Winston Churchill Range
The Winston Churchill Range is a mountain range in the Park Ranges of the Canadian Rockies located in Jasper National Park. The range was named after former British prime minister; the eastern boundary of the range begins on the western side of Sunwapta River from the Jasper and Banff boundary and extends north to Sunwapta Falls. The western boundary of the range is defined by the Athabasca River valley to the east of Warwick Mountain; the valley narrows as it approaches the Continental Divide, separates Mt. Columbia from Mt. King Edward, the latter of, not part of the range; this range includes the following mountains and peaks
Lake Athabasca is located in the northwest corner of Saskatchewan and the northeast corner of Alberta between 58° and 60° N. The lake is 74 % in Saskatchewan; the name in the Dene language referred only to the large delta formed by the confluence of the Athabasca River at the southwest corner of the lake. Prior to 1789, Sir Alexander Mackenzie explored the lake. In 1791, Philip Turnor, cartographer for the Hudson’s Bay Company, wrote in his journal, "low swampy ground on the South side with a few willows growing upon it, from which the Lake in general takes its name Athapison in the Southern Cree tongue which signifies open country such as lakes with willows and grass growing about them". Peter Fidler recorded the name for the river in 1790 as the Great Arabuska. By 1801, the name had gained a closer spelling to the current name—Athapaskow Lake. By 1820, George Simpson referred to both the lake and the river as "Athabasca"; the lake covers 7,850 km2, is 283 km long, has a maximum width of 50 km, a maximum depth of 124 m, holds 204 km3 of water, making it the largest and deepest lake in both Alberta and Saskatchewan, the eighth largest in Canada.
Water flows northward from the lake via the Slave River and Mackenzie River systems reaching the Arctic Ocean. Fort Chipewyan, one of the oldest European settlements in Alberta, is located on the western shore of the lake, where the Rivière des Rochers drains the lake and flows toward Slave River, beginning its northward journey along the eastern boundary of Wood Buffalo National Park; the eastern section of the lake narrows to a width of about 1 km near the community of Fond du Lac located on the northern shore continues to its most easterly point at the mouth of the Fond du Lac River. Fidler Point on the north shore of Lake Athabasca is named for Peter Fidler, a surveyor and map maker for the Hudson's Bay Company. Along with other lakes such as the Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca is a remnant of the vast Glacial Lake McConnell. Tributaries of Lake Athabasca include. Uranium and gold mining along the northern shore resulted in the birth of Uranium City, home to the mine workers and their families.
While the last mine closed in the 1980s, the effects of mining operations have contaminated the northern shores. The large oil sands mining nearby is suspected to have added to the current pollution levels in the lake. On October 31, 2013, one of Obed Mountain coal mine's pits failed, from between 600 million to a billion liters of slurry poured into the Plante and Apetowun Creeks; the plume of waste products joined the Athabasca River, travelling downstream for a month before settling in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan, over 500 km away. The Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, are adjacent to the southern shore; the dunes were designated a "Provincial Wilderness Park" in 1992. Lake Athabasca contains 23 species of fish, with a world record lake trout of 46.3 kg having been caught from its depths in 1961 by means of a gillnet. Other fish species include walleye, yellow perch, northern pike, lake whitefish, Arctic grayling, white sucker and longnose sucker.
Peace–Athabasca Delta Lake Athabasca and associated Sand Dunes International Lake Environment Committee, June 21, 2001 Fish Species of Saskatchewan Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan Athabasca Sand Dunes Provincial Park
The Cree are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America. In Canada, over 350,000 people are Cree or have Cree ancestry.. The major proportion of Cree in Canada live north and west of Lake Superior, in Ontario, Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories. About 27,000 live in Quebec. In the United States, Cree people lived from Lake Superior westward. Today, they live in Montana, where they share the Rocky Boy Indian Reservation with Ojibwe people; the documented westward migration over time has been associated with their roles as traders and hunters in the North American fur trade. The Cree were first contacted by Europeans in 1682, at the mouth of the Nelson and Hayes rivers in what is now northern Manitoba, by a Hudson's Bay Company party traveling about 100 miles inland. In the south, contact was later. In 1732 in what is now northwestern Ontario, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, met with an assembled group of 200 Cree warriors near present-day Fort Frances, as well as with the Monsoni.
Both groups had donned war paint in preparation to an attack on the Dakota and another group of Ojibwe. After acquiring firearms from the HBC, the Cree moved as traders into the plains, acting as middlemen with the HBC; the Cree are divided into eight groups based on dialect and region. These divisions do not represent ethnic sub-divisions within the larger ethnic group: Naskapi and Montagnais are inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, their territories comprise most of the present-day political jurisdictions of eastern Quebec and Labrador. Their cultures are differentiated, as some of the Naskapi are still caribou hunters and more nomadic than many of the Montagnais; the Montagnais have more settlements. The total population of the two groups in 2003 was about 18,000 people, of which 15,000 lived in Quebec, their dialects and languages are the most distinct from the Cree spoken by the groups west of Lake Superior. Atikamekw are inhabitants of the area they refer to as Nitaskinan, in the upper St. Maurice River valley of Quebec.
Their population is around 4,500. East Cree – Grand Council of the Crees. Moose Cree – Moose Factory in the Cochrane District, Ontario. Swampy Cree – this group lives in northern Manitoba along the Hudson Bay coast and adjacent inland areas to the south and west, in Ontario along the coast of Hudson Bay and James Bay; some live in eastern Saskatchewan around Cumberland House. It has 4,500 speakers. Woods Cree – a group in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Plains Cree – a total of 34,000 people in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Montana. Due to the many dialects of the Cree language, the people have no modern collective autonym; the Plains Cree and Attikamekw refer to themselves using modern forms of the historical nêhiraw, namely nêhiyaw and nêhirawisiw, respectively. Moose Cree, East Cree and Montagnais all refer to themselves using modern dialectal forms of the historical iriniw, meaning'man.' Moose Cree use the form ililiw, coastal East Cree and Naskapi use iyiyiw, inland East Cree use iyiniw, Montagnais use ilnu and innu, depending on dialect.
The Cree use "Cree," "cri," "Naskapi, or "montagnais" to refer to their people only when speaking French or English. As hunter-gatherers, the basic unit of organization for Cree peoples was the lodge, a group of eight or a dozen people the families of two separate but related married couples, who lived together in the same wigwam or tipi, the band, a group of lodges who moved and hunted together. In the case of disagreement lodges could leave bands, bands could be formed and dissolved with relative ease, but as there is safety in numbers, all families would want to be part of some band, banishment was considered a serious punishment. Bands would have strong ties to their neighbours through intermarriage and would assemble together at different parts of the year to hunt and socialize together. Besides these regional gatherings, there was no higher-level formal structure, decisions of war and peace were made by consensus with allied bands meeting together in council. People could be identified by their clan, a group of people claiming descent from the same common ancestor.
Each band remained independent of each other. However, Cree-speaking bands tended to work together and with their neighbours against outside enemies; those Cree who moved onto the Great Plains and adopted bison hunting, called the Plains Cree, were allied with the Assiniboine and the Saulteaux in what was known as the "Iron Confederacy", a major force in the North American fur trade from the 1730s to the 1870s. The Cree and the Assiniboine were important intermediaries in the Indian trading networks on the northern plains; when a band went to war, they would nominate a temporary military commander, called a okimahkan. Loosely translated as "war chief"; this office was different from that of the "peace chief", a leader who had a role more like that of diplomat. In the run-up to the 1885 North-West Rebellion, Big Bear was the leader of his band, but once the fighting start
Jasper is a specialized municipality in western Alberta, Canada. It is the commercial centre of Jasper National Park, located in the Canadian Rockies within the Athabasca River valley. Jasper is 362 kilometres west of Edmonton and 290 kilometres north of Banff, Alberta, at the intersection of Highway 16 and Highway 93; the Municipality of Jasper, comprising the Jasper townsite known as the Town of Jasper and a surrounding rural service area, was established as a specialized municipality on July 20, 2001. Governance is shared between the federal Parks Canada agency. Established in 1813, Jasper House was first a North West Company, Hudson's Bay Company, fur trade outpost on the York Factory Express trade route to what was called "New Caledonia", Fort Vancouver on the lower Columbia River. Jasper National Park was established in 1907; the railway siding at the location of the future townsite was established by Grand Trunk Pacific Railway in 1911 and named Fitzhugh after a Grand Trunk vice president.
The Canadian Northern Railway began service to Fitzhugh in 1912. The townsite was surveyed in 1913 by H. Matheson, it was renamed Jasper after the former fur trade post. An internment camp was set up at Dominion Park in Jasper from February 1916 to August 1916. By 1931, Jasper was accessible by road from Edmonton, in 1940 the scenic Icefields Parkway opened, connecting Lake Louise and Jasper. Jasper is located at the confluence with Miette River, it lies between Pyramid Mountain, Maligne Range and Indian Ridge. Jasper is connected to the west via the Yellowhead Highway and the Yellowhead Pass to Prince George and to the east to Edmonton. Toward the south, the Icefields Parkway leads to Banff National Park. Located near Jasper are Pyramid Lake and Patricia Lake, as well as Lake Annette, Lake Edith, Lac Beauvert, Maligne Lake, Medicine Lake and other smaller lakes; the Jasper Skytram, which takes visitors to The Whistlers' summit, the Marmot Basin ski resort are located near the town, as is the Fairmont Jasper Park Lodge.
The Jasper-Yellowhead Museum and Archives is located in the Jasper town site, as is the Jasper Visitor Centre. Jasper experiences a borderline Humid Continental/Subarctic climate; the highest temperature recorded in Jasper was 36.7 °C on 16 July 1941. The coldest temperature recorded was −47.2 °C on 24 January 1916. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Municipality of Jasper recorded a population of 4,590 living in 1,576 of its 1,702 total private dwellings, a change of 3.6% from its 2011 population of 4,432. With a land area of 924.06 km2, it had a population density of 5.0/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Municipality of Jasper had a population of 4,051 living in 1,399 of its 1,615 total dwellings, a change of -5% from its 2006 population of 4,265. Statistics Canada subsequently amended the 2011 census results to record a population of 4,432 living in 1,606 of its 1,819 total dwellings, a change of 3.9% from 2006. With a land area of 925.52 km2, its population density was 4.8/km2 in 2011.
The population of the Municipality of Jasper according to its 2011 municipal census is 5,236, a change of 10.3% over its 2008 municipal census population of 4,745. Jasper's 2011 population of 5,236 comprises 4,584 permanent and 652 non-permanent residents, while its 2007 census counted 4,235 permanent and 510 non-permanent residents. Jasper railway station is served by Via Rail with two passenger services; the Canadian and the Jasper – Prince Rupert train both operate three times per week. Jasper Airport is located 7.2 nautical miles north of Jasper. Jasper's educational services are provided by: Grande Yellowhead Public School Division No. 77 Jasper Elementary School Jasper Junior Senior High School Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2 École Desrochers Newspapers Jasper Fitzhugh The Local Radio Television Ian Herbers, NHL hockey player John Hilworth, NHL hockey player Erin Karpluk, actress Wyatt Tremblay, editorial cartoonist Brian Young, NHL hockey player - Hakone, since July 4, 1972 Jasper to Banff Relay List of communities in Alberta List of historic places in Alberta's Rockies Specialized municipalities of Alberta Official website
Fort Chipewyan referred to as Fort Chip, is a hamlet in northern Alberta, within the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. It is located on the western tip of Lake Athabasca, adjacent to Wood Buffalo National Park 223 kilometres north of Fort McMurray. Fort Chipewyan is one of the oldest European settlements in the Province of Alberta, it was established as a trading post by Peter Pond of the North West Company in 1788. The fort was named after the Chipewyan people living in the area. One of the establishers of the fort, Roderick Mackenzie of Terrebonne, always had a taste for literature, as was seen years when he opened correspondence with traders all over the north and west, asking for descriptions of scenery, adventure and history, he had in view the founding of a library at the fort, which would not be only for the immediate residents of Fort Chipewyan, but for traders and clerks of the whole region tributary to Lake Athabasca, so that it would be what he called, in an imaginative and somewhat jocular vein, "the little Athens of the Arctic regions."
This library, built in 1790, held over 2000 books, became one of the most famous in the whole extent of Rupert's Land. From about 1815 to 1821 the Hudson's Bay Company maintained a competing Fort Wedderburn on Coal Island a mile and a half from the North West Company's fort; this fort was established by John Clarke, Sir George Simpson arrived here in 1820-1821, where he began to reorganize the fur trade. Sir John Franklin set out from Fort Chipewyan on his overland Arctic journey on 1820. In 1887 - 1888 there was a great famine. Electric lights did not arrive in Fort Chipewyan until 1959. Old Fort Point, the site of the first Fort Chipewyan established in 1788 by Roderick Mackenzie, southeast of Fort Chipewyan was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1930. Historic places in the community include the site of the third Fort Chipewyan established in 1803, the Anglican Church built in 1880 and Day School built in 1874, the Roman Catholic Mission Church built in 1909; as a designated place in the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Fort Chipewyan recorded a population of 852 living in 295 of its 372 total private dwellings, a change of 0.6% from its 2011 population of 847.
With a land area of 10.7 km2, it had a population density of 79.6/km2 in 2016. The population of Fort Chipewyan in 2012 was 1,008 according to a municipal census conducted by the R. M of Wood Buffalo; as a designated place in the 2011 Census, Fort Chipewyan had a population of 847 living in 302 of its 358 total dwellings, a 12% change from its 2006 population of 756. With a land area of 10.23 km2, it had a population density of 82.80/km2 in 2011. The hamlet's population is predominantly made up of Cree First Nations, Chipewyan First Nations, Metis people; the hamlet is served by the Fort Chipewyan Airport, opened on June 18, 1966. Air is one of two methods of access to Fort Chipewyan in the summer. In the summer, the hamlet can be accessed by boat from Fort McMurray via the Athabasca River. There are no all-weather roads to Fort Chipewyan, but it can be reached via winter roads in the winter; these include roads from Fort Smith from Fort McMurray to the south. In June 1998, as part of the Northwestern Canadian Integrated Road Network Plan, the Alberta government conducted studies on all-weather road access by extending the existing Highway 63 from Fort McMurray.
As of 2008 Highway 63 has been extended from Fort McMurray to Syncrude. In December 2005, one-third of Fort Chipewyan's residents signed a petition to request the government to build a 50 km all-weather road to connect with existing roads to the northwest that provide access to Fort Smith, Northwest Territories; the major expenditure would be a bridge over the Slave River. Fort Chipewyan has a subarctic climate with long cold, dry winters and short, wetter summers; the highest temperature recorded in Fort Chipewyan was 34.7 °C on 27 June 2002. The coldest temperature recorded was −51.1 °C on 1 February 1917. In September 2014, the community of Fort Chipewyan in collaboration with Keepers of the Athabasca installed a 1.8 kW solar array on the roof of the Elder Lodge to be used for emergency backup power. An energy baseline study was completed for Fort Chipewyan by the Pembina Institute in 2012; the table below shows the mean daily global insolation in Fort Chipewyan for each month of the year using five different fixed solar array orientations and one which tracks the sun.
The data was provided by Natural Resources Canada's Municipality database of photovoltaic potential and insolation which used data collected over 50 years from 144 locations compiled from Environment Canada's CERES CD. List of communities in Alberta List of designated places in Alberta List of hamlets in Alberta
Athabasca Falls is a waterfall in Jasper National Park on the upper Athabasca River 30 kilometres south of the townsite of Jasper, Alberta and just west of the Icefields Parkway. A powerful, picturesque waterfall, Athabasca Falls is not known so much for the height of the falls, as it is known for its force due to the large quantity of water falling into the gorge. On a cold morning in the fall, when river levels tend to be at their lowest, copious amounts of water flow over the falls; the river'falls' over a layer of hard quartzite and through the softer limestone below carving the short gorge and a number of potholes. The falls can be safely viewed and photographed from various viewing platforms and walking trails around the falls. Access is from the nearby parking lot. Highway 93A takes off from the nearby Icefields Parkway, crosses the falls on the way north to the town of Jasper. White water rafting starts below the falls to travel downstream on the Athabasca River to Jasper, it is a width of 60 ft. Explore Jasper.
Western Canada referred to as the Western provinces and more known as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. British Columbia is culturally, economically and politically distinct from the other parts of Western Canada and is referred to as the "west coast" or "Pacific Canada", while Alberta and Manitoba are grouped together as the Prairie Provinces and most known as "The Prairies"; the capital cities of the four western provinces, from west to east, are. With the exception of Winnipeg, the largest city in Manitoba, all other provincial capitals of the Western Provinces are located in the second-largest metropolitan areas of their respective province. Western Canada is the traditional territory of numerous First Nations predating the arrival of Europeans; as Britain colonized the west, it established treaties with various First Nations, took control of other areas without opposition and fought with other First Nations to take control of Western Canada.
Not all lands were ceded by the First Nations to British control and land claims are still ongoing. In 1858, the British government established the Colony of British Columbia, governing that part of Canada still known as British Columbia; the British government established the Hudson's Bay Company which controlled most of the current area of Western Canada, northern Ontario and northern Quebec, the area known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory. In 1870, the British government transferred the lands of the company to Canada; the area of Western Canada not within British Columbia was established as the Northwest Territories under Canadian control. The Western Canadian provinces other than British Columbia were established from areas of the Northwest Territories: Manitoba established as a province of Canada in 1870, following the enacting of the Manitoba Act. British Columbia: Under terms that Canada would absorb the colony's debt, would begin to subsidize public work, would begin to construct a railway allowing travel from British Columbia to Ontario, British Columbia agreed to join Canadian confederation in 1871.
Saskatchewan: Established as province in 1905, with the implementation of the Saskatchewan Act. Alberta: In 1905, the same year as Saskatchewan, Alberta was established as province. Just like Saskatchewan had the Saskatchewan Act, Alberta had the Alberta Act; as of the 2016 Census, the total population of Western Canada was nearly 11.1 million, including 4.65 million in British Columbia, 4.07 million in Alberta, 1.1 million in Saskatchewan, 1.28 million in Manitoba. This represents 31.5% of Canada's population. While Vancouver serves as the largest metropolitan area in Western Canada at nearly 2.5 million people, Calgary serves as the largest municipality at over 1.2 million people. As of the 2016 Census, Statistics Canada recognized ten census metropolitan areas within Western Canada, including four in British Columbia, three in Alberta, two in Saskatchewan, one in Manitoba; the following is a list of these areas and their populations as of 2016. From 2011 to 2016, the fastest growing CMAs in the country were the five located in Alberta and Saskatchewan: Calgary, Saskatoon and Lethbridge.
These were the only CMAs in the country to register growth over 10%. The three fastest growing CMAs - Calgary and Saskatoon - were unchanged from the previous intercensal period. Western Canada consists of the country's four westernmost provinces: British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba, it covers 2.9 million square kilometres – 29% of Canada's land area. British Columbia adjoins the Pacific Ocean to the west, while Manitoba has a coastline on Hudson Bay in its northeast of the province. Both Alberta and Saskatchewan are landlocked between British Manitoba; the Canadian Prairies are part of a vast sedimentary plain covering much of Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, southwestern Manitoba. The prairies form a significant portion of the land area of Western Canada; the plains describes the expanses of flat, arable agricultural land which sustain extensive grain farming operations in the southern part of the provinces. Despite this, some areas such as the Cypress Hills and Alberta Badlands are quite hilly and the prairie provinces contain large areas of forest such as the Mid-Continental Canadian forests.
In Alberta and British Columbia, the Canadian Cordillera is bounded by the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The Canadian Rockies are part of a major continental divide that extends north and south through western North America and western South America; the continental divide defines much of the border between Alberta and British Columbia. The Columbia and the Fraser Rivers have their headwaters in the Canadian Rockies and are the second- and third-largest rivers to drain to the west coast of North America. To the west of their headwaters, across the Rocky Mountain Trench, is a second belt of mountains, the Columbia Mountains, comprising the Selkirk, Purcell and Cariboo Mountains sub-ranges; the coast of British Columbia enjoys a moderate oceanic climate because of the influence of the Pacific Ocean, with temperatures similar to those of the British Isles. Winters are wet and summers dry; these areas enjoy the mildest winter weather in all of Canada, as temperatures fall much below the freezing mark.
The mountainous Interior of the province is drier