Atlas (architecture)

In European architectural sculpture, an atlas is a support sculpted in the form of a man, which may take the place of a column, a pier or a pilaster. The Roman term for such a sculptural support is a telamon; the term atlantes is the Greek plural of the name Atlas—the Titan, forced to hold the sky on his shoulders for eternity. The alternative term, telamones is derived from a mythological hero, one of the Argonauts, the father of Ajax; the caryatid is the female precursor of this architectural form in Greece, a woman standing in the place of each column or pillar. Caryatids are found at the treasuries at Delphi and the Erechtheion on the Acropolis at Athens for Athene, they are in an Ionic context and represented a ritual association with the goddesses worshiped within. The Atalante is life-size or larger; the body of many Atalantes turns into a rectangular pillar or other architectural feature around the waist level, a feature borrowed from the term. The pose and expression of Atalantes often show their effort to bear the heavy load of the building, the case with terms and caryatids.

The herma or herm is a classical boundary marker or wayside monument to a god, a square pillar with only a carved head on top, about life-size, male genitals at the appropriate mid-point. Figures that are rightly called Atalantes may sometimes be described as herms. Atlantes express extreme effort in their function, heads bent forward to support the weight of the structure above them across their shoulders, forearms lifted to provide additional support, providing an architectural motif. Atlantes and caryatids were noted by the Roman late Republican architect Vitruvius, whose description of the structures, rather than surviving examples, transmitted the idea of atlantes to the Renaissance architectural vocabulary. Not only did the Caryatids precede them, but similar architectural figures had been made in ancient Egypt out of monoliths. Atlantes originated in Magna Graecia, southern Italy; the earliest surviving atlantes are fallen ones from the Early Classical Greek temple of Zeus, the Olympeion, in Agrigento, Sicily.

Atlantes, have played a more significant role in Mannerist and Baroque architecture. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, many buildings were built with glorious atlantes that look much like the Greek ones, their selection from the two proposed designs—the other design using Caryatids—for the entrance of the Hermitage Museum, built for Tsar Nicholas I of Russia made atlantes become more fashionable. The portico of this building has ten enormous atlantes three times life-size, carved from Serdobol granite, which were designed by Johann Halbig and executed by the sculptor Alexander Terebenev. Similar carved stone columns or pillars in the shape of fierce men at some sites of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica are called Atlantean figures; these figures are considered to be "massive statues of Toltec warriors". Basilica di Santa Croce, Italy Casa degli Omenoni, Italy Church of St. Georg, Germany Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia House in Kanałowa Str. 17, Poznań, Poland Palazzo Davia Bargellini, Italy Pavilion Vendôme, Aix-en-Provence, France Porta Nuova, Italy Sanssouci, Germany Sunshine Marketplace, Australia Temple of Olympian Zeus, Valle dei Templi, Italy Zwinger Palace, Germany Telamon King, Dorothy.

"Figured supports: Vitruvius' Caryatids and Atlantes". Quaderni Ticinesi. XXVII. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Telamones". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press

Soyuz 40

The Soyuz 40 mission was a 1981 Soviet crewed spaceflight and the final flight of the Soyuz 7K-T spacecraft. It was a collaboration between Romania. Mass: 6800 kg Perigee: 198.1 km Apogee: 287 km Inclination: 51.6° Period: 89.06 minutes Soyuz 40 was the 16th expedition to Salyut 6 and carried the ninth international crew. It ended the first phase of the Intercosmos program by carrying Romanian cosmonaut Dumitru Prunariu and Soviet cosmonaut Leonid Popov to the station. In all, nine Intercosmos missions were launched between 1978 and 1981. Soyuz 40 was the last of the original Soyuz spacecraft and the last Soyuz spacecraft to dock with Salyut 6. During the crew's stay, Prunariu studied the Earth's magnetic field. Earth observations had to be delayed until the last day of the flight, when Salyut 6 passed over Romania in daylight. During this time the crew tested the station's orientation system. List of human spaceflights to Salyut space stations List of Salyut expeditions

Rich Square, North Carolina

Rich Square is a town in Northampton County, North Carolina, United States of America. The population was 958 at the 2010 census, it is part of North Carolina Micropolitan Statistical Area. Rich Square is the oldest town in Northampton County; the town takes its name from the earliest recorded land purchase of 640 acres on 9 March 1717, which comprised a square mile of rich farmland inside the current city limits. Two locations in or near the town, Duke-Lawrence House and Edgewood known as Holoman-Outland House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Rich Square is located at 36°16′24″N 77°17′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.8 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 931 people, 395 households, 259 families residing in the town; the population density was 330.6 people per square mile. There were 441 housing units at an average density of 156.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 42.75% White, 55.85% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.54% from other races, 0.54% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.07% of the population. There were 395 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.95. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $22,656, the median income for a family was $30,000. Males had a median income of $27,083 versus $19,135 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,079. About 15.5% of families and 19.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.3% of those under age 18 and 22.2% of those age 65 or over.

General Walter E. Boomer, retired four-star General and Assistant Commandant of the United States Marine Corps Mills Darden one of the largest persons to live in human history George V. Holloman, U. S. Army Air Corps avionics pioneer. Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico is named in his honor. Charles Robert Jenkins, deserted the U. S. Army in 1965 while on a DMZ patrol in South Korea for life in North Korea. After leaving North Korea and following his Army court martial, he lived the remainder of his life in Sado, Japan. Stu Martin, former MLB player from 1936-1943 Shelia P. Moses, bestselling author Jonas Pope IV, Sports Writer, Raleigh News & Observer Eric Talmadge. "Deserter Adjusting to Life on Japan Island". Associated Press. January 31, 2005. Richard Pyle. "World War II P-38 fighter discovered in Wales." Associated Press. November 14, 2007. John Pellam- Mayor of the town. Responsible for upgrading the waste water treatment plant and building sidewalks in town without increasing tax base