Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Common chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a somewhat woody, perennial herbaceous plant of the dandelion family Asteraceae with bright blue flowers white or pink. Many varieties are cultivated for salad leaves, chicons, or roots, which are baked and used as a coffee substitute and food additive. In the 21st century, inulin, an extract from chicory root, has been used in food manufacturing as a sweetener and source of dietary fiber. Chicory is grown as a forage crop for livestock, it lives as a wild plant on roadsides in its native Europe, is now common in North America and Australia, where it has become naturalized. "Chicory" is the common name in the United States for curly endive. Common chicory is known as blue daisy, blue dandelion, blue sailors, blue weed, coffeeweed, hendibeh, ragged sailors, wild bachelor's buttons, wild endive. Common names for varieties of var. foliosum include endive, radichetta, Belgian endive, French endive, red endive and witloof. When flowering, chicory has a tough and more or less hairy stem, from 30 to 100 cm tall.
The leaves are stalked and unlobed. The flower heads are 2 to 4 cm wide, light purple or lavender and it has been described as light blue white or pink. Of the two rows of involucral bracts, the inner is longer and erect, the outer is shorter and spreading, it flowers from July until October. The achenes have no pappus, but do have toothed scales on top. Root chicory has been cultivated in Europe as a coffee substitute; the roots are baked, roasted and used as an additive in the Mediterranean region. As a coffee additive, it is mixed in Indian filter coffee, in parts of Southeast Asia, South Africa, southern United States in New Orleans. In France a mixture of 60% chicory and 40% coffee is sold as Ricoré, it has been more used during economic crises such as the Great Depression in the 1930s and during World War II in Continental Europe. Chicory, with sugar beet and rye, was used as an ingredient of the East German Mischkaffee, introduced during the "East German coffee crisis" of 1976–79, it is added to coffee in Spanish, Turkish, Syrian and Palestinian cuisines.
Some beer brewers use roasted chicory to add flavor to stouts. Others have added it to strong blond Belgian-style ales, to augment the hops, making a witlofbier, from the Dutch name for the plant. Wild chicory leaves have a bitter taste, their bitterness is appreciated in certain cuisines, such as in the Ligurian and Apulian regions of Italy and in the southern part of India. In Ligurian cuisine, wild chicory leaves are an ingredient of preboggion and in Greek cuisine of horta. In Albania, the leaves are used as a spinach substitute served simmered and marinated in olive oil, or as ingredient for fillings of byrek. By cooking and discarding the water, the bitterness is reduced, after which the chicory leaves may be sautéed with garlic and other ingredients. In this form, the resulting greens might be combined with pasta or accompany meat dishes. Chicory may be cultivated for its leaves eaten raw as salad leaves. Cultivated chicory is divided into three types, of which there are many varieties: Radicchio has variegated red or red and green leaves.
Some only refer to the white-veined red-leaved type as radicchio known as red endive and red chicory. It has a bitter and spicy taste, which mellows when it is grilled or roasted, it can be used to add color and zest to salads. It is used in Italy in different varieties, the most famous being the ones from Treviso, from Verona, Chioggia, which are classified as an IGP, it is common in Greece. Sugarloaf looks rather like cos lettuce, with packed leaves. Belgian endive is known in Dutch as witloof or witlof, endive or witloof in the United States, indivia in Italy, endivias in Spain, chicory in the UK, as witlof in Australia, endive in France, chicon in parts of northern France, in Wallonia and in Luxembourg, it has a small head of cream-coloured, bitter leaves. It is grown underground or indoors in the absence of sunlight to prevent the leaves from turning green and opening up; the plant has to be kept just below the soil surface as it grows, only showing the tip of the leaves. It is sold wrapped in blue paper to protect it from light, so to preserve its pale colour and delicate flavour.
The smooth, creamy white leaves may be served stuffed, boiled and cooked in a milk sauce, or cut raw. The tender leaves are bitter; the harder inner part of the stem at the bottom of the head can be cut out before cooking to prevent bitterness. Belgium exports chicon/witloof to over 40 different countries; the technique for growing blanched endives was accidentally discovered in the 1850s at the Botanical Garden of Brussels in Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, Belgium. Today France is the largest producer of endive. Catalogna chicory known as puntarelle, includes a wh
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Campbelltown, South Australia
Campbelltown is a suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. The population of the area was 7,003 in 2006, it is bordered in the north-west by the River Torrens, a river, surrounded by parks and smaller creeks. Campbelltown is 8.7 km north-east of Adelaide. Lower North East Road crosses the middle of the suburb. Campbelltown is named after Charles James Fox Campbell, a pioneer settler in that locality, is part of the City of Campbelltown. Campbelltown Post Office opened on 1 January 1855; the Postal Code of the area is 5074. The area is represented in Federal Parliament by Hon. Christopher Pyne and by Vincent Tarzia in the South Australian Parliament; the suburb has East Marden Primary School. Campbelltown is home to many parks and outdoor sport courts. Campbelltown has an Aquatic and Recreation Centre, with facilities that encompass fun, swimming and entertainment
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
History of Adelaide
This article details the History of Adelaide from the first human activity in the region to the 20th century. Adelaide is the capital of South Australia. For early human settlement of Australia see Prehistory of AustraliaThe Adelaide plains were inhabited by the Kaurna tribe before European settlement, their territory extending from what is now Cape Jervis to Port Broughton; the Kaurna lived in family groups called yerta, a word which referred to the area of land which supported the family group. Each yerta was the responsibility of Kaurna adults who inherited the land and had an intimate knowledge of its resources and features; the Kaurna led a nomadic existence within the Yerta confines in large family groups of around 30. The area where the Adelaide city centre now stands was called "Tarndanya", which translates as "male red kangaroo rock", an area along the south bank of what is now called the River Torrens. Kaurna numbers were reduced by at least two devastating epidemics of smallpox which preceded European settlement, having been transported downstream along the Murray River.
When European settlers arrived in 1836, estimates of the Kaurna population ranged from 300 to 1000 people. British Commander Matthew Flinders and French Captain Nicolas Baudin independently charted the southern coast of the Australian continent, with the notable exception of the inlet known as the Port Adelaide River. In 1802 Flinders named Mount Lofty, but recorded little of the area, now Adelaide. In 1830 Charles Sturt explored the Murray River and was impressed with what he saw writing: "Hurried....as my view of it was, my eye never fell on a country of more promising aspect, or more favourable position, than that which occupies the space between the lake and the ranges of the Gulf St Vincent, continuing northerly from Mount Barker stretches away, without any visible boundary". Captain Collet Barker, sent by New South Wales Governor Ralph Darling, conducted a more thorough survey of the area in 1831, as recommended by Sturt. After swimming the mouth of the Murray River, Barker was killed by natives who may have had contact with sealers and escaped convicts in the region.
Despite this, his more detailed survey led Sturt to conclude in his 1833 report: "It would appear that a spot has at last been found upon the south coast of New Holland to which the colonists might venture with every prospect of success... All who have landed upon the eastern shore of the St. Vincent's Gulf agree as to the richness of its soil and the abundance of its pastures." A group in Britain led by Edward Gibbon Wakefield were looking to start a colony based on free settlement rather than convict labour. After problems in other Australian colonies arising from existing settlement methods, the time was right to form a more methodical approach to establishing a colony. In 1829 an imprisoned Wakefield wrote a series of letters about systematic colonisation which were published in a daily newspaper. Wakefield suggested that instead of granting free land to settlers as had happened in other colonies, the land should be sold; the money from land purchases would be used to transport labourers to the colony free of charge, who were to be responsible and skilled workers rather than paupers and convicts.
Land prices needed to be high enough so that workers who saved to buy land of their own remained in the workforce long enough to avoid a labour shortage. Robert Gouger, Wakefield's secretary promoted Wakefield's theories and organised societies of people interested in the scheme. In 1834 the South Australian Association, with the aid of such figures as George Grote, William Molesworth and the Duke of Wellington persuaded British Parliament to pass the South Australian Colonisation act, succeeding where two previous organisations had failed. Wakefield wanted the colony's capital to be called Wellington, but King William IV preferred it to be named after his wife, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; the British government appointed a Board of Commissioners from people nominated by the South Australian Association, with the task of organising the new colony and meeting the condition of selling at least £3,500 worth of land. This land was advertised and preliminary purchase land orders were sold before a single settler had set foot in their new home.
Free passage was given to suitable labourers men and women and animals under 30 years of age who were healthy and of good character. They were expected to carry out a promise of working for wages until they had saved enough to buy land of their own and employ others, a process taking at least 3 or 4 years. Land sales were encouraged by granting one acre of town land in Adelaide for every 80 acres of rural land sold; the largest buyer of land was the South Australia Company headed by politicians and slaveholder George Fife Angas, which bought enough land for South Australia to proceed, continued to influence the colony's future development. With the British government's conditions met, King William IV signed the Letters Patent and the first settlers and officials set sail in early 1836. In February 1836 the vessels John Pirie and Duke of York set sail for South Australia, they were followed in March by Cygnet and Lady Mary Pelham, in April by Emma, in May by Rapid and by Africaine and Tam O'Shanter.
Most took supplies and settlers to Kangaroo Island on the present day site of Kingscote, to await official decisions on the location and administration of the new colony. By the time Duke of York had arrived at Kangaroo Island, HMS Buffalo was on its way. Surveyor-General Colonel William Light, who had two months to complete his tasks, rejected locations for the new set
The Adelaide Hills region is located in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges east of the city of Adelaide in the state of South Australia. The largest town in the area, Mount Barker, has a population of around 29,000 and is one of Australia's fastest growing towns; the Adelaide Hills region is one of the cooler wine regions of mainland Australia as, despite warm days in January and February when the grapes are ripening, the region experiences cool nights. This significant diurnal variation results in cool mean daily temperatures in summer and the consequence of this is high quality, cool-climate wines, leading to its world-famous reputation as a wine-producing region; the numerous wineries and cellar doors are represented by a regional association and geographical indication called the Adelaide Hills wine region. The Adelaide Hills were amongst the first areas of South Australia to be settled by European settlers. A number of towns in the Hills were started as German settlements; the original town names and architecture still reflect this.
Descendants of these first settlers and others of German origin still reside in the area. This explains the strong German cultural connection seen in the number of Lutheran churches, Lutheran schools which have German on the curriculum, the number of older residents who still speak German; some customs have grown, such as the Lobethal Christmas lights. For most Adelaide residents, a drive through the hills is a popular pastime due to proximity. With Adelaide being a linear city extending 90 kilometres north to south, the hills are within 20 kilometres of the majority of residents. Other significant attractions are the cooler temperatures in summer, lush green and sometimes frosty winters and the picturesque old-world towns situated among scenic landscapes; the Mount Lofty area, home to Adelaide's television transmission towers, has a lookout area and the fire-spotting tower that used to be run by the Country Fire Service. The area receives a light snowfall once every three to four years enough to stay on the ground for half a day.
The Adelaide Hills region is close enough to commute to the city, yet is the gateway to the country, so residents enjoy the best of both worlds – the country community life and the convenience of the city. Desirability of the area has increased since realignment of the road and construction of the Heysen Tunnels on the South Eastern Freeway improved road access. Rising real estate prices reflect this; the tunnels, completed in 1999 are named after Sir Hans Heysen, an eminent local landscape painter whose home and studio, "The Cedars", has been maintained as a cultural site located near Hahndorf. To this day, Hahndorf itself supports a thriving community of artists and craftspeople, either in the town or nearby countryside; the Adelaide Hills region is a premier wine region within Australia and one of the oldest. The veritable maze of valleys and sub-valleys, with slopes offering every conceivable aspect, means there is as much mesoclimatic variation as one can find anywhere in Australia, making generalisations of wine type hazardous.
The first vines were planted in the Hills in 1839, three years after South Australia was declared a province, a case of that wine was delivered to Queen Victoria in 1844. There are over 50 wineries within the Hills region which are open most days for tasting and cellar sales; the area is home to the annual Medieval Fair held at Gumeracha across one weekend every April, the English Ale Festival annually held each May. Highlights of the Medieval Fair include live jousting tournaments held on horseback and dance demonstrations and costume creation, authentic music provided by wandering troubadours; the genesis and popularity of these two colourful festivals, where patrons are encouraged to come in costume, springs from the large numbers of British ex-patriates who reside in the Hills. Throughout the year there are folk music sessions and concerts held in various small towns like Mt Pleasant and Balhannah - connected with this same cultural community. Gumeracha is home to the largest rocking horse in the world, standing at 18.3 metres and open to the public, it serves to advertise an adjacent wooden toy factory and wildlife park.
The town of Birdwood is home to the National Motor Museum and is the endpoint of the annual Bay to Birdwood run, in which more than 1,500 vintage motor vehicles are driven by their owners from Glenelg past the city and through the hills to finish at the museum where a festival is held. The museum holds a large and important collection of cars and commercial vehicles. Sporting and recreational activities are popular in the hills region, with sports such as Australian Rules Football and soccer having strong participation rates. Grounds and facilities within the Hills are of good quality, with some playing grounds placed amongst the rugged beauty of the Adelaide Hills. One example of this is the Basket Range Oval, which overlooks the wide sweeping hills views of the area; the Hills region has many conservation parks, including the Cleland Conservation Park with its free roaming kangaroos and emus. The park has enclosed areas for dingos, native birds & snakes, is a popular destination for school groups as well as international visitors.
Many native species of fauna can be encountered within the hills region. Among the more common species include the kookaburra, tawny frogmouth, southern brown bandicoot, kangaro