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Athens, Ohio

Athens is a city and the county seat of Athens County, United States. Athens is the home of Ohio University, a large public research university with an enrollment of more than 36,800 students across all campuses. Located along the Hocking River in the southeastern part of Ohio about 65 miles southeast of Columbus, Athens is the principal city of the Athens, Ohio Micropolitan Statistical Area; the population of Athens in the 2010 U. S. Census was 23,832, with a daytime population of over 40,000 Athens is a qualified Tree City USA as recognized by the National Arbor Day Foundation. Athens is located in what was once the eastern region of two major Native American mound-building groups, the Adena culture from c. 1000 BC to 200 AD and the Ohio Hopewell tradition, c. 300 BC to 700 AD. By the middle of the eighteenth century, the Shawnee, an Algonquian tribe, were the primary tribe of Native Americans living in the area. According to a 1794 map by Thomas Kitchin, no settlement existed in the Athens area during the time prior to the founding of the city.

The first permanent European settlers arrived in Athens in 1797, more than a decade after the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War. In 1800, the town site was first surveyed and plotted and incorporated as a village in 1811. Ohio had become a state in 1803. Ohio University was chartered in 1804, the first public institution of higher learning in the Northwest Territory. Part of Washington County, Athens County was formed in 1805, named for the ancient center of learning, Greece. Ohio University in Athens was established with the first federal endowment of an educational institution in the United States. In July 1787, the Congress of the Confederation gave to the Ohio Company of Associates "two townships of good land for the support of a literary institution" in the newly created Northwest Territory. During The First Session of the Second Territorial General Assembly, held in Chillicothe from November 23, 1801 to January 23, 1802, the General Assembly passed an act establishing the "American Western University" at Athens.

The act was approved by Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Northwest Territory on January 9, 1802. However, no university with the name of American Western University would be established. Ohio became a state in 1803 and on February 18, 1804, the state legislature passed an act establishing the "Ohio University" in the town of Athens. Athens received city status in 1912, following the 1910 census showing the population had passed 5,000 residents, the requirement for city status in Ohio. Large tracts of land in Athens and Alexander Townships were set aside through a contract between the Congress and the Ohio Company of Associates, a group of American Revolutionary War veterans; these lands were given to Ohio University by the Federal government. This was the first federal land grant for a university, pre-dating the Morrill Act by more than 70 years. At first, lands were leased out, but the failure of many lessors to pay their rents resulted in most of the land being sold; the sale of these lands funded the growth of Ohio University.

Today it is one of the largest institutions of higher learning in Ohio, with an enrollment of over 19,000 on the Athens campus and over 28,000 for all campuses. The earliest industry in the area was salt production, followed by iron production and coal extraction; the largest employer in the county is Ohio University. In 1843, the Hocking Canal opened, enabling shipping from the Ohio River up the Hocking River, which passes through Athens, to Nelsonville and points beyond. However, the canal was closed during cold winters; the first railroad reached Athens in 1857. In the late 19th century, an interurban line opened between Athens and Nelsonville and operated for some years; the Athens Lunatic Asylum named the Athens State Hospital, opened in 1874. This was on high ground to the south of the Hocking River. In the late 19th century the hospital was the town's largest employer; the state hospital was decommissioned and the property was deeded to Ohio University. It is now known as The Ridges. Much of the building space has been renovated for offices and research space, most of the grounds have been set aside as open space, including a land lab.

In 1904 the U. S. Army and the Ohio National Guard conducted joint training exercises near the city. Multiple US army regulars became drunk and were arrested by National Guard Provosts for causing disturbances; the arrests angered the regulars. The armed regulars were stopped by provosts and the ensuing quarrel escalated into a shoot-out on Washington Street, during which one guardsman was killed and five others were wounded. By 1935 Athens was known as a coal and fruit-producing region and a state center of higher education and psychiatric care; the major manufactured goods included stoves, parquetry flooring and flooring. The University and in turn the City saw large growth during the post-World War Two era and again during the Vietnam War era. Growth slowed in the 1980s with small increases in growth into present times. Athens is located in the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau about 47 miles from Chillicothe and 35 miles west of Marietta. Athens is surrounded by hills that rise about three hundred feet from river valley to the narrow ridge tops.

The county extends west from the Ohio River centered around the lower Hocking River watershed. According to the 2010 census, the city has a total area of 10.05 square miles, of which 9.83 square miles is land and 0.22 square miles is water. Large sections of Athens

American Seating Company Factory Complex

The American Seating Company Factory Complex is a historic manufacturing plant located at 801 Broadway Avenue NW in Grand Rapids, used by the American Seating company. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. In late 1885, local Grand Rapids businessmen Gaius Perkins, William T. Hess and Seymour W. Peregrine founded the Grand Rapids School Furniture Company to manufacture school and office furniture, they began manufacture in a small factory in 1886. Business boomed, in 1887 they began constructing a new factory; this was completed the next year, but an increase in orders soon forced to company to double its factory size. By 1888 the company was selling over 65,000 school desks per year. In 1899, the Grand Rapids School Furniture Company merged with eighteen other similar companies located around the nation to form the American School Furniture Company, with Gaius Perkin as its first president. IN 1905 the name was changed to American Seating Company, it was soon the largest employer in Grand Rapids.

In 1923, the company began work on a power plant and warehouse addition to the factory, competed in 1927. The company lasted through the Great Depression, converted to wartime production during World War II. In the 1980s, the company faced financial hardships, was sold to Fuqua Industries of Atlanta, Georgia, it returned to local control in 1987. In 2016, the original factory building was demolished; the American Seating Company factory complex consists fourteen contributing buildings and two non-contributing buildings, ranging in date from 1888 to 1978, located in a parcel about twenty acres in size. The site runs along Broadway from Seventh to Eleventh Street; the 1888 factory building was located along the northern side of Ninth Street. This was a four-story cream brick building; the 1923 power plant and warehouse are located along Seventh Street. These buildings are four-story brick structures. Additional buildings, dating from the early 1900s through the 1970s, are located along Eleventh Street and south toward Ninth

Oreophryne biroi

Oreophryne biroi is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae. It is endemic to New Guinea and occurs on the north coast from Madang Province in Papua New Guinea to the Cyclops Mountains in Papua province, Western New Guinea; the specific name biroi honours Lajos Bíró, a Hungarian zoologist and ethnographer who collected the holotype. Common name New Guinea cross. Adult males measure 22–24 mm and adult females 27–29 mm in snout–vent length; the head is somewhat narrower than the body. The canthus rostralis is rounded; the tympanum is small. The fingers and the toes have some webbing; the dorsum is fawn. A thin mid-dorsal stripe may be present; the hidden surfaces of the thighs are orange. The venter is pale with glistening white blotches; the iris is red-gold. Oreophryne biroi occurs in lowland rainforests and degraded forest to elevations of about 1,000 m above sea level. Development is direct, without free-living tadpole stage, it is not a common species. Threats to it are unknown, it occurs in the Cyclops Mountains Nature Reserve