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Ataman was a title of Cossack and haidamak leaders of various kinds. In the Russian Empire, the term was the official title of the supreme military commanders of the Cossack armies; the Ukrainian version of the same word is Hetman. Otaman in Ukrainian Cossack forces was a position of a lower rank; the etymologies of the words ataman and hetman are disputed. There may be several independent Germanic and Turkic origins for cognate forms of the words, all referring to the same concept; the hetman form cognates with German Hauptmann by the way of Czech or Polish, like several other titles. The Russian term ataman is connected to Old Russian vatamanŭ, cognates with turkic odoman; the term ataman may had a lingual interaction with polish hetman and german hauptmann. The word is more of Turkic origin meaning'father of horsemen'. During certain periods, broadly corresponding with involvement with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the supreme leader of Ukrainian Cossacks was called the hetman; the ataman form is more found in Russian periods, exists in modern Russian and Tatar.

See Hetman § Etymology. Otamans were elected by the Host Council or could have been appointed during the military campaigns; the appointed otamans were called acting otaman. In the Cossack Hetmanate, leaders of non-Cossack military units were called otamans. In the Cossack Hetmanate, the title was used for the administrative purposes, such as the head of the city, City Otaman; such administrative uses were adopted by the Kuban Cossacks and were common in Kuban Oblast with different variations. There were various types of otaman: Army otaman, an executive officer in the Zaporizhian Host Campaign otaman Kosh otaman Kurin otaman, a commander of a kurin; those titles were introduced during the Hetmanate in the 17th century. Together with the osaul and chorąży, this otoman helped the sotnyk in administrative affairs. Village otoman, an administrative rank in the 17th to 18th centuries Okrug otaman, a territorial leader Stanytsia otaman, a territorial leader Khutir otaman, a territorial leaderOtamans were in charge of general- and regimental-size artillery units, as well as any volunteer military formations and the Zholdak cavalry.

Atamans were the titles of supreme leaders of various Cossack armies during the Russian Civil War. When Ukraine acquired its independence in 1918, the rank took on different value. Among the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen and the Ukrainian Galician Army, it was equivalent to a major, as is the battalion executive officer today. In the Ukrainian People's Republic, the title was of a general rank. Chief Otoman was the general of the Ukrainian Army, assisted by his deputies, Acting Otomans; the head of the army of the Ukrainian People's Republic, in particular, Symon Petliura, was called Supreme Otaman. Voivode Harambaša Encyclopedia of Ukraine main page

Hipparchia hansii

Hipparchia hansii is a species of butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is endemic to the North African region Morocco, Algeria and western Libya, its natural habitats are dense soil and rocky slopes, ridges. It prefers to stay in the shade; this is one of the last butterflies. There are four subspecies of Hipparchia hansii: H. h. colombati H. h. tansleyi H. h. subsaharae H. h. tlemcen September to October, depending on altitude and locality. Larvae have been reared on Festuca species. Satyrinae of the Western Palearctic - Hipparchia hansii Species info "Hipparchia Fabricius, 1807" at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms

Les p'tites Michu

Les p'tites Michu is an opérette in three acts, with music by André Messager and words by Albert Vanloo and Georges Duval. The piece is set in Paris in the years following the French Revolution and depicts the complications ensuing after the identities of two girls become confused in their infancy; the opera opened at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens, Paris, on 16 November 1897 and ran for more than 150 performances. It became an international success, with productions in four continents, including an unusually long run of 400 performances in London, had subsequent revivals in Paris. After a considerable success in 1890 with his opéra comique La Basoche Messager had a series of failures in the decade. Among these, Madame Chrysanthème played for 16 performances in Paris, written for London, had a disappointing run, Le chevalier d'Harmental ran for only six performances at the Opéra-Comique. An opérette, La fiancée en loterie, managed 71 showings, a "pièce fantastique", La montagne enchantée, closed after 35 performances.

Discouraged by these failures, Messager resolved to compose no more, retreated a cottage in the English countryside with his wife, the Irish songwriter Hope Temple. In 1897 he received an unsolicited libretto, he did not know at the time that three other composers had turned it down, it appealed to him greatly. He completed the score in three months; the first performance was at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens on 16 November 1897, starring Odette Dulac in one of the title roles, with the production running for over 150 performances. In 1793, the wife of the Marquis des Ifs dies in childbirth; the Marquis, before disappearing to evade arrest by revolutionary forces, entrusts the infant girl to the Michus, paying the family a sum of money that allows them to open a prosperous shop. The Michus have a daughter of their own. While bathing the two babies, M. Michu mixes them up and cannot tell, which. Act 1 By 1810, the girls, Blanche-Marie and Marie-Blanche, have grown up together, believing themselves to be twins, have gone to school under the military Mlle.

Herpin. Aristide, the Michus' clerk, is in is not sure which; the Marquis des Ifs, now a general, sends Bagnolet to find his daughter, whose hand he has promised to lieutenant Gaston Rigaud, an officer who saved his life. It turns out that Gaston is Mlle. Herpin's nephew, while visiting his aunt, the girls meet the handsome lieutenant, both are enchanted. Bagnolet finds the Michus, they are embarrassed at being unable to say. Act 2 The general and his guests await the arrival of his daughter; when the Michus arrive, the general is impatient with their explanation: he wants to know which girl is his daughter and will marry the lieutenant. Knowing that her sister is enamoured of Gaston, Blanche-Marie decides to make a sacrifice and identifies her sister as the general's daughter. Act 3 With a sad heart, Blanche-Marie resigns herself to marry Aristide, whom she finds exceedingly uninteresting. On the other hand, to the astonishment of her fiancé and the Marquis, Marie-Blanche goes to help at the shop at every opportunity.

She realizes that she has made a mistake: her sister loves Gaston, she herself would prefer the common life of the shop and marriage to Aristide. The day of the double wedding, Marie-Blanche looks for a portrait of the Marquis' wife, her idea is to dress Blanche-Marie as the late Marchionesse. The resemblance is astonishing; the Marquis believes that he sees his wife: Blanche-Marie must be his daughter. The two couples are sorted out and all ends happily. Madame Michu forbids her husband to hand the two young women to their respective bridgrooms: "Don't you touch them, or you'll mix them up again!" Source: Gänzl and Lamb Act 1 Overture Chorus and couplets "Le tambour résonne" – Pensionnaires Duet "Blanche-Marie et Marie-Blanche" – The two sisters Madrigal "Quoi, vous tremblez ma belle enfant" – Gaston Trio "Michu! Michu! Michu!" – Blanche-Marie, Marie-Blanche, Gaston Couplets "Sapristi! Le beau militaire" – Marie-Blanche Trio "Nous v'là! Nous v'là!" Et couplets "A l'ouvrage le matin" – Mme Michu, Aristide Ensemble "Voici papa, maman Gâteau" – Blanche-Marie et Marie-Blanche Couplets "Blanche Marie, si douce" – Aristide Finale "Je viens d'entendre un roulement" – AllAct 2 Introduction and chorus "A la santé du général" Rondo "Non, je n'ai jamais vu ça" – The General Quartet "Entre là" – Blanche-Marie, Marie-Blanche, the Michus Duet "Ah!

Quel malheur, quel malheur" – Blanche-Marie, Marie-Blanche" Couplets "Me prenez-vous pour un conscrit" – The General Prayer "St-Nicolas" – Blanche-Marie, Marie-Blanche Trio "C'est la fille du général" – Blanche-Marie, Marie-Blanche, Gaston Finale: "Capitaine, approchez" et Couplets "Mesdames, grand merci" – Marie-BlancheAct 3 Chorus and ensemble "A la boutique" Couplets "Comme une girouette mon coeur tourmait" – Aristide Romance "Vois-tu, je m'en veux" – Blanche-Marie Chorus "Bonjour, mesdam's les mariées" et ronde des Halles "On peux chercher en tous pays" – Marie-Blanche Duet "Rassurez

New Medicine

New Medicine is an American rock band from Minneapolis, formed in 2009. New Medicine was formed as A Verse Unsung by two friends, Jake Scherer and Dan Garland, who were attending Orono High School at the time; the two would write lyrics during classes work through them musically at Scherer's family's farm in Medina where he lived. Kenny Fritze and Aaron Gates were added to the band and replaced, they signed to Photo Finish Records after forming the new band with Ryan Guanzon and Matt Brady, calling themselves New Medicine. Their debut album, Race You to the Bottom, was released September 18, 2010; the band has toured with major recording artists such as Avenged Sevenfold, Halestorm and Stone Sour. Their songs "Race You to the Bottom," "Laid," and "Rich Kids" have all been added into rotation on Sirius XM Radio's Octane Channel. "Laid" hit number 32 on the Mainstream Rock chart in Spring 2011, "Race You to the Bottom" hit number 19 on the Mainstream Rock chart in Spring 2012, "Rich Kids" hit number 31 on the Mainstream Rock chart in Fall 2012, respectively.

On December 21, 2012, Matt Brady announced he was leaving the band to spend more time with Joy2theWorld, which helps women and children in Ghana, west Africa. The same year, Ryan Guanzon left the band to produce music. Dylan Wood took the drums duties since and Kyle LeBlanc took over on bass guitar, they released their second album "Breaking the Model" on August 26, 2014 via Imagen Records, with the lead single "One Too Many" hitting number 40 on the Mainstream Rock. The band stated on their Facebook page that they have begun work on a new album as of November 28, 2013 and was released on August 25, 2014. Ryan Guanzon returned to the band for just one performance in April 2015 in the band's hometown of Medina, but did so to play guitar as current lead guitarist, Dan Garland, was not able to be there. Matt Brady made an appearance on-stage that same night as he was in attendance. On April 27, 2015, it was announced. Jake Scherer - lead vocals, rhythm guitar Dan Garland - lead guitar Kyle LeBlanc - bass, backing vocals Dylan Wood - drums Ryan Wood - rhythm guitar, backing vocals Matt Brady Ryan Guanzon Kenny Fritze Aaron Gates On April 27, 2015, lead vocalist Jake Scherer took to various social media outlets to announce that the band would be going on an indefinite hiatus, with no word on when, or if, the band will be back together in the future or not.

Burn Halo w New Medicine. The Used/Chiodos & New Medicine Tour. Halestorm w/ Adelitas Way & Since October. Uproar Festival w Stone Sour. Rise From Ashes Tour w/ D. R. U. G. S. & Eyes Set to Kill. Nightmare After Christmas Tour w Hollywood Undead. Revolt Tour with Hollywood Undead, Drive A, 10 Years. Opened for the Shinedown Concert at the Ogden Theater, Colorado, April 2, 2012. Performed before Adelitas Way Played Jager stage at Carolina Rebellion on May 5, 2012. Played Jeremiah Weed Stage at Rockfest in Kansas City, May 12, 2012. Played FYE stage at Rock on the Range in Columbus, May 19, 2012 Played Intersection in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to finish tour with Halestorm on July 21, 2012 Played the Carnival of Madness Tour with Cavo, Halestorm and Evanescence. Played Wicked Moose, Minnesota, with Buckcherry March 15, 2013 Played Medina Entertainment Center, Minnesota, with Buckcherry March 16, 2013 Played Herkirmer Block/Patio Party, Minnesota, June 8, 2013 Played Medina Entertainment Center, Minnesota, with Hairball June 15, 2013 Played Tour with Halestorm fall/winter 2014 Played Buzzfest 32 at Cynthia Woods Mitchell Pavilion, The Woodlands, Texas, on October 18, 2014 Played Fine Line Music Cafe Minneapolis, Minnesota with former drummer Ryan Guanzon's new Band "Late Night Fights" opening.

Former bass player, Matt Brady, in attendance with stage diving. December 20, 2014 Played Medina Entertainment Center, Medina,Minnesota with Buckcherry and Cold Kingdom. Former drummer, Ryan Guanzon, handled lead guitar duties from the absent Dan Garland. Former bass player, Matt Brady in attendance. April 4, 2015 Interview with Jake Scherer who talks about recording new album and touring. Official website PureVolume Myspace

Internet in Ukraine

The Internet in Ukraine is well developed and growing uninfluenced by the global financial crisis. As of 2011, Ukraine was ranked 9th in the "Top 10 Internet countries in Europe", with 33.9% Internet penetration and 15.3 million users. However, as of July 2016 23,202,067 people were Internet users. In 2011, online retailing turnover in Ukraine exceeded US$2 bn. For 2012, it was expected to reach US$4 bn. Online payments in the country in 2011 where estimated at US$400 million, 200% growth compared to 2010; as of February 2018, Ukraine ranked 47th among the world's countries by the fixed broadband Internet access speed, with an average download speed of 34,89 mbit/s, 117th by the mobile network Internet access speed with 7.35 mbit/s. According to Freedom House, the Internet in Ukraine is "Partly Free" as of 2017; this implies a deterioration of the situation since 2013, when the Internet was deemed to be "Free". According to the Internet Association of Ukraine, 48% of Ukraine's population older than 15 have had access to Internet in March 2012.

According to GfK Ukraine polls of 2012, 16,8 million people accessed Internet in the month preceding poll, the 10% increase to 2011 results. A February 2012 general population poll by Research & Branding Group showed that 59% of those polled did not use the internet. Data from database: World Development Indicators Last Updated: 10/14/2016 indicates the data below In 2011 the number of subscribers to Internet service providers in Ukraine had increased compared to 2010 by 13.3% to 4,148,658. After the 3rd quarter of 2012, the number of broadband subscribers alone exceeded that figure, grown to 6,700,000. 2011 revenues from Internet service providing in Ukraine reached. It is unclear whether these numbers include mobile Internet services which are provided by all of Ukraine's mobile phone operators. All existing standards of Internet access are available in Ukraine, with broadband services limited to cities. Mobile GPRS access is available in vast majority of Ukraine's territory, including all urban areas and airports, most roads and railway lines, many coastal waters.

3G mobile access market is developing. Public Wi-Fi hotspots are widespread throughout cities. There are plans and projects for providing mass wireless broadband access in urban open spaces, on Ukrzaliznytsia long-distance trains and in urban public transport vehicles. According to Ericsson ConsumerLab, 36% of Ukraine's urban population access the Internet via mobile phone or smartphone. According to the iKS-Consulting, there were 6 700 000 broadband subscribers in Ukraine as of 3Q 2012; the consultancy estimated broadband providing revenues in the 3rd quarter of 2012 at UAH 1.36 bn, the growth 13.7% compared to 3Q 2011 results. Thousands of national and local ISP operate in Ukraine, with as much 14 ISPs competing for every household client in the capital city Kiev. According to Expert & Consulting, the top-10 Ukrainian fixed Broadband Internet service providers had about 3.36 million subscribers as of the 2nd quarter of 2012. According to estimations of Expert & Consulting, there were 7,06 mln. subscribers of fixed Broadband Internet at the end of 1st half of 2013.

Ukrtelecom is the largest Internet access provider and was the only UMTS 3G provider in Ukraine until 2015, when all three major operators have gained the licensing and set up their own 3G networks. In particular, it was serving over 1.4 million DSL/ISDN fixed access clients in June 2012. The second-largest provider Volia is a major player specializing in cable access combined with TV signal. Both MTS and Kyivstar offer fixed broadband access along with their mobile Internet services. There were 1,686,500 Facebook users in Ukraine in 2011 and over 3,000,000 in October 2013. According to the Internet Association of Ukraine 13 million Ukrainians used Facebook in 2019. In 2018 this number had increased by 3 million or 30%, in the previous five years by 9.8 million or 306.2%. The Internet Association of Ukraine claimed in November 2019 that Facebook was the most popular social network of Ukraine. According to the Google Analytics, in 2012 the number of daily Twitter visitors from Ukraine reaches 120,000 while the "Yandex.

Ukraine" estimated the number of Ukrainian users at 500,000, GfK Ukraine, a market research company, found that a quarter of Ukrainian Twitter users ignore their accounts while 28 percent check them only occasionally. Ukrainian politician Yulia Tymoshenko was the most followed Twitter user in Ukraine as of early 2012, with 91,547 followers. According to research by PlusOne Communications Group in March 2019 Ukraine had 11 million Instagram users. Ukrainians under the age of 30 used Instagram more than Facebook. According to the Internet Association of Ukraine 3.8 million people used the network in 2017, in 2018 this had been 7.3 million people. According to Alexa Internet ranking, in 2013 VK was the most visited website in Ukraine. According to the company, in January 2012 VK had more than 20 million registered users from Ukraine; as of February 2013, VK's mean daily audience in Ukraine grew to 9.35 million, which amounted to 20.2% of th

Martin Luserke

Martin Luserke was a progressive pedagogue, a bard and theatre maker. He was one of the leading figures of German progressive education and a precursor of outdoor education; as his distinguished achievement counts the integration of community theatre into school and youth work. It was integrated in German Youth Movement, he was one of three sons of the construction expert Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Luserke and his wife Amalie Elisabeth Luserke, née Lindhorst. She originated from Westphalia, whereas the Luserke family originated from Silesia. Both were Pietists. From his father's side the men had been carpenters for generations, his father worked his way up from a builder to a construction supervisor and became an architect who worked as an examination administrator at public works service of Berlin. During his childhood Martin Luserke got the chance to become acquainted with the port of Hamburg, the river Elbe and the German coast along the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Via sailboat and steamboat he got to know the East Frisian island Spiekeroog and Heligoland in the German Bight.

According to his mother's memoirs he early felt attracted to the Sea. His parents refused to let him go to the Sea. Starting at the age of ten he read works by Friedrich Schiller, at the age of thirteen those written by William Shakespeare, Goethe und Ibsen, all comprehensively and passionately, he had his first contact with a stage at Schauspielhaus Berlin where he watched the drama William Tell by Schiller. The play fell short of his high expectations; this experience might have been an influence on his own conceptions of theatre works. In the age of fifteen he broke with his family; the catalyst was a moment. In 1908 he married Annemarie Gerwien, he met her through his work for Freie Schulgemeinde Wickersdorf. She was the daughter of Prussian Oberstleutnant Paul Vincent Gerwien; the couple got four children, one girl and three boys: Ursula, Klaus and Dieter. Between 1938 and 1968 Auguste Schwarting became Luserke's housekeeper, he became a pupil of the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine in Berlin. When he was fifteen his parents sent him to Herrnhuter Lehrerseminar in Niesky, Lusatia, to become a teacher.

Between 1900 and 1904 he worked as an elementary teacher at Pädagogium Niesky. There he got estranged from Pietism, he studied Mathematics and Philosophy at Friedrich Schiller University Jena. In 1905 he made a field excursion to Brittany, where he hiked for several months through the remains of Celtic culture of Stone Age. Via the lecture of a bard on the island of Molène he got inspired to use oral and written tradition like myths and legends for his own work, he travelled to Italy and Egypt. He got influenced by his academic teachers, the Nobel Prize winner Rudolf Christoph Eucken, Ernst Haeckel, Wilhelm Rein and by Hermann Lietz. Luserke's ideas about an idealized lifelike education to develop an attitude can be traced back to them. Disappointed from academic teaching programme and classical pedagogy he dropped out of university in 1906. In 1931 Luserke completed a mate's certificate in East Frisia. At Easter 1906 he joined Hermann Lietz and started to work as a teacher at Deutsches Landerziehungsheim in Haubinda, Thuringia.

Three years before there had been a controversy about the admittance of Jewish pupils. According to Walter Benjamin only Luserke and Gustav Wyneken formed an opposition against the daily military drill at this school, its resulting conflict with the administration ended with a secession of both teachers. Together with so-called pedagogic rebels like Gustav Wyneken, Paul Geheeb and August Halm in autumn 1906 Luserke founded the Freie Schulgemeinde Wickersdorf near Saalfeld in Thuringian Forest. Whereas Wyneken is described more as a theoretician the practitioner Luserke is considered to be the one who added substantial stimulus, his conception of a didactics which offered immediate hands-on-experience influenced several other pedagogues like Hans Alfken. In Wickersdorf Luserke worked with Peter Suhrkamp and Bernhard Uffrecht. Right from the school's foundation he started to perform community theatre, his stage work was based on William Shakespeare. His first play Blut und Liebe, performed in many schools until today, is a Grotesque based on Hamlet.

Between 1910 and 1914 and again between 1922 and 1925 he served as the school's principal. From 1914 to 1918 he served as a soldier in World War I. In 1917 he got wounded in France and became a POW, his head injury marked him for life. Influenced by German Revolution of 1918–19 he was one of the authors of a book series by Marxist Karl Korsch. In his book Luserke opted for a socialist ethics of work. In school pedagogical conflicts with Gustav Wyneken were persistent. Wyneken was part of several paedophile scandals and got sentenced; some other teachers were paedophiles. Luserke, Rudolf Aeschlimann and Dr. Paul Reiner first formed a so-called triumvirate in opposition to Wyneken and his followers, it resulted not only in a polarization but in a development of factions which divided teachers and pupils. Luserke decided to found a new school "at the borde