click links in text for more info

Atari 7800

The Atari 7800 ProSystem, or the Atari 7800, is a home video game console released by the Atari Corporation in 1986. It is fully backward-compatible with the Atari 2600, the first console to have backward compatibility without the use of additional modules, it was considered affordable at a price of US$140. The 7800 has improved graphics hardware over the 2600, but uses the same audio chip, it shipped with a different model of joystick from the 2600-standard CX40. The 1986 launch is sometimes referred to as a "re-release" or "relaunch" because the Atari 7800 had been announced on May 21, 1984, to replace Atari Inc.'s Atari 5200, but a general release was shelved due to the sale of the company. Atari had been facing pressure from Coleco and its ColecoVision console, which supported graphics that more mirrored arcade games of the time than either the Atari 2600 or 5200; the Atari 5200 was criticized for not being able to play 2600 games without an adapter. The Atari 7800 ProSystem was the first console from Atari, Inc. designed by an outside company, General Computer Corporation.

It was designed in 1983-1984 with an intended mass market rollout in June of 1984, but was canceled shortly thereafter due to the sale of the company to Tramel Technology Ltd on July 2, 1984. The project was called the Atari 3600. With a background in creating arcade games such as Food Fight, GCC designed the new system with a graphics architecture similar to arcade machines of the time. Powering the system is a customized 6502 processor, the Atari SALLY, running at 1.79 MHz. By some measures the 7800 is more powerful, by others less, than Nintendo's 1983 Famicom, it uses the 2600's Television Interface Adaptor chip, with the same restrictions, for generating two-channels of audio. The 7800 was released in southern California in June 1984, following an announcement on May 21, 1984, at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show. Thirteen games were announced for the system's launch: Ms. Pac-Man, Pole Position II, Joust, Dig Dug, Desert Falcon, Robotron: 2084, Food Fight, Rescue on Fractalus!, Track & Field, Xevious.

On July 2, 1984, Warner Communications sold Atari's Consumer Division to Jack Tramiel. All projects were halted during an initial evaluation period. Modern publications have incorrectly asserted that Jack Tramiel mothballed the Atari 7800, feeling that video games were a past fad, subsequently asserted that he dusted off the Atari 7800 once the Nintendo Entertainment System became successful; the reality was that a contractual issue arose in that GCC had not been paid for their development of the 7800. Warner and Tramiel battled back and forth over, accountable, with Tramiel believing that the 7800 should have been covered as part of his acquisition deal. In May 1985, Jack paid GCC the overdue payment; this led to additional negotiations regarding the initial launch titles that GCC had developed and an effort to find someone to lead their new video game division, completed in November 1985. The original production run of the Atari 7800 languished on warehouse shelves until it was re-introduced in January 1986, after strong 2600 sales the previous Christmas.

The console was released nationwide in May 1986 for $79.95. The console's launch under Tramiel was more subdued than Warner had planned for the system in 1984 with a marketing budget of just $300,000; the keyboard and high score cartridge were canceled, the expansion port was removed from production runs of the system and, in lieu of new titles, the system was launched with titles intended for the 7800's debut in 1984. By the end of 1986, Computer Entertainer claimed the Atari 7800 had sold 100,000 consoles in the United States, less than the Master System's 125,000 and the NES's 1.1 million. According to Atari, due to manufacturing problems, it only managed to produce and sell 100,000 units by 1986, including units, in a warehouse since 1984. A common complaint in 1986 was a lack of games, including a gap of months between new releases. By the end of 1986, the 7800 had 10 games, compared to Sega's 20 and Nintendo's 36. Nine of the NES games were third-party, whereas the Master System had no third-party games.

Atari's lineup for the 7800 emphasized high-quality versions of popular arcade games like Joust and Asteroids, which at the time of the 1986 launch were four and seven years old, respectively. Eleven titles were developed and sold by three third-party companies under their own labels for the 7800 with the rest published by Atari themselves. However, most Atari development was contracted out; some NES titles were developed by companies who had licensed their title from a different arcade manufacturer. While the creator of the NES version would be restricted from making a competitive version of an NES game, the original arcade copyright holder was not precluded from licensing out rights for a home version of an arcade game to multiple systems. Through this loophole, Atari 7800 conversions of Mario Bros. Double Dragon, Rampage, Ikari Warriors, Kung-Fu Master were licensed and developed; the Atari 7800 remained active in the United States between 1986 and 1991 and in Europe between 1989 and 1991.

On January 1, 1992, Atari Corp. formally announced that production of the Atari 7800, the Atari 2600, the Atari 8-bit computer line, the Atari XE Game System would cease. (It has since been discovered that Atari Corp. continued to develop games such as Toki for the Ata

Yot Verk Matur

Yot Verk Matur is a small monument erected around the late 14th-century in remembrance of seven lords of seven villages. Local folklore tells that when the Turko-Mongol conqueror Timur Lenk came into Armenia, he made war against the seven lords; as a result of the battles, the lords were killed and their villages were destroyed by Timur. Seven khachkars were placed in a row upon a low-rock wall enclosure as a memorial to the lords; the center khachkar dominates the others. The memorial is located in the mountains 8 kilometres south-east of the ruins of the fortified Urartian settlement of Teyseba known as Odzaberd and in close proximity to the modern-day village of Tsovinar. Geographically it is located at the south-east corner of Lake Sevan, which can be seen in the distance at a highpoint amongst the ruins of Khrber where the memorial lies within. There are a number of medieval khachkars and tombs in Khrber; the oldest graves are located at the base of a hill just south of the ruins

Am Abend aber desselbigen Sabbats, BWV 42

Am Abend aber desselbigen Sabbats, BWV 42, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Leipzig for the first Sunday after Easter and first performed it on April 8, 1725. Bach composed the cantata in Leipzig for the First Sunday after Easter, called Quasimodogeniti, he composed it in his second annual cycle, which consisted of chorale cantatas since the first Sunday after Trinity of 1724. Bach ended the sequence on Palm Sunday of 1725, this cantata is not a chorale cantata and the only cantata in the second cycle to begin with an extended sinfonia; the prescribed readings for the Sunday were from the First Epistle of John, "our faith is the victory", from the Gospel of John, the appearance of Jesus to the Disciples, first without with Thomas, in Jerusalem. The unknown poet included verse 19 from the Gospel to begin the cantata as movement 4 the first stanza of the chorale "Verzage nicht, o Häuflein klein" by Jakob Fabricius, attributed to Johann Michael Altenburg, as the closing chorale two stanzas which had appeared added to Martin Luther's "Erhalt uns, bei deinem Wort": "Verleih uns Frieden gnädiglich", Luther's German version of Da pacem Domine, "Gib unsern Fürsten und all'r Obrigkeit", a stanza by Johann Walter paraphrasing 1 Timothy 2:2, concluded with a final amen.

Werner Neumann suggested that Bach himself may have been the anonymous poet, while Charles Sanford Terry proposed Christian Weiss. Bach scholar Alfred Dürr supposed that it is the same author who wrote Bleib bei uns, denn es will Abend werden, BWV 6, first performed six days earlier on Easter Monday of 1725. After the quote from the Gospel of John, the poet paraphrases, in movement 3, words of Jesus from the Gospel of Matthew, Matthew 18:20, "Wo zwei oder drei versammelt sind in meinem Namen, da bin ich mitten unter ihnen". Bach first performed the cantata on 8 April 1725, again in Leipzig at least twice, on 1 April 1731 and either on 1 April 1742 or on 7 April 1743; the cantata in seven movements is scored for soprano, alto and bass soloists, a four-part choir only in the closing chorale, two oboes, two violins and basso continuo. The reason for the choir appearing only in the closing chorale may have been that the Thomanerchor had been in high demand during the Holy Week and Easter, performing Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern, BWV 1, the St John Passion and Christ lag in Todes Banden, BWV 4, among others.

Sinfonia Recitative: Am Abend aber desselbigen Sabbats Aria: Wo zwei und drei versammlet sind Aria: Verzage nicht, o Häuflein klein Recitative: Man kann hiervon ein schön Exempel sehen Aria: Jesus ist ein Schild der Seinen Chorale: Verleih uns Frieden gnädiglich Possibly Bach took the opening sinfonia from earlier music. According to John Eliot Gardiner, this movement and the first aria are both taken from Bach's lost congratulatory cantata Der Himmel dacht auf Anhalts Ruhm und Glück, BWV 66a, celebrating the 24th birthday of Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen on 10 December 1718. Alfred Dürr believed, it does not highlight a particular solo instrument. Rather it is a type of concerto grosso, the strings interacting with a concertino of the woodwinds and bassoon; the two groups first introduce their own lively themes, which are distinct but related to each other. They exchange their themes and play together; the middle section begins with a surprising new motif for oboe and bassoon, which Bach himself marked "cantabile".

The Bible quote is sung in recitative by the tenor as the Evangelist, accompanied by the continuo in repeated fast notes illustrating the anxious heart beat of the disciples, when Jesus appears, "On the evening, however, of the same Sabbath, when the disciples had gathered and the door was locked out of fear of the Jews, Jesus came and walked among them". In movement 3, an aria marked adagio, the repetition is kept in the bassoon, but the strings hold long chords and the oboes play extended melodic lines. According to Dürr, it may have been another movement from the same concerto that movement 1 relies on. Bach composed the chorale text of movement 4, "Do not despair, o little flock", as a duet, accompanied only by the continuo including bassoon. Fragments of the usual chorale theme, "Kommt her zu mir, spricht Gottes Sohn", can be detected occasionally. Terry interprets that the bassoon obbligato was intended to accompany a chorale melody which "never sounded", conveying the "hiddenness" of the church in the world.

The bass prepares in a recitative, ending as an arioso, the last aria, accompanied by the divided violins and the continuo. The theme is again a contrast between the "Unruhe der Welt" and "Friede bei Jesus". While the instruments play in wild motion, the bass sings a calm expressive melody, only accenting the word "Verfolgung" by faster motion in long melismas. According to Mincham, this aria might go back to a different movement from the same concerto as the sinfonia; the chorale theme of Luther's chorale was published by Martin Luther in the Kirchē gesenge, mit vil schönen Psalmen unnd Melodey, published in Nürnberg in 1531), in the Geistliche Lieder by Joseph Klug. The mel

Professional audio

Professional audio, abbreviated as pro audio, refers to both an activity and a category of high quality, studio-grade audio equipment. It encompasses sound recording, sound reinforcement system setup and audio mixing, studio music production by trained sound engineers, audio engineers, record producers, audio technicians who work in live event support and recording using mixing consoles, recording equipment and sound reinforcement systems. Professional audio is differentiated from consumer- or home-oriented audio, which are geared toward listening in a non-commercial environment. Professional audio can include, but is not limited to broadcast radio, audio mastering in a recording studio, television studio, sound reinforcement such as a live concert, DJ performances, audio sampling, public address system set up, sound reinforcement in movie theatres, design and setup of piped music in hotels and restaurants. Professional audio equipment is sold at music stores; the term professional audio has no precise definition, but it includes: Operations carried out by trained audio engineers The capturing of sound with one or more microphones Balancing and adjusting sound signals from multitrack recording devices using a mixing console The control of audio levels using standardised types of metering Sound signals passing through lengthy signal chains involving processes at different times and places, involving a variety of skills Compliance with organisational and international practices and standards established by such bodies as the International Telecommunication Union, Audio Engineering Society and European Broadcasting Union Setting up or designing sound reinforcement systems or recording studios A professional audio store is a retail establishment that sells, in many cases rents, high-end sound recording equipment and sound reinforcement system gear and accessories used in both settings, such as microphone stands.

Some pro audio stores sell video equipment, such as video projectors, as this equipment is used in live audio settings. Some pro audio stores sell and/or rent DJ gear and the stage lighting equipment used in rock concerts, dance clubs and theater/musical theater shows. Institute of Professional Sound Sound design

Ion Lapedatu

Ion Lapedatu was finance minister of Romania, Governor of the National Bank of Romania, honorary member of the Romanian Academy. Ion Lapedatu was the son of Ioan Alexandru Lapedatu, Ph. D. of the University of Brussels, Professor for classical languages at the Higher Greek-Orthodox Romanian College in Brassó, Romanian poet and journalist. He had a twin brother, Alexandru Lapedatu, historian and President of the Romanian Academy; the twins became orphans when they were one and a half years old. Lapedatu married Veturia Papp in March 1907, they had a son and a daughter. Ion Lapedatu started primary school in 1883 in his hometown, he continued his primary studies in Brassó finished it in the year 1888 in Iași, where his mother remarried after the death of his father. He returned to Brassó, where he was admitted in the Higher Greek-Orthodox Romanian College continues his studies in Higher Commercial School in Brassó, obtaining his bachelor's degree "with distinction" in June 1898. In the same year, he received scholarships from the "Gojdu Foundation" and from the Society "Transilvania" and was admitted to the Oriental Commercial Academy and the Law and Political Sciences School of the Budapest University and attended for the Seminar of higher commercial school professors.

In 1900 -- 1901 he had to interrupt his studies. After his military service, he returned to Budapest, where he passed the fundamental examination in 1902. At the end of his studies at the Budapest University, Ion Lapedatu turned down a professor position in Buda preferring to return to Transylvania, where he accepted the position of second secretary at the "Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and the Culture of the Romanian People" in Sibiu, 1906 he joined the "Ardeleana" bank in Szászváros as secretary and after going through successive internships at banks in Nagyszeben, Kolozsvár, Budapest and Vienna, as director. In 1911 Ion Lapedatu became director of the newly established "General Assurance Bank" in Sibiu. On 1 January 1922 he was appointed Professor at the Chair for Public and Private Finances of the Academy for High Commercial Studies and Industry in Cluj, a position he held until 1938, he had numerous appointments to various administrative councils, among which at the "Albina" bank in Sibiu, at the "Gojdu Foundation", since 1925 at SONAMETAN, the national corporation established to exploit the methane gas deposits discovered in Transylvania, where he became Chairman.

From 1928 to 1944 he was director Vice-Governor and Governor of the National Bank of Romania. Ion Lapedatu showed his political talent as a student. In 1902, he was elected President of the Academic Society of Petru Maior, the society of the Romanian students in Budapest sustaining the Romanian language and culture through conferences, debates, evocations of personalities, it entertained a choir and a library and issued publications like the review "The Rose with Turns" and the "Society Almanac". Ion Lapedatu participated as representative of the Nocrich circumscription in the National Assembly of Romanians of Transylvania and Hungary in Alba Iulia that decided on 1 December 1918 the Union of Transylvania with Romania and was subsequently elected in the "Great National Council of Transylvania", he received his first political appointment as general secretary of the finance department in the "Directory Council of Transylvania and the Romanian Counties in Hungary". Among other contributions, he made the proposal to establish the "Agricultural Bank", adopted by the Decree-Law No. 4167 of 12 September 1919.

Ion Lapedatu was elected in the Arch-diocesan Synod in Sibiu, in the National Church Council, was a Council in the Senate of the arch-diocese and since 1921 in the Metropolitan Council of Transylvania. Between 1919 and 1931 he was elected in the circumscriptions Nocrich and Crasna in the Romanian Parliament: four times as a member of the Chamber of Deputies, twice as a member of the Senate. Ion Lapedatu joined early the Romanian National Party in Banat, he left it in 1926 together with Vasile Goldiș and Ioan Lupaș before its merger with the Peasants' Party when he became Finance Minister in the Government of Alexandru Averescu. "The Goldiș group" tried to launch the National Party of Transylvania. After 1927, he did not participate in any other political party. Ion Lapedatu played the central role in the institutionalization of the "Conference of the Directors of the Romanian Loan Institutions" initiated by Dr. Cornel Diaconovici in 1898, a model adopted by the Hungarian and Saxon institutions in 1903 and by the Austrian and Czech ones in 1905.

He was elected in 1906 secretary of the "Romanian Banks Delegation" acting in between conferences. He elaborated the statutes of the future "Solidaritatea" Associati

Ajo, Arizona

Ajo is a census-designated place in Pima County, United States. The population was 3,304 at the 2010 census. Ajo is located on State Route 85 just 43 miles from the Mexican border, it is the closest community to Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. Ajo is the Spanish word for garlic; the Spanish may have named the place using the familiar word in place of the similar-sounding O'odham word for paint. The Tohono O'odham people obtained red paint pigments from the area. Native Americans and Americans have all extracted mineral wealth from Ajo's abundant ore deposits. In the early nineteenth century, there was a Spanish mine nicknamed "Old Bat Hole", abandoned due to Indian raids. Tom Childs, Sr. found the deserted mine complete with a 60-foot shaft, mesquite ladders, rawhide buckets in 1847. He did not stay long at that time, because he was on his way to the silver mines near Magdalena de Kino, Sonora. Thirty-five years Childs and his son returned with a friend and started developing the abandoned mine.

In the year 1884, the camp at Ajo was abandoned. Not a soul was in camp when his son arrived. With them was Washington Michael Jacobs of Tucson, Arizona... Childs and Jacobs located the mining claim, they worked the mines. High-grade native copper made Ajo the first copper mine in Arizona. Soon the Arizona Mining & Trading company, formed by Peter R. Brady, a friend of Childs, worked the rich surface ores, shipping loads around Cape Horn for smelting in Swansea, Wales, in the mid-1880s; the mine closed. Long supply lines and the lack of water discouraged large mining companies With the advent of new recovery methods for low-grade ore, Ajo boomed. In 1911, Col. John Campbell Greenway, a Rough Rider and star Yale athlete, bought the New Cornelia mine from John Boddie, he became general manager of the Calumet and the Arizona mining company and expanded it on a grand scale. The Tucson and Gila Bend Railroad was built from Gila Bend to serve the mining industry and was in service from 1916 to 1985. In 1921, Phelps Dodge, the nation's largest copper company, bought New Cornelia and the mine became the New Cornelia Branch of Phelps Dodge, managed by Michael Curley.

For several decades more than 1,000 employees worked for Phelps Dodge in the open pit mine. In 1983 union-affiliated mine employees went on strike; the mine continued with non-union labor for a short while before stopping production in 1985. The town was segregated, with neighborhoods called Indian Village and Mexican Town for the non-white residents. Ajo is now home to many retired people, Border Patrol agents, young families. Ajo is located at 32°22′53″N 112°52′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 28.1 square miles, all of it land. Plants of the Sonoran Desert thrive including saguaros and ocotillos; the Ajo lily or desert lily, an onion-like plant grows in the area. The mineral ajoite was first found at Ajo; the rare mineral papagoite was first described in the New Cornelia mine. This area has a large amount of sunshine year round due to its stable descending air and high pressure. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Ajo has a hot desert climate, abbreviated BWh on climate maps.

Rainfall is low except during occasional monsoonal or frontal incursions, is minimal between April and June. Since 1914 the wettest calendar year has been 1946 with 15.33 inches – including a record daily fall of 4.15 inches on 18 September – and the driest 1928 with 3.33 inches. Temperatures are hot from April to October and mild to warm from November to March, with extremes ranging from 17 °F on 22 January 1937 during that month's record Western cold wave, to 117 °F on 31 July 1995. Ajo first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as Ajo Precincts Number 1 and 2. In 1930, it appeared as the Ajo Precinct, it featured a White racial plurality in the latter census. With the combination of all county precincts into 3 districts in 1940, it did not formally appear again until 1950, when it reported as an unincorporated village. In 1980, it was made a census-designated place. At its peak population in 1960, it was the second-largest community in Pima County behind Tucson. In both 1950 and 1960, it was the 16th largest community in Arizona.

As of the census of 2000, there were 3,705 people, 1,659 households, 1,088 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 132.0 people per square mile. There were 2,485 housing units at an average density of 88.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 78.70% White, 0.24% Black or African American, 6.88% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 9.15% from other races, 4.64% from two or more races. 37.57 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 1,659 households out of which 19.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.74. In the CDP the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 17.2% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 32.1% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 52 y