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Athabasca Sand Dunes Provincial Park

The Athabasca Sand Dunes Provincial Park was created to protect the Athabasca sand dunes, a unique geophysical land feature in the boreal shield ecosystem of the province of Saskatchewan. The Athabasca Sand Dunes are one of the most northerly active sand dune formations on Earth, it first came to attention that it should be a protected area in 1969 becoming the Athabasca Sand Dunes Provincial Wilderness Park on August 24, 1992. The park extends for 100 kilometres along the southern edge of Lake Athabasca and lies within the Athabasca Basin of the Canadian Shield; the sand dunes are 400 to 1,500 metres long, their maximum height is 30 metres The park is accessible by float plane or boat only. The William River flows through the western section of the park ending in a large river delta; the McFarlane River flows through the far eastern section of the park. The park goes around the Fond du Lac 231 located on the McFarlane River; the First Nations village of Fond du Lac is located 44 km by air from the park's eastern boundary.

The Athabasca Sand Dunes are estimated to be 8,000 years old, formed near the end of the last glacial period. As glaciers receded, meltwater washed enormous quantities of sand and sediment from local sandstone into Lake Athabasca, whose water level was at the time much higher than currently; as the lake level declined to its modern depth, the large sand deposits were revealed. The sand dunes are quite unstable, being shifted by winds, which push the dunes at the edges of the area into the surrounding forest. Evidence suggests that fires have influenced the winds shaping the dunes. Unlike the dunes closer to the lake, the southern dunes are in fact quite stable relative to other areas in the region. Geological features that can be found in the region include eskers and beach ridges. In addition, portions of the Williams River in the region flow through braided channels in the sand; some of the dune field is covered with desert pavement. The dunes are parabolic in shape; the sand completely covers the underlying sandstone deposits.

The entire sandy region, including areas south of the dunes, serves as an enormous aquifer, which as a result affects plant life and dune development. This area is home to endemic plant species not found anywhere else; some of the plants which may be found in this area are field chickweed, felt-leaved willow, Mackenzie hairgrass, Tyrrell's willow, floccose tansy. List of Saskatchewan parks Sand Hills Monahans Sandhills State Park, Texas Mouth of the William River 59°8′48.16″N 109°18′28.02″W Mouth of the McFarlane River 59°12′38.21″N 107°57′44.75″W Map Official website

Solanum robustum

Solanum robustum, the shrubby nightshade, is a thorny perennial shrub native to northeastern South America of the genus Solanum and is therefore related to the potato and tomato plants. A medium shrub, the plant may grow 4 to 8 feet with velvety leaves and stems due to dense stellate trichomes present on all faces of the plant. Strong, straight or recurved flattened prickles up to 12 millimeters long may be found along the stems; the leaves feature nine angled ridges along their perimeter. S. robustum blooms between late spring and mid fall with small clusters of white to yellow-white star shaped inflorescence followed by white or yellowish marble sized berries. S. robustum contains various tropane alkaloids in its leaves and stems and therefore should not be consumed. Media related to Solanum robustum at Wikimedia Commons

Domenico Fiasella

Domenico Fiasella was an Italian painter of the Baroque period active in Genoa. He was nicknamed Il Sarzana, after his birthplace, he was born in c, the son of Giovanni Fiasella, a silversmith, noting his skills apprenticed him as a boy of 11 years to work with Aurelio Lomi in Genoa, from there he moved to work with Giovanni Battista Paggi. Around 1607 he left for Rome, his ability was first recognized by Guido Reni and Ciriaco Mattei, which led Domenico Passignano and Cavalier D'Arpino to employ him. The Marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani commissioned paintings from him, including Christ Healing the Blind and Christ Raising the Son of the Widow of Nain. Fiasella's painting of Flight into Egypt had been a gift to Paul V, his Assumption of the Virgin altarpiece for Santa Maria Assunta church in Roccasecca dei Volsci, was commissioned by Valerio Massimi for 70 scudi. An Annunciation in the same church was sold for 40 scudi, he returned to Genoa by 1616. He frescoed the Story of Esther for the Palazzo Lamellini alla Zecca in Genoa.

Gregorio De Ferrari was one of his pupils during 1664–68. Other pupils include Angelica Veronica Airola, Valerio Castelli, Francesco Capurro, Francesco Gentileschi, Francesco Merano, Giovanni Paolo Oderico, Luca Saltarello, Giovanni Stefano Verdura, Lazzaro Villanova, Giovanni Andrea Podestà and Giovanni Vincenzo Zerbi, he collaborated with the Flemish born painter Giacomo Legi who lived and worked in Genoa. He died in Genoa. Cathedral of Sarzana The Visitation, Saints Lazzaro and Giorgio, Glory of Holy Blood in the Chapel of Relics, Saints Apollinare and Cecilia, St Andrew’s martyrdom with a supposed self-portrait, The massacre of the Innocents St. Andrew Church Vocation of SS. James and John. San Lazzaro, Sarzana St. Lazzaro Lerici The Sacred Family with Bishop Eligio and Abbot Andrew, in the Oratory of St. Rocco Madonna with Child and SS. Bernardino and Francis, in the Oratory of St. Bernardino. Comune di Sarzana biography Two Roman Paintings by Domenico Fiasella, by Francesca Cappelletti, The Burlington Magazine pp28–30.

Grove Encyclopedia biography on Artnet. Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi, a digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Domenico Fiasella

Boone–Murphy House

The Boone–Murphy House is a historic house located at 714 West 4th Avenue in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. It is a single-story, single-pile, wood-framed structure, with a front gable roof and weatherboard siding. Shed-roof additions extend to either side, there is bargeboard trim on the gables; the house was built in 1860 by Thomas A. Boone and was located at 702 W. Second Avenue. During the U. S. Civil War, following the Union Army capture of Little Rock, the citizens of Pine Bluff asked that a Union garrison be stationed there for their protection. General Frederick Steele sent the 5th Kansas Cavalry and 1st Indiana Cavalry to Pine Bluff to establish a post. Union Army Colonel Powell Clayton established his home in the Boone-Murphy house. In 1863. In October 1863 a band of Confederate spies raided Clayton's headquarters, they failed to capture Clayton. Following the Civil War, Clayton mortgaged the house to Robert S. Thompson and William H. Dupuy, when the loan was not paid the house was sold to John P. Murphy.

The Murphy's lived in the house until 1892. Following John Murphy's death, his widow remarried Charles F. Moore; the Boone–Murphy House has been restored to a 1920s appearance and is owned and operated by the Heckatoo Heritage Foundation. In 2014, the house was used by a Pine Bluff Community Watch program. In 1977, the home was relocated to West 4th Avenue to ensure that it would be located in a historic district; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on February 18, 1979. National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Arkansas

Pointer v. Texas

Pointer v. Texas, 380 U. S. 400, was a decision by the United States Supreme Court involving the application of the right of to confront accusers in state court proceedings. The Sixth Amendment in the Bill of Rights states that, in criminal prosecutions, the defendant has a right "...to be confronted with the witnesses against him. In this case, a person arrested in Texas for robbery was deprived of the ability to cross-examine a witness when the lower court allowed the introduction of a transcript of that witness's earlier testimony at a preliminary proceeding instead of compelling attendance by the witness at trial. On the night of June 16, 1962 the manager of a 7-Eleven in Harris County, Texas was robbed of $375; the robber fled from the store but the store manager claimed to see him talking to another man at a nearby street intersection. Responding officers found an abandoned automobile with a flat tire and a still-warm engine at the intersection. A police dog tracked a scent from the car's front seat to the 7-11 store and across the street, into a wooded area, to the front yard of a nearby house.

There they found Bob Granville Pointer arrested him. A search of Pointer recovered $81 in $65 in his shoe. At a preliminary hearing was held. Examining trials have a prosecutor and take place before a magistrate or district judge. Examining trials require the prosecutor to show the presiding officer that probable cause exists and determines if the accused will be granted bail and on what conditions. If the prosecutor demonstrates evidence supporting probable cause to believe the accused committed the charged act the accused is indicted. In Pointer's examining trial the chief witness was Kenneth W. Phillips. Phillips identified Pointer and testified that he had been robbed by Pointer at gunpoint and feared for his life. According to Article 1408 of the Texas Penal code in operation at the time, robbery with violence or "putting in fear of life or bodily injury" was punishable for terms of confinement of five years to life, no matter the amount. Pointer and co-defendant Lloyd Earl Dillard were not represented by any attorney in the hearing.

Dillard asked Phillips a few questions but Pointer did not. The examining trial ended with indictments of both Dillard. After the examining trial, Phillips moved to California and did not return to Texas for Pointer's criminal trial in District Court; the prosecutor introduced the transcript of Phillips' testimony from the examining trial instead. Pointer's attorney was overruled; the jury convicted. On appeal to the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, Pointer's attorney repeated the argument that Phillips' non-appearance deprived Pointer of his right to confront and cross-examine witnesses against him, as guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment; the Texas court held that Pointer could have cross-examined Phillips at the examining trial and chose not to. Considering the responsibility of a layperson like Pointer to carry out such a cross-examination without assistance, it further ruled that examining trials did not require counsel because they preceded indictment. Pointer's case was part of a series that defined how the Sixth Amendment applied to defendants in state courts.

The Supreme Court took this case to decide if failure to appoint an attorney to represent Pointer at the preliminary hearing unconstitutionally denied him the assistance of counsel as it had then-recently decided in Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U. S. 335. The Court was concerned with the deprivation of the right to cross-examine witnesses, as it had referred to in In re Oliver, 333 U. S. 257. Earlier in the same term, the Court had defined the minimum rights under the Sixth Amendment as: "In the constitutional sense, trial by jury in a criminal case implies at the least that the `evidence developed' against a defendant shall come from the witness stand in a public courtroom where there is full judicial protection of the defendant's right of confrontation, of cross-examination, of counsel." Justice Hugo Black held that: The right of an accused under the Sixth Amendment to confront and cross-examine witnesses against them is a fundamental rightThis right is essential to a fair trial The Fourteenth Amendment makes this right is obligatory on the StatesThe introduction of the transcript was a clear denial of the right of confrontation and the statement was made without an adequate opportunity for cross-examination.

Pointer's conviction was returned to Texas for further proceedings. When Texas revised its Criminal Code, it changed the law on examining trials, it was now explicit that the hearing could proceed only after "...allowing the accused, sufficient time to procure counsel." Further, it said "...the magistrate may appoint counsel to represent an accused in such examining trial only..." This case was part of the process of applying rights guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment to the states. It was cited by one of the most famous United States Supreme Court cases, Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U. S. 436. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 380 List of United States Supreme Court cases Text of Pointer v. Texas, 380 U. S. 400 is available from: CourtListener Justia Library of Congress Oyez 375 S. W.2d 293 -Lower court opinion Description of Examining Trials Texas Criminal Code on Examining Trials 1934 Supplement to the 1928 Complete Texas Statues

PanCam

The PanCam assembly is a set of two wide angle cameras for multi-spectral stereoscopic panoramic imaging, a high resolution camera for colour imaging, designed to search for textural information or shapes that can be related to the presence of microorganisms on Mars. This camera assembly is part of the science payload on board the European Space Agency's Rosalind Franklin rover, tasked to search for biosignatures and biomarkers on Mars; the rover is planned to be launched in August–October 2022 and land on Mars in spring 2023. This instrument will provide stereo multispectral images, of the terrain nearby. PanCam are the "eyes" of its primary navigation system. PanCam will provide the geological context of the sites being explored and help support the selection of the best sites to carry out exobiology studies, as well as assist in some aspect of atmospheric studies; this system will monitor the sample from the drill before it is crushed inside the rover, where the analytical instruments will perform a detailed chemical analysis.

The Principal Investigator is Andrew Coates of the University College London in United Kingdom. PanCam design includes the following major components: Wide Angle Camera pair, for multispectral stereoscopic panoramic imaging, using a miniaturized filter wheel. Both cameras have a focus range from 1 m to infinity. High Resolution Camera for high-resolution color images, it has a focus range from 0.98 m to infinity, it uses a 1 megapixel STAR1000 radiation resistant detector. Its active focus capability allows for an eight-fold better resolution than the WACs. PanCam Interface Unit and DC-DC converter to provide a single electronic interface. PanCam Optical Bench to provide protection. Astrobiology Life on Mars Planetary habitability