Shams al-Din Juvayni
Shams al-Din Juvayni was a Persian statesman and member of the Juvayni family. He was an influental figure in early Ilkhanate politics, serving as sahib-i divan under four Mongol Ilkhans−Hulagu, Abaqa and Arghun Khan. In 1284, Arghun accused Shams al-Din of having poisoned the Ilkhan Abaqa, who may died of the effects of alcoholism. A skillful political and military leader, Shams al-Din is known to have patronized the arts; the musician Safi al-Din al-Urmawi was one of those. A native of the Juvayn area in Khorasan, Shams al-Din belonged to the namesake Juvaynis, a Persian family of officials and scholars, that claimed ancestry from al-Fadl ibn al-Rabi', who had served in high offices under the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid; the family had worked for the Seljuk and Khwarazmian empires before serving the Mongol Empire and its breakaway state, the Ilkhanate. The father of Shams al-Din, Baha al-Din Muhammad an official of the last Khwarazmshah, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, began working for the Mongol governor of Khorasan and Mazandaran, Chin Temür, becoming his saheb-i divan in 1235, a post which he held until his death in 1253/4.
Shams al-Din was the younger brother of the historian Ata-Malik Juvayni, who wrote the Tarikh-i Jahangushay. His family is portrayed as Shafi‘ites like its ancestor, al-Juvayni. In 1263, Hulagu Khan appointed Shams al-Din as his sahib-i divan; the reason behind influence rising may have been due to his friendship with Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, the famed scholar and Hulagu's close advisor, his marriage to the daughter of the Mongol governor of Khorasan, Arghun Aqa. Shams al-Din's influence soon increased further, he had a bridge constructed in Azerbaijan and a dam near Saveh, rebuilt mosques in Iraq, supported the opening of Hajj passages. Shams al-Din took part in deciding military conclusions, he clashed with Caucasian tribes on his return to Iran. Shams al-Din was closely linked with the local vassal states of the Ilkhanids, such as the Kartids of Herat, the Qutlugh-Khanids of Kerman, the Salghurids of Fars, the Hazaraspids of Luristan, he maintained Ilkhanid bureaucrats in each realm, had an representative in charge of the rejuvenation of the Yazd area.
Furthermore, he increased the influence and authority of his family by giving them posts within the country. Shams al-Din's older brother Ata-Malik Juvayni had been given the governorship of Iraq in 1259 before the latters rise. During his term as sahib-i divan, Shams al-Din amassed a hefty sum of revenue in properties, but through marketable investments in Hormuz, which profited Shams al-Din and his associate, who served as joint vizier under Abaqa. Shams al-Din's illustrious career resulted in much resentment. However, three years Majd al-Molk made a more successful attempt. Whilst Shams al-Din avoided punishment with the help of Hulagu's widow, his brother Ata-Malik was arrested, but released in late 1281 due to interference of Mongol princes and princesses, only to return to jail a few months due being the target of further accusations; the accusations towards Shams al-Din made Abaqa appoint Majd al-Mulk as his joint vizier, which reduced Shams al-Din's authority. A dynastic struggle followed after Abaqa's death in 1282 between his younger brother Tekuder and son Arghun.
His wife Khoshak was the daughter of Awak Zak'arean-Mkhargrdzeli, Lord High Constable of Georgia, Gvantsa, a noblewoman who went on to become queen of Georgia. Biran, Michal. "JOVAYNI, ṢĀḤEB DIVĀN". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XV, Fasc. 1. Pp. 71–74. Rajabzadeh, Hashem. "JOVAYNI FAMILY". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XV, Fasc. 1. Pp. 61–63. Ashraf, Ahmad. "Iranian identity iii. Medieval Islamic period". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XIII, Fasc. 5. Pp. 507–522. Timothy May; the Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. Pp. 1–636. ISBN 978-1-61069-340-0. Lambton, Ann K. S.. Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia. I. B. Tauris. Pp. 1–425. ISBN 9780887061332
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as related languages; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered the territory of modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed to various forms of art and science, own one of the world's most prominent literatures. In contemporary terminology, people of Persian heritage native to present-day Afghanistan and Uzbekistan are referred to as Tajiks, whereas those in the eastern Caucasus, albeit assimilated, are referred to as Tats; however the terms Tajik and Persian were synonymous and were used interchangeably, many of the most influential Persian figures hailed from outside Iran's present-day borders to the northeast in Central Asia and Afghanistan and to a lesser extent to the northwest in the Caucasus proper.
In historical contexts in English, "Persians" may be defined more loosely to cover all subjects of the ancient Persian polities, regardless of ethnic background. The English term Persian derives from Latin Persia, itself deriving from Greek Persís, a Hellenized form of Old Persian Pārsa. In the Bible, it is given as Parás —sometimes Paras uMadai —within the books of Esther, Daniel and Nehemya. A Greek folk etymology connected the name to a legendary character in Greek mythology. Herodotus recounts this story, devising a foreign son, from whom the Persians took the name; the Persians themselves knew the story, as Xerxes I tried to use it to suborn the Argives during his invasion of Greece, but failed to do so. Although Persis was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, varieties of this term were adopted through Greek sources and used as an official name for all of Iran for many years. Thus, in the Western world, the term Persian came to refer to all inhabitants of the country; some medieval and early modern Islamic sources used cognates of the term Persian to refer to various Iranian peoples, including the speakers of the Khwarezmian language, the Mazanderani language, the Old Azeri language.
10th-century Iraqi historian Al-Masudi refers to Pahlavi and Azari as dialects of the Persian language. In 1333, medieval Moroccan traveler and scholar Ibn Battuta referred to the people of Kabul as a specific sub-tribe of Persians. Lady Mary Sheil, in her observation of Iran during the Qajar era, describes Persians and Leks to identify themselves as "descendants of the ancient Persians". On March 21, 1935, the former king of Iran, Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, issued a decree asking the international community to use the term Iran, the native name of the country, in formal correspondence. However, the term Persian is still used to designate the predominant population of the Iranian peoples living in the Iranian cultural continent; the earliest known written record attributed to the Persians is from the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, an Assyrian inscription from the mid-9th century BC, found at Nimrud. The inscription mentions Parsua as a tribal chiefdom in modern-day western Iran; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the Iranian population that, in the early 10th century BC, settled to the northwest of modern-day Iran.
They were dominated by the Assyrians for much of the first three centuries after arriving in the region. However, they played a major role in the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire; the Medes, another branch of this population, founded the unified empire of Media as the region's dominant cultural and political power in c. 625 BC. Meanwhile, the Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids formed a vassal state to the central Median power. In c. 552 BC, the Achaemenids began a revolution which led to the conquest of the empire by Cyrus II in c. 550 BC. They spread their influence to the rest of what is called the Iranian Plateau, assimilated with the non-Iranian indigenous groups of the region, including the Elamites and the Mannaeans. At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen; the Achaemenids developed the infrastructure to support their growing influence, including the creation of Pasargadae and the opulent city of Persepolis.
The empire extended as far as the limits of the Greek city states in modern-day mainland Greece, where the Persians and Athenians influenced each other in what is a reciprocal cultural exchange. Its legacy and impact on the kingdom of Macedon was notably huge for centuries after the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe following the Greco-Persian Wars; the empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, but reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. During the Achaemenid era, Persian colonists settled in Asia Minor. In Lydia, near Sardis, there was the Hyrcanian plain, according to Strabo, got its name from the Persian settlers that were moved from Hyrcania. Near Sardis, there was the plain of Cyrus, which further signified the presence of numerous Persian settlements in
The Alamut geographic region is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz range, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north. Starting from Qazvin toward Alamut, passing through the first range of hills, forms, are significant themes in nature's composition of this area. Two big citadels of Ismailis and Alamut castles, are in this area. Hassan-i Sabbah and his Assassins controlled the area for many years. In 1090 CE, Hassan Sabbah, the leader of Ismailites in Iran, chose the Alamut region as his headquarters to campaign and convert new followers; this proved to be a turning point for the destiny of Alamut Valley. The result of over two centuries of Ismailite stronghold, the region witnessed numerous castles throughout, of which at least 20 "castles" dating back to this era have been identified; the most magnificent castle in the Alamut Valley is the Alamut Castle, built on top of a high rock reaching 2163 m above sea level near the Gazor Khan Village.
The rock covers an area of 20 hectares. Only ruins of the fort and some towers are apparent, it is only through archaeological excavation that the main portions can be discovered. Today, the leader of the contemporary Ismaili community is the Aga Khan. Hassan-i Sabbah Kia Bozorg Omid Muḥammad ibn Kiyā Buzurg-Ummīd El-Hâdî bin el-Nizâr El-Môhtadî bin el-Hâdî El-Kahir bin el-Môhtadî bi-Kuvvet’ûl-Lâh / bi-Ahkâmî’l-Lâh Hasan Alâ Zikrihi’s Selâm Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad II Jalaluddin Hasan ‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad III Ruknu-d-Dīn Khurshāh Alamut River Rudkhan Castle List of Ismaili castles Alamut-e Gharbi District Alamut-e Sharqi District Alamut-e Bala Rural District Alamut-e Pain Rural District Kıyâmet-i Kûbrâ Alamut, novel written by Vladimir Bartol in 1938
Karakorum was the capital of the Mongol Empire between 1235 and 1260, of the Northern Yuan in the 14–15th centuries. Its ruins lie in the northwestern corner of the Övörkhangai Province of Mongolia, near today's town of Kharkhorin, adjacent to the Erdene Zuu Monastery, they are part of the upper part of the World Heritage site Orkhon Valley. The Orkhon valley was a centre of the Göktürk and Uyghur empires. To the Göktürks, the nearby Khangai Mountains had been the location of the Ötüken, the Uighur capital Karabalgasun was located close to where Karakorum would be erected; this area is also one of the oldest farming areas in Mongolia. In 1218–19, Genghis Khan rallied his troops for the campaign against the Khwarezm Empire in a place called Karakorum, but the actual foundation of a city is said to have occurred only in 1220; until 1235, Karakorum seems to have been little more than a yurt town. It was finished in one year. In the Yuanshi it is written in the section for Taizong Ögedei Khan: "In the seventh year, in the year of the blue sheep the Wanangong was established in Helin."
One of Genghis Khan's nine ministers the Khitan Yelü Chucai said the following poem during the ridge raising ceremony of the Tumen Amgalan Ord: "Installed ridge well fit and stone foundation, The parallel placed majestic palace has been raised, When the bells and drums of the Lord and officials sound pleasantly, The setting sun calls the horses of war to itself from the mountain peaks." The Mongolian version of the poem is as follows: "Tsogtslon tavih nuruu chuluun tulguur, Zeregtsen zogsoh surleg asriig bosgovoi, Ezen tushmediin honh hengereg ayataihan hanginan duursahad, Echih naran uuliin tolgoigoos dainii agtadiig ugtnam. The name Karakorum or "Kharkhorin" translates to'black-twenty', but scientists argue that the'khorin' might have been a diversion of the word'khurem', which means "castle" in Mongolian. Other translations vary. Under Ögedei and his successors, Karakorum became a major site for world politics. Möngke Khan had the palace enlarged, the great stupa temple completed, they had the Parisian goldsmith, Guillaume Bouchier, design the Silver Tree of Karakorum for the city centre.
A large tree sculpted of silver and other precious metals rose up from the middle of the courtyard and loomed over the palace, with the branches of the tree extended into the building. Silver fruit hung from the limbs and it had four golden serpents braided around the trunk, while within the top of the tree was placed a trumpet angel, all as automata performing for the emperor's pleasure; when the khan wanted to summon the drinks for his guests, the mechanical angel raised the trumpet to his lips and sounded the horn, whereupon the mouths of the serpents began to gush out a fountain of alcoholic beverages into the large silver basin arranged at the base of the tree. William of Rubruck, a Flemish Franciscan missionary and papal envoy to the Mongols reached Karakorum in 1254, he has left one of the most detailed, accounts of the city. He compared it rather unfavourably to the village of Saint-Denis near Paris, was of the opinion that the royal abbey there was ten times as important as the Khan's palace.
On the other hand, he described the town as a cosmopolitan and religiously tolerant place, the silver tree he described as part of Möngke Khan's palace as having become the symbol of Karakorum. He described the walled city as having four gates facing the four directions, two quarters of fixed houses, one for the "Saracenes" and one for the "Cathai", twelve pagan temples, two mosques, as well as a Nestorian church; when Kublai Khan claimed the throne of the Mongol Empire in 1260—as did his younger brother, Ariq Böke—he relocated his capital to Shangdu, to Khanbaliq. Karakorum was reduced to the administrative centre of a provincial backwater of the Yuan dynasty founded in China in 1271. Further to that, the ensuing Toluid Civil War with Ariq Böke and a war with Kaidu hit the town hard. In 1260, Kublai disrupted the town's grain supply, while in 1277 Kaidu took Karakorum, only to be ousted by Yuan troops and Bayan of the Baarin in the following year. In 1298 -- 99 prince Ulus Buqa looted the grain storehouses.
However, the first half of the 14th century proved to be a second time of prosperity: in 1299, the town had been expanded eastwards in 1311, again from 1342 to 1346, the stupa temples were renewed. After the collapse of the Yuan dynasty in 1368, Karakorum became the residence of Biligtü Khan in 1370. In 1388, Ming troops occupied and razed the capital. According to Saghang Sechen's Erdeni-yin Tobči, in 1415 a khuriltai decided to rebuild it, but no archaeological evidence for such a venture has been found yet. However, Karakorum was inhabited at the beginning of the 16th century, when Batu-Möngke Dayan Khan made it a capital once again. In the following years, the town changed hands between Oirads and Chinggisids several times, was given up permanently; the Erdene Zuu Monastery stands near Karakorum. Various construction materials were taken from the ruin to build this monastery; the actual location of Karakorum was long unclear. First hints that Karakorum was located at Erdene Zuu were known in the 18th century, but until the 20th century there was a dispute whether or not
The Ilkhanate spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey; the Ilkhanate was based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that today comprise most of Iran, Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, western Afghanistan, the Northwestern edge of the Indian sub-continent. Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam. According to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Kublai Khan granted Hulagu the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Böke; the term ilkhan here means " khan of the tribe, khan of the'ulus'" and this inferior "khanship" refers to the initial deference to Möngke Khan and his successor Great Khans of the Mongol empire.
The title "Ilkhan", borne by the descendants of Hulagu and other Borjigin princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260. When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, Genghis Khan declared war on the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty in 1219; the Mongols overran the empire, occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Persian Iran was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Subedei, who left the area in ruin. Transoxiana came under Mongol control after the invasion; the undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khan's Borjigin family. Thus, the families of the latter's four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khan's governors, Chin-Temür, Korguz, in that region. Muhammad's son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu returned to Iran in c. 1224 after his exile in India. The rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his father's empire declared their allegiance to Jalal, he repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia.
However, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqan's army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. During the Mongol expedition and the southern Persian dynasties in Fars and Kerman voluntarily submitted to the Mongols and agreed to pay tribute. To the west and the rest of Persia was secured by Chormaqan; the Mongols invaded Armenia and Georgia in 1234 or 1236, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1238. They began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia, under the Seljuks, the following year. In 1236 Ögedei proceeded to populate Herat; the Mongol military governors made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul and Cilician Armenia submitted to the Great Khan. Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on the Mongol military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population was temporarily divided into eight tumens. By 1237 the Mongol Empire had subjugated most of Persia, Georgia, as well as all of Afghanistan and Kashmir.
After the battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongols under Baiju occupied Anatolia, while the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and the Empire of Trebizond became vassals of the Mongols. Güyük Khan abolished decrees issued by the Mongol princes that had ordered the raising of revenue from districts in Persia as well as offering tax exemptions to others in c. 1244. In accordance with a complaint by the governor Arghun the Elder, Möngke Khan prohibited ortog-merchants and nobles from abusing relay stations and civilians in 1251, he ordered a new census and decreed that each man in the Mongol-ruled Middle East must pay in proportion to his property. Persia was divided between four districts under Arghun. Möngke Khan granted the Kartids authority over Herat, Pushang, Khaysar, Firuz-Kuh, Farah, Kabul and Afghanistan; the founder of the Ilkhanate dynasty was Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of both Möngke Khan and Kublai Khan. Möngke dispatched Hulagu to establish a firm Toluid control over the Middle East and ordered him return to Mongolia when his task was accomplished.
Taking over from Baiju in 1255 or 1256, Hulagu had been charged with subduing the Muslim kingdoms to the west "as far as the borders of Egypt". This occupation led the Turkmens to move west into Anatolia to escape from the Mongolian rule, he established his dynasty over the southwestern part of the Mongol Empire that stretched from Transoxiana to Syria. He destroyed the Ismaili Nizari Hashshashins and the Abbasid Caliphate in 1256 and 1258 respectively. After that he advanced as far as Gaza conquering Ayyubid Syria; the death of Möngke forced Hulagu to return from the Persian heartland for the preparation of Khurultai. He left a small force behind to continue the Mongol advance, but it was halted in Palestine in 1260 by a major defeat at the battle of Ain Jalut at the hands of the Mamluks of Egypt. Due to geo-political and religious issues and deaths of three Jochid princes in Hulagu's service, Berke declared open war on Hulagu in 1262 and called his troops back to Iran. According to Mamluk historians, Hulagu might have massacred Berke's troops and refused to share his war booty with Berke.
Hulagu's descendants r
Abd Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Husayn Birjandi was a prominent 16th-century Persian astronomer and physicist who lived in Birjand. In discussing the structure of the cosmos, al-Birjandi continued Ali al-Qushji's debate on the Earth's rotation. In his analysis of what might occur if the Earth were moving, he develops a hypothesis similar to Galileo Galilei's notion of "circular inertia", which he described in the following observational test: The small or large rock will fall to the Earth along the path of a line, perpendicular to the plane of the horizon, and this perpendicular is away from the tangent point of the Earth's sphere and the plane of the perceived horizon. This point moves with the motion of the Earth and thus there will be no difference in place of fall of the two rocks. Al-Birjandi wrote some more than 13 treatises, including: Sharh al-tadhkirah; the text, in some copies of the manuscript from 17th century, is written throughout in black and red ink with diagrams illustrating many of the astronomical elements discussed.
The 11th chapter of the book was translated to Sanskrit in 1729 at Jaipur by Nayanasukhopadhyaya. Kusuba and Pingree present an edition of the Sanskrit, in a separate section, an English translation facing the Arabic original; that chapter has attracted attention among European scholars since the late 19th century. Al-Birjandi on Tadhkira II, Chapter 11, Its Sanskrit Translation by Kusuba K. and Pingree D. ISBN 978-90-04-12475-2 was published in 2001 by Brill Academic Publishers. Sharh-i Bist Bab dar Ma'rifat-i A'mal-i al-Asturlab (Commentary on "Twenty Chapters Dealing with the Uses of the Astrolabe" of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. Risalah fi Alat al-Rasad. Tadhkirat al-Ahbab fi Bayan al-Tahabub, he wrote on theology
Ögedei was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the Mongol invasions of Europe and East Asia. Like all of Genghis' primary sons, he participated extensively in conquests in China and Central Asia. Ögedei was the third son of Börte Ujin. He participated in the turbulent events of his father's rise; when Ögedei was 17 years old, Genghis Khan experienced the disastrous defeat of Khalakhaljid Sands against the army of Jamukha. Ögedei was wounded and lost on the battlefield. His father's adopted brother and companion Borokhula rescued him. Although married, in 1204 his father gave him Töregene, the wife of a defeated Merkit chief; the addition of such a wife was not uncommon in steppe culture. After Genghis was proclaimed Emperor or Khagan in 1206, myangans of the Jalayir, Besud and Khongqatan clans were given to him as his appanage.
Ögedei's territory occupied the Hobok rivers. According to his father's wish, the commander of the Jalayir, became Ögedei's tutor. Ögedei, along with his brothers, campaigned independently for the first time in November 1211 against the Jin dynasty. He was sent to ravage the land south through Hebei and north through Shanxi in 1213. Ögedei's force drove the Jin garrison out of the Ordos, he rode to the juncture of the Xi Xia and Song domains. During the Mongol conquest of Eastern Persia, Ögedei and Chagatai massacred the residents of Otrar after a five-month siege in 1219–20 and joined Jochi, outside the walls of Urganch; because Jochi and Chagatai were quarreling over the military strategy, Ögedei was appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the siege of Urganch. They captured the city in 1221; when the rebellion broke out in southeast Persia and Afghanistan, Ögedei pacified Ghazni. The Empress Yisui insisted that Genghis Khan designate an heir before the invasion of Khwarezmid Empire in 1219. After the terrible brawl between two elder sons Jochi and Chagatai, they agreed that Ögedei was to be chosen as heir.
Genghis confirmed their decision. Genghis Khan died in 1227, Jochi had died a year or two earlier. Ögedei's younger brother Tolui held the regency until 1229. Ögedei was elected supreme khan in 1229, according to the kurultai held at Kodoe Aral on the Kherlen River after Genghis' death, although this was never in doubt as it was Genghis' clear wish that he be succeeded by Ögedei. After ritually declining three times, Ögedei was proclaimed Khagan of the Mongols on 13 September 1229. Chagatai continued to support his younger brother's claim. Genghis Khan saw Ögedei as a generous character, his charisma is credited for his success in keeping the Empire on his father's path. Thanks to the organization left behind by Genghis Khan, to the personality of Ögedei, the affairs of the Mongol Empire remained for the most part stable during his reign. Ögedei was an pragmatic man, though he made some mistakes during his reign. He had no delusions that he was his father's equal as a military commander or organizer and used the abilities of those he found most capable.
After destroying the Khwarazmian empire, Genghis Khan was free to move against Western Xia. In 1226, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the last of the Khwarizm monarchs, returned to Persia to revive the empire lost by his father, Muhammad ‘Ala al-Din II; the Mongol forces sent against him in 1227 were defeated at Dameghan. Another army that marched against Jalal al-Din scored a pyrrhic victory in the vicinity of Isfahan but was unable to follow up that success. With Ögedei's consent to launch a campaign, Chormaqan left Bukhara at the head of 30,000 to 50,000 Mongol soldiers, he occupied two long-standing bases of Khwarazmian support. Crossing the Amu Darya River in 1230 and entering Khorasan without encountering any opposition, Chormaqan passed through quickly, he left a sizable contingent behind under the command of Dayir Noyan, who had further instructions to invade western Afghanistan. Chormaqan and the majority of his army entered the northern section of Persia known as Mazandaran in the autumn of 1230, thus avoiding the mountainous area south of the Caspian Sea.
That region was controlled by the Ismailis. Upon reaching the city of Rey, Chormaqan made his winter camp there and dispatched his armies to pacify the rest of northern Persia. In 1231, he led his army southward and captured the cities of Qum and Hamadan. From there, he sent armies into the regions of Fars and Kirman, whose rulers submitted, preferring to pay tribute to Mongol overlords rather than having their states ravaged. Meanwhile, further east, Dayir achieved his goals in capturing Kabul and Zawulistan. With the Mongols in control of Persia, Jalal al-Din was isolated in Transcaucasia where he was banished, thus all of Persia was added to the Mongol Empire. At the end of 1230, responding to the Jin's unexpected defeat of the Mongol general Doqulkhu, the Khagan went south to Shanxi province with Tolui, clearing the area of the Jin forces and taking the city of Fengxiang. After passing the summer in the north, they again campaigned against the Jin in Henan, cutting through territory of South China to assault the Jin's rear.
By 1232 the Jin Emperor was besieged in his capital of Kaifeng. Ögedei soon departed. After taking several cities, the Mongols, with the belated assistance of the Song dynasty, destroyed the Jin w