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Asunción

Asunción is the capital and largest city of Paraguay. The city is located on the left bank of the Paraguay River at the confluence of this river with the River Pilcomayo, on the South American continent; the Paraguay River and the Bay of Asunción in the northwest separate the city from the Occidental Region of Paraguay and Argentina in the south part of the city. The rest of the city is surrounded by the Central Department; the city is an autonomous capital district, not a part of any department. The metropolitan area, called Gran Asunción, includes the cities of San Lorenzo, Fernando de la Mora, Lambaré, Mariano Roque Alonso, Ñemby, San Antonio, Capiatá and Villa Elisa, which are part of the Central Department; the Asunción metropolitan area has around two million inhabitants. The Municipality of Asunción is listed on the Asunción Stock Exchange, as BVPASA: MUA. Asunción is one of the oldest cities in South America and the longest continually inhabited area in the Río de la Plata Basin. From Asunción the colonial expeditions departed to found other cities, including the second foundation of Buenos Aires and other important cities such as Villarrica, Santa Fe and Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

Asunción is considered a ` Gamma City' by World Cities Research Network. It is the home of the national government, principal port, the chief industrial and cultural center of the country. Near Asunción are the headquarters of the CONMEBOL, the continental governing body of association football in South America. Asunción is said to be one of the cheapest cities in the world for foreign visitors; the Spanish conquistador Juan de Ayolas may have first visited the site of the future city on his way north, up the Paraguay River, looking for a passage to the mines of Alto Perú. Juan de Salazar y Espinosa and Gonzalo de Mendoza, a relative of Pedro de Mendoza, were sent in search of Ayolas, but failed to find him. On his way up and down the river, de Salazar stopped at a bay in the left bank to resupply his ships, he found the natives friendly, decided to found a fort there in August 1537. He named it Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción. In 1542 natives destroyed Buenos Aires, the Spaniards there fled to Asunción.

Thus the city became the center of a large Spanish colonial province comprising part of Brazil, present-day Paraguay and northeastern Argentina: the Giant Province of the Indies. In 1603 Asunción was the seat of the First Synod of Asunción, which set guidelines for the evangelization of the natives in their lingua franca, Guaraní. In 1731 an uprising under José de Antequera y Castro was one of the first rebellions against Spanish colonial rule; the uprising failed, but it was the first sign of the independent spirit, growing among the criollos and natives of Paraguay. The event influenced the independence of Paraguay, which subsequently materialised in 1811; the secret meetings between the independence leaders to plan an ambush against the Spanish Governor in Paraguay took place at the home of Juana María de Lara, in downtown Asunción. On the night of May 14 and May 15, 1811, the rebels succeeded and forced governor Velasco to surrender. Today, Lara's former home, known as Casa de la Independencia, operates as a museum and historical building.

After Paraguay became independent, significant change occurred in Asunción. Under the rule of Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia roads were built throughout the city and the streets were named. However, during the presidency of Carlos Antonio López Asunción saw further progress as the new president implemented new economic policies. More than 400 schools, metallurgic factories and the first railroad service in South America were built during the López presidency. After López died, his son Francisco Solano López became the new president and led the country through the disastrous Paraguayan War that lasted for five years. On 1 January 1869, the capital city Asunción fell to Brazilian forces led by Gen. João de Souza da Fonseca Costa. After the end of the armed conflict, Brazilian troops occupied Asunción until 1876. Many historians have claimed that this war provoked a steady downfall of the city and country, since it massacred two thirds of the country's population. Progress slowed down afterwards, the economy stagnated.

After the Paraguayan War, Asunción began a slow attempt at recovery. Towards the end of the 19th century and during the early years of the 20th century, a flow of immigrants from Europe and the Ottoman Empire came to the city; this led to a change in the appearance of the city as many new buildings were built and Asunción went through an era more prosperous than any since the war. Asunción is located between the parallels 25° 15' and 25° 20' of south latitude and between the meridians 57° 40' and 57° 30' of west longitude; the city sits on the left bank of the Paraguay River at the confluence of this river with the River Pilcomayo. The Paraguay River and the Bay of Asunción in the northwest separate the city from the Occidental Region of Paraguay and Argentina in the south part of the city; the rest of the city is surrounded by the Central Department. With its location along the Paraguay River, the city offers many landscapes. Places such as Cerro Lambaré, a hill located in Lambaré, offer a spectacular show in the springtime because of the blossoming lapacho trees in the area.

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Tiffauges

Tiffauges is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France. Gilles de Rais owned the local fortress, it is the location of a battle between the French Republican troops and the royalists during the War in the Vendée during the French Revolution on September 19, 1793. The municipal territory of Tiffauges covers 980 hectares; the average altitude of the municipality is 89 meters, with levels fluctuating between 42 and 113 meters. Tiffauges is geographically located in the north-east of the Vendée, bordering the department of Maine-et-Loire, it is cut by the departmental road D 753 which goes from Cholet to Saint-Jean-de-Monts. Tiffauges is located 18 km from Herbiers, 16 km from Montaigu, 20 km from Cholet. Tiffauges is located at the confluence of two rivers: Crûme; the region is mentioned as teofalgicus pagus in 848, the city castella theophalgica around 1050. Tiffauges owes its name to the Taïfales, a people - " barbarian " for the Romans - incorporated in the defense of the Roman Empire that would be established in the fifth century.

The Taïfales arrived in Gaul in 412 with the Visigoths. Communes of the Vendée department INSEE Tiffauges

Sharanga

Sharanga is the celestial bow of the Hindu God Lord Vishnu. Other weapons of Vishnu include the Sudarshana Chakra, the Narayanastra, the Vaishnavastra, the Kaumodaki mace, Nandaka sword. In South India, Sharanga is called as Kodanda. In poems written by Ramadasa, the poet used words like Kodandapani to refer to Lord Rama. Mirabai referred to Lord Krishna as Kodandadhari; this bow was crafted by Viswakarma, the Cosmic architect and maker of weapons, along with the Pinaka, the bow of Lord Shiva. Once, Brahma wanted to know, a better archer, Vishnu or Shiva. Brahma created a quarrel between the two; the impact of their fight was such. All the Devas led by Brahma himself begged them to stop, declaring Vishnu the winner as he was able to stun Shiva. Enraged, Shiva gave his Pinaka bow to a king, an ancestor of King Janaka, the father of Sita. Vishnu too decided to do the same, gave his bow to the Sage Richika. In time, Sharanga came into the possession of Parashurama, the sixth avatar of Lord Vishnu and Richika's grandson.

Lord Rama is 7th incarnation of Lord Vishnu. During Sita's Swayamvar, Lord Rama lifts the Pinaka - the divine bow of Lord Shiva as per the contest conditions. Lord Rama in the process broke it. Sage Parashurama comes to the place. Parashurama challenges Lord Rama to hold Sharanga. Lord Rama lifts it easily. In some versions, it is said that Parashurama loses his power, obtained as incarnation of Lord Vishnu, to Lord Rama as he hands over Sharanga to Lord Rama, it is said that Lord Rama appeared as Lord Vishnu for Parashurama after holding Sharanga. Parashurama blessed Lord Rama and suggested him to use Sharanga as his bow throughout his life. Lord Rama politely obeyed Parashurama's words. Lord Rama fought many battles with this divine bow only; the fierce Rama-Ravana battle was fought with Lord Rama having Sharanga. Lord Rama killed many mighty warriors like Kumbhakarna using this Sharanga. At the time of Ascension. Lord Krishna is 8th incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Lord Agni suffered from a digestive problem because of intake of lot of ghee from the yagnas performed by many people.

He approached Lord Brahma for help. Lord Brahma told him to burn entire forest of Khandava to satisfy hunger. Soon Lord Agni came to know that Takshaka, the serpent-king lived in the same forest and was a friend of Indra's. Indra promised that he would be on Takshaka side to save the forest. Once when roaming in the Khandava Vana and Krishna met Agni. Agni explained the situation and Lord Krishna promised Agni that he and Arjuna would be on Agni's side. Arjuna told Agni that he and Lord Krishna need some celestial bows and weapons to fight with divine warriors like Lord Indra. Agni told them. Arjuna obtained celestial bow Gandiva and Akshaya tunira, and Lord Krishna got Sudarshana Sharanga during the Khandava-dahana. In this war Lord Krishna fought with rest of the gods and Arjuna fought with Lord Indra. Lord Krishna and Arjuna won the war. From that moment Lord Krishna used this Sharanga as his bow. In Krishna-Arjuna war Lord Krishna used Sharanga. That's the reason why neither Lord Arjuna gained the upper hand in the war.

Just before his ascension, Lord Krishna returned it to Varuna by throwing it back into the ocean, Varuna's domain. Sharanga appears during a duel between Lord Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Lord Vishnu, Shalva, the demon of mystical powers. Shalva strikes Krishna's left arm causing him to drop Sharanga. Krishna severs Shalva's head with Sudarshana Chakra