Hawadax Island is an island in the Rat Islands archipelago of the western Aleutian Islands in the U. S. state of Alaska. The island was known as Rat Island until May 2012 when it was renamed Hawadax Island, an Aleut name meaning "entry" and "welcome"; the island has a land area of no permanent population. It is within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, it is 3.1 miles in width. The former name is the English translation of the name given to the islands by Captain Fyodor Petrovich Litke in 1827 when he visited the Aleutian Islands on a voyage around the world; the Rat Islands are earthquake-prone as they are on the boundary of the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. In 1965, there was a major earthquake with the magnitude 8.7 in the Rat Islands. The island was infested with brown rats, which are considered a nuisance invasive species due to their negative impact on the population of ground-nesting wild birds; the rats arrived on the island before 1780 due to a Japanese shipwreck.
Since the rats had a devastating effect on local seabirds that have no natural defenses against the rats. Invasive rats are present on 16 other islands in the Aleutian chain. In 2007, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which manages the refuge, was formulating plans to eradicate the rats; the eradication plan is modelled on a successful one to eliminate the Arctic fox from various Aleutian islands, where they were deliberately introduced for breeding. In June 2009, the island was declared rat-free for the first time in 229 years, although the site will be continually monitored for another two years for confirmation. In the preceding autumn, helicopters dropped brodifacoum poison onto the island from buckets for a week, which eliminated the rat population. However, the associated nontarget mortality, i.e. the deaths of animals other than the rats, was significant. Some nontarget mortality was expected, but the actual quantity exceeded what was predicted; the Ornithological Council reported that more than 420 birds were killed as a result of the rat eradication program.
Forty-six bald eagles died. Of the 320 glaucous-winged gull carcasses collected, toxicology tests implicated brodifacoum in 24 of the 34 tested. Fifty-four carcasses of another 25 bird species were found; the report found that the lead contractor which the FWS used, Island Conservation, had dropped more poisonous bait than they had proposed, including bait, intended to be saved as a backup. The FWS asked the Ornithological Council to determine if Island Conservation had exceeded the limit of their poison quantities, but the council decided not to resolve any "legal questions"; as of 2011, the State of Alaska issued a Notice of Violation and FWS law enforcement is still investigating. Steve Delehanty, the manager of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge said that, "It was a learning experience, we made mistakes together." However, he stated, "...if you do the math this was a rip-roaring conservation success." Campbell Island, New Zealand, the largest successful rat eradication. Rat Island Invasive Rat Eradication Project Environmental Assessment Rat Island: Block 1140, Census Tract 1, Aleutians West Census Area, Alaska United States Census Bureau THE RAT ISLAND RAT ERADICATION PROJECT: A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF NONTARGET MORTALITY.
PREPARED FOR ISLAND CONSERVATION THE NATURE CONSERVANCY and the U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, ALASKA MARITIME NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE. PREPARED BY THE ORNITHOLOGICAL COUNCIL. Final report issued December 2010. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law Enforcement, Report of Investigation #2009703127R001
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Chuginadak Island is the largest island in the Islands of Four Mountains subgroup of the Aleutian archipelago. Chuginadak is an Aleutian name published by Captain Tebenkov in an 1852 map. According to Knut Bergsland's Aleut Dictionary, the Aleutian word "chugida-lix" means "to fry, to make sizzle." The Western half of the island is called Chuginadax in Aleut, meaning'simmering'. The island is 14 by 6 miles long and the active Mount Cleveland stratovolcano forms the entire western half of the land mass. A narrow strip of land separates the volcano from the rugged and lower eastern side of the island; the only major geographical place is Applegate Cove on the Northern coast. The cove was named for Samuel Applegate, USC&GS, who commanded the schooner Nellie Juan during a survey of this area in the 1880s
Buldir Island is a small island in the western Aleutian Islands of the U. S. state of Alaska. It lies midway between the Rat Islands in the East, it is the most westerly of the Aleutian Islands which formed as a result of volcanic activity in the late Quaternary or Recent times. The rocks from which the island formed are of two different ages with a considerable time gap; the rocks of the older dome are olivine basalts and the younger dome consists of hornblende basalts and basaltic andesites. That this island is younger than some of the neighboring islands is suggested by the fact that there are fewer species of flowering plant on this island. Buldir Island was first sighted on October 28, 1741 by Vitus Bering during his exploration of the region; the island is small, with an area of just 7.4482 square miles. It is 2.5 miles wide. There was no human population reported by the 2000 census; the two major volcanoes on the island are the Buldir Volcano, which forms most of the island, the East Cape Volcano, which forms the island's northeast section.
Buldir Volcano is the taller, reaching 2,152 feet in the highest point on the island. The coastlines along the island are tall steep cliffs; the island is home to 21 species of breeding seabirds, making it the most diverse seabird colony in the Northern Hemisphere. The island's colonies include crested auklets and least auklets, as well as puffins, storm petrels and other species, it is one of only four locations in the world where red-legged kittiwakes breed
Arakamchechen Island is an island in the Bering Sea. Arakamchechen lies north of Cape Chaplino, close to the coast of Chukotka, it is separated from the continental shore by an 8 km wide sound. This island is inhabited. Arakamchechen Island has a maximum width of 21 km, it has a mountainous interior. South of it lies Yttygran Island and west of it Penkigney Bay. There is a 5 km wide sound between the two islands. Administratively Arakamchechen Island belongs to the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of the Russian Federation. Nowadays this island is popular with tourists. Many walruses live in rookeries in the shores of this island. Pictures of walrus hunters in Arakamchechen Island