has been styled Prince of Asturias. In the 16th century, the population reached 100,000 for the first time, within another century that number would double due to the arrival of American corn.

In the 18th century, Asturias was one of the centres of the Spanish Enlightenment. The renowned Galician thinker Benito de Feijóo settled in the Benedictine Monastery of San Vicente de Oviedo. Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, a polymath and prominent reformer and politician of the late 18th century, was born in the seaside town of Gijón. During the Napoleonic Wars, Asturias was the first Spanish province to rise up against the French following the abdication of King Ferdinand VII on 10 May 1808. Riots began in Oviedo and on 25 May the local government formally declared war on Napoleon with 18,000 men called to arms to resist invasion; the Industrial Revolution came to Asturias after 1830 with the discovery and systematic exploitation of coal mines and iron factories at the mining basins of Nalón and Caudal. At the same time, there was significant migration to the Americas; these entrepreneurs were known collectively as'Indianos', for having visited and made their fortunes in the West Indies and beyond.

The heritage of these wealthy families can still be seen in Asturias today: many large'modernista' villas are dotted across the region, as well as cultural institutions such as free schools and public libraries. Asturias played an important part in the events. In October 1934 Asturian miners and other workers staged an armed uprising to oppose the coming to power of the right-wing CEDA party, which had obtained three ministerial posts in the centralist government of the Second Spanish Republic. For a month, a Popular Front Committee exercised control in southern Asturias, while local workers committees sprang up


Chuckwallas are large lizards found in arid regions of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Some are found on coastal islands; the six species of chuckwallas are all placed within the genus Sauromalus. The generic name, Sauromalus, is said to be a combination of two ancient Greek words: sauros meaning "lizard" and omalus meaning "flat"; the proper ancient Greek word for "flat" is however homalēs. The common name "chuckwalla" derives from the Shoshone word tcaxxwal or Cahuilla čaxwal, transcribed by Spaniards as chacahuala. Chuckwallas are wide-bodied lizards with flattened midsections and prominent bellies, their tails are thick. Loose folds of skin characterize the neck and sides of their bodies, which are covered in small, coarsely granular scales; the common chuckwalla measures 15 3/4 inches long, whereas insular species such as the San Esteban chuckwalla of San Esteban Island can measure as long as 30 in. They are sexually dimorphic, with males having reddish-pink to orange, yellow, or light gray bodies and black heads and limbs.

Males are larger than females and possess well-developed femoral pores located on the inner sides of their thighs. The genus Sauromalus has a wide distribution in biomes of the Mojave Deserts; the common chuckwalla is the species with the greatest range, found from southern California east to southern Nevada and Utah and western Arizona, south to Baja California and northwestern Mexico. The peninsular chuckwalla is found on the eastern portion of the southern half of the Baja California Peninsula; the other species are island-dwelling. The Angel Island chuckwalla is found on Isla Ángel de la Guarda and surrounding islands off the coast of the Baja California Peninsula. Two rare and endangered species are the Montserrat chuckwalla found on Islas Carmen and Montserrat in the southern Gulf of California and the San Esteban chuckwalla or painted chuckwalla found on San Esteban Island and Pelicanos. Chuckwallas prefer lava flows and rocky areas vegetated by creosote bush and other such drought-tolerant scrub.

The lizards may be found at elevations up to 4,500 ft. Herbivorous, chuckwallas feed on leaves and flowers of annuals and perennial plants; the lizards are said to prefer yellow flowers, such as those of the brittlebush. Harmless to humans, these lizards are known to run from potential threats; when disturbed, a chuckwalla wedges itself into a tight rock crevice and inflates its lungs to entrench itself. Males are conditionally territorial. Chuckwallas use a combination of color and physical displays, namely "push-ups", head-hobbing, gaping of the mouth, to communicate and defend their territory. Chuckwallas are diurnal animals and as they are ectothermic, spend much of their mornings and winter days basking; these lizards are well adapted to desert conditions. Juveniles emerge first adults, as temperatures reach around 90 °F. Chuckwallas hibernate during cooler months and emerge in February. Mating occurs from April with five to 16 eggs laid between June and August; the eggs hatch in late September.

Chuckwallas may live for 25 years or more. The Comca’ac considered the Angel Island species of chuckwalla an important food item, they are believed to have translocated the lizards to most of the islands in Bahia de los Angeles for use as a food source in times of need. ARKive - images and movies of the San Esteban Island chuckwalla

West Cornwall (UK Parliament constituency)

West Cornwall was a county constituency in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elected two Members of Parliament by the bloc vote system of election. In 1832 the county of Cornwall, in south west England, was split for parliamentary purposes into two county divisions; these were East Cornwall. Each division returned two members to Parliament; the parliamentary boroughs included in the West division, between 1832-1885, were Helston and Falmouth, St Ives and Truro.. The constituency was made up of the Hundreds of Kerrier and Penwith. During the 53-year history of this division, there was never a contested election. Only once was a Conservative member returned, but he only represented the constituency for a few months before becoming the 2nd Earl of Falmouth. In 1885 this division was abolished, when the East and West Cornwall county divisions were replaced by six new single-member county constituencies; these were Bodmin, Launceston, St Austell, St Ives and Truro. In addition the last remaining Cornish borough constituency was Falmouth.

Constituency created Charles Lemon had been Whig Member of Parliament for Cornwall prior to the 1832 election. Edward Wynne-Pendarves had been a Member of Parliament in the previous parliament. Boscawen-Rose succeeded to the peerage, causing a by-election. Wynne-Pendarves' death caused a by-election. John Tremayne withdrew. Williams' death caused a by-election. George Williams, younger son of Michael, had withdrawn to avoid "disturbing the County". List of former United Kingdom Parliamentary constituencies Parliamentary representation from Cornwall Boundaries of Parliamentary Constituencies 1885-1972, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith, second edition edited by F. W. S. Craig Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: Volume I 1832-1885, edited by M. Stenton Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, Volume II 1886-1918, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "C"