Athena or Athene given the epithet Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom and warfare, syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva. Athena was regarded as the patron and protectress of various cities across Greece the city of Athens, from which she most received her name. She's shown in art wearing a helmet and holding a spear, her major symbols include owls, olive trees and the Gorgoneion. From her origin as an Aegean palace goddess, Athena was associated with the city, she was known as Polias and Poliouchos, her temples were located atop the fortified acropolis in the central part of the city. The Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is dedicated to her, along with numerous other temples and monuments; as the patron of craft and weaving, Athena was known as Ergane. She's a warrior goddess, was believed to lead soldiers into battle as Athena Promachos, her main festival in Athens was the Panathenaia, celebrated during the month of Hekatombaion in midsummer and was the most important festival on the Athenian calendar.
In Greek mythology, Athena was believed to have been born from the head of her father Zeus. In the founding myth of Athens, Athena bested Poseidon in a competition over patronage of the city by creating the first olive tree. She's known as Athena Parthenos "Athena the Virgin," but in one archaic Attic myth, the god Hephaestus tried and failed to rape her, resulting in Gaia giving birth to Erichthonius, an important Athenian founding hero. Athena was the patron goddess of heroic endeavor. Along with Aphrodite and Hera, Athena was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War, she plays an active role in the Iliad, in which she assists the Achaeans and, in the Odyssey, she is the divine counselor to Odysseus. In the writings of the Roman poet Ovid, Athena was said to have competed against the mortal Arachne in a weaving competition, afterwards transforming Arachne into the first spider. Since the Renaissance, Athena has become an international symbol of wisdom, the arts, classical learning.
Western artists and allegorists have used Athena as a symbol of freedom and democracy. Athena is associated with the city of Athens; the name of the city in ancient Greek is Ἀθῆναι, a plural toponym, designating the place where—according to myth—she presided over the Athenai, a sisterhood devoted to her worship. In ancient times, scholars argued whether Athena was named after Athens after Athena. Now scholars agree that the goddess takes her name from the city. Testimonies from different cities in ancient Greece attest that similar city goddesses were worshipped in other cities and, like Athena, took their names from the cities where they were worshipped. For example, in Mycenae there was a goddess called Mykene, whose sisterhood was known as Mykenai, whereas at Thebes an analogous deity was called Thebe, the city was known under the plural form Thebai; the name Athenai is of Pre-Greek origin because it contains the Pre-Greek morpheme *-ān-. In his dialogue Cratylus, the ancient Greek philosopher Plato gives some rather imaginative etymologies of Athena's name, based on the theories of the ancient Athenians and his own etymological speculations: That is a graver matter, there, my friend, the modern interpreters of Homer may, I think, assist in explaining the view of the ancients.
For most of these in their explanations of the poet, assert that he meant by Athena "mind" and "intelligence", the maker of names appears to have had a singular notion about her. However, the name Theonoe may mean "she who knows divine things" better than others. Nor shall we be far wrong in supposing that the author of it wished to identify this Goddess with moral intelligence, therefore gave her the name Etheonoe. Thus, Plato believed that Athena's name was derived from Greek Ἀθεονόα, Atheonóa—which the Greeks rationalised as from the deity's mind; the second-century AD orator Aelius Aristides attempted to derive natural symbols from the etymological roots of Athena's names to be aether, air and moon. Athena was the Aegean goddess of the palace, who presided over household crafts and protected the king. A single Mycenaean Greek inscription a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja /Athana potnia/ appears at Knossos in the Linear B tablets from the Late Minoan II-era "Room of the Chariot Tablets". Although Athana potnia is translated Mistress Athena, it could mean "the Potnia of Athana", or the Lady of Athens.
However, any connection to the city of Athens in the Knossos inscription is uncertain. A sign series a-ta-no-dju-wa-ja appears in the still undeciphered corpus of Linear A tablets, written in the unclassified Minoan language; this could be connected with the Linear B Mycenaean expressions a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja and di-u-ja or di-wi-ja (Diwia, "of Zeus" or related
The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the United States government responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, is equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration, administers several federal law enforcement agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the United States Marshals Service, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration; the department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system. The department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994; the department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
As of February 2019, the Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress, as well as the President; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early attorneys general supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts in 1830 and 1846 to make attorney general a full-time job, in 1867, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first solicitor general the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office, there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873, during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of
The UK Singles Chart is one of many music charts compiled by the Official Charts Company that calculates the best-selling singles of the week in the United Kingdom. Before 2004, the chart was only based on the sales of physical singles; this list shows singles that peaked in the Top 10 of the UK Singles Chart during 1964, as well as singles which peaked in 1963 and 1965 but were in the top 10 in 1964. The entry date is. One-hundred and twelve singles were in the top ten in 1964. Ten singles from 1963 remained in the top 10 for several weeks at the beginning of the year, while "I Could Easily Fall" by Cliff Richard and The Shadows, "Somewhere" by P. J. Proby were both released in 1964 but did not reach their peak until 1965. "Dominique" by The Singing Nun, "Glad All Over" by The Dave Clark Five, "I Only Want to Be with You" by Dusty Springfield and "Twenty Four Hours From Tulsa" by Gene Pitney were the singles from 1963 to reach their peak in 1964. Twenty-eight artists scored multiple entries in the top 10 in 1964.
The Beach Boys, Cilla Black, The Hollies, The Kinks and The Rolling Stones were among the many artists who achieved their first UK charting top 10 single in 1964. The 1963 Christmas number-one, "I Want To Hold Your Hand" by The Beatles, remained at number one for the first two weeks of 1964; the first new number-one single of the year was "Glad All Over" by The Dave Clark Five. Overall, twenty-three different singles peaked at number-one in 1964, with The Beatles having the most singles hit that position. One-hundred and twelve singles charted in the top 10 in 1964, with one-hundred and four singles reaching their peak this year. Twenty-eight artists scored multiple entries in the top 10 in 1964. Cliff Richard secured the record for most top 10 hits in 1964 with six hit singles, five of which featured his backing group The Shadows; the Animals were one of a number of artists with two top-ten entries, including the number-one single "House of the Rising Sun". Brian Poole and the Dreamers, The Kinks, Manfred Mann and The Supremes were among the other artists who had multiple top 10 entries in 1964.
Forty artists achieved their first top 10 single as a lead or featured artist. Of these, six went on to record another hit single that year: The Animals, The Kinks, The Nashville Teens and Gordon, The Supremes and The Swinging Blue Jeans. Cilla Black, Manfred Mann, P. J. Proby and The Rolling Stones all had two more top 10 singles in 1964; the Hollies had three other entries in their breakthrough year. The following table does not include acts who had charted as part of a group and secured their first top 10 solo single. Original songs from various films entered the top 10 throughout the year; these included "Kissin' Cousins" and "A Hard Day's Night", "Move Over Darling" and "A Hard Day's Night" and "Can't Buy Me Love". Additionally, the original recording of "Swinging on a Star" by Bing Crosby won the Academy Award for Best Original Song after being used in the 1944 film Going My Way. "Diane" was written for the 1927 silent film Seventh Heaven. P. J. Proby released a cover version of "Somewhere" from the film West Side Story, reaching number six at the beginning of 1965.
Until 1970 there was no universally recognised year-end best-sellers list. However in 2011 the Official Charts Company released a list of the best-selling single of each year in chart history from 1952 to date. According to the list, "Can't Buy Me Love" by The Beatles is recorded as the biggest-selling single of 1964. "Can't Buy Me Love" and "I Feel Fine" both ranked in the top 10 best-selling singles of the decade. Key The following table shows artists who achieved two or more top 10 entries in 1964, including singles that reached their peak in 1963 or 1965; the figures include both featured artists. The total number of weeks an artist spent in the top ten in 1964 is shown. 1964 in British music List of number-one singles from the 1960s General "Six decades of singles charts". The Official Charts Company. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2018. Specific 1964 singles chart archive at the Official Charts Company