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Atle Selberg

Atle Selberg was a Norwegian mathematician known for his work in analytic number theory and the theory of automorphic forms, in particular for bringing them into relation with spectral theory. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1950. Selberg was born in Langesund, the son of teacher Anna Kristina Selberg and mathematician Ole Michael Ludvigsen Selberg. Two of his three brothers and Henrik, were mathematicians, his other brother, was a professor of engineering. While he was still at school he was influenced by the work of Srinivasa Ramanujan and he found an exact analytical formula for the partition function as suggested by the works of Ramanujan. During the war he fought against the German invasion of Norway, was imprisoned several times, he studied at the University of Oslo and completed his Ph. D. in 1943. During World War II, Selberg worked in isolation due to the German occupation of Norway. After the war his accomplishments became known, including a proof that a positive proportion of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function lie on the line ℜ = 1 2.

After the war, he turned to sieve theory, a neglected topic which Selberg's work brought into prominence. In a 1947 paper he introduced the Selberg sieve, a method well adapted in particular to providing auxiliary upper bounds, which contributed to Chen's theorem, among other important results. In 1948 Selberg submitted two papers in Annals of Mathematics in which he proved by elementary means the theorems for primes in arithmetic progression and the density of primes; this challenged the held view of his time that certain theorems are only obtainable with the advanced methods of complex analysis. Both results were based on his work on the asymptotic formula ϑ log ⁡ + ∑ p ≤ x log ⁡ ϑ = 2 x log ⁡ + O where ϑ = ∑ p ≤ x log ⁡ for primes p, he established this result by elementary means in March 1948, by July of that year and Paul Erdős each obtained elementary proofs of the prime number theorem, both using the asymptotic formula above as a starting point. Circumstances leading up to the proofs, as well as publication disagreements, led to a bitter dispute between the two mathematicians.

For his fundamental accomplishments during the 1940s, Selberg received the 1950 Fields Medal. Selberg moved to the United States and settled at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey in the 1950s where he remained until his death. During the 1950s he worked on introducing spectral theory into number theory, culminating in his development of the Selberg trace formula, the most famous and influential of his results. In its simplest form, this establishes a duality between the lengths of closed geodesics on a compact Riemann surface and the eigenvalues of the Laplacian, analogous to the duality between the prime numbers and the zeros of the zeta function, he was awarded the 1986 Wolf Prize in Mathematics. He was awarded an honorary Abel Prize in 2002, its founding year, before the awarding of the regular prizes began. Selberg received many distinctions for his work in addition to the Fields Medal, the Wolf Prize and the Gunnerus Medal, he was elected to the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

In 1972 he was awarded doctor philos. Honoris causa, at the Norwegian Institute of Technology part of Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Selberg had Ingrid Selberg and Lars Selberg. Ingrid Selberg is married to playwright Mustapha Matura, he died at home in New Jersey on 6 August 2007 of heart failure. Atle Selberg Collected Papers: 1, ISBN 0-387-18389-2 Collected Papers, ISBN 3-540-50626-8 Albers, Donald J. and Alexanderson, Gerald L. Fascinating Mathematical People: interviews and memoirs, "Atle Selberg", pp 254–73, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-14829-8. Baas, Nils A.. "The lord of the numbers, Atle Selberg. On his life and mathematics". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 45: 617–649. Doi:10.1090/S0273-0979-08-01223-8. Interview with Selberg Hejhal, Dennis. "Remembering Atle Selberg, 1917–2007". Notices of the American Mathematical Society. 56: 692–710. Selberg. "Reflections Around the Ramanujan Centenary". Atle Selberg at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Atle Selberg at the Encyclopædia Britannica O'Connor, John J..

Atle Selberg Archive webpage Obituary at IAS Obituary in The Times Atle Selbergs private archive exists at NTNU University Library

George Pardee House

The George Pardee House is a single-family home located at 603 North Ball Street in Owosso, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. George Pardee was one of Owosso's most successful lawyers. In 1906, he contracted local builder T. H. Bouser to build this home; the Pardee House is an eclectic Romanesque Revival-inspired building with an elaborately gabled roofline. The facade is of rough-faced poured concrete block with heavy stone bandcourses; the massive front porch has a rounded arch entryway. On one corner of the house is a five-sided, three story tower; the gable ends are recessed, contain classically-inspired Palladian windows. Other windows in the face contain leaded glass diamond insets

Quebradillas, Puerto Rico

Quebradillas is a municipality of the island of Puerto Rico located in the north-western shore bordering the Atlantic Ocean, north of San Sebastián. Quebradillas is spread over Quebradillas Pueblo, it is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area. Quebradillas is called "La Guarida del Pirata". A well known beach in the area, Puerto Hermina, is home to an old structure known to have been a hiding place for pirates and their contraband; the town was founded in 1823 by Felipe Ruiz. This town derives its name from the large amount of streams flowing through it; the name means "small streams". Quebradillas is home to one of the 20 designated forest preserves in Puerto Rico, the Guajataca Forest; the forest serves as a great example of an unusual topography known as karst country. Karst is characterized by dissolved limestone formations such as sinkholes and haystack-shaped hills known as "mogotes", it is home to the beautiful man-made reservoir, Guajataca Lake, where you can fish for largemouth bass, peacock bass and bluegill.

You can go hiking or camping. The Puerto Rico Council of the Boy Scouts of America maintains a campground on the lake known as Camp Guajataka; the name Guajataca comes from the name of a Taíno Indian chief. This Indian chief gives his name to Guajataca Beach to the north where Río Guajataca flowing from Guajataca Lake meets the Atlantic Ocean. Guajataca Beach is known for its white sands and wild waters; this beach is ideal for collecting seashells. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Quebradillas is subdivided into barrios; the municipal buildings, central square and large Catholic church are located in a barrio referred to as "el pueblo". Cacao Charcas Cocos Guajataca Quebradillas barrio-pueblo San Antonio San José Terranova The general climate of the town is subtropical; the United States took control of Puerto Rico from Spain in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898 and conducted its first census of Puerto Rico, finding that the population of Quebradillas was 7,432.

There are 6 beaches in Quebradillas. The main attractions of Quebradillas are: El Merendero Guajataca Lake Reservoir La Cabeza del Indio The Old Liberty Theater El Museo de Muñecas - in Barrios Cocos Guajataka Scout Reservation Puerto Hermina Beach Pirate Ruins El Puente Blanco Casa Rafols-Iribas, site of Casa de la Cultura Cacique Mabodamaca Los Chorritos Pirata Mini golf course Mosaic of nature Miradero Guajataca Race kart course A small shopping center called Quebradillas Plaza is located in this municipality along with some manufacturing industries. An event which negatively affected the region in the decade of the 1990s was the disappearance of tax exemptions to the private corporations, which at the time was the ideal excuse for the closing of one of the greater manufacturers of textiles in the northwest area of the island; this decline of the industry of the needle occurred in the bordering cities like Isabela and Camuy, generating a regional economic decline as the locals depended on these jobs.

In nearby towns like Hatillo, Mayagüez and Aguadilla, the arrival of mega stores and new shopping centers attracted the jobs that used to be in Quebradillas, helping to create the general vision of the town as "ghostly" because there is little movement in the city. At the same time, since the Island lacks mass public transportation, people must resort to private cars used as a bus as a mode of transportation. This, coupled with the fact that the only road to access the important cities, the Puerto Rico Highway 2, is congested most of the day, makes it difficult for people in the area to find work and thus contributes to the general economic decline; the town possesses one tunnel that at the beginning of the 20th century was utilized by steam driven trains that traveled throughout the Island. The disappearance of the same is considered as one of the most ironic facts of the modern history of Puerto Rico, since these railways were extensive, built through earthly bluffs and were of great utility.

Today, their absence only aggravates the problem of mass transit and the dependence on owned vehicles as the only method of transportation. The economy, entering into the 21st century, is based on retail sales. Many small businesses are located along the two main thoroughfares; these consist of light hardware, pharmacies, seafood restaurants, American fast food chains and automobile car repair shops. The town has bank branches for local savings and credit Unions; these credit unions are most noted for their involvement in common and cultural activities and participating in festivals of typical music and educational activities. Spearheaded by governor Sila María Calderón, Law 1-2001 was passed in 2001, to identify Puerto Rico's marginalized communities. In 2017 governor Ricardo Rosselló created a new government agency to work with the Special Communities of Puerto Rico Program. Of the 742 places on the list of Comunidades Espec

Raymond Corbett Shannon

Raymond Corbett Shannon was an American entomologist who specialised in Diptera and medical entomology. Shannon was born in Washington D. C, he was orphaned as a child. His studies at Cornell University were interrupted by World War I, but he received his B. S. from there in 1923. He was employed by the U. S. Bureau of Entomology from 1912–1916, again from 1923–1925. In 1926, he began graduate studies at George Washington University, from 1927 on he was employed by the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation, he published over 100 articles on the characteristics and behavior of insects and on their aspects as disease vectors. One of his discoveries, in 1930, was of the arrival of Anopheles gambiae, the mosquito that carries malaria, into the New World. On his death at the age of 50, he left his library and insect collection to the Smithsonian Institution, his wife was Elnora Pettit Hundley. His son was DePaul University accounting professor Donald Sutherlin Shannon, his grandson is actor Michael Shannon.

Gillette, Horace P. S. Mallis, A. American Entomologists, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press, pp. 499–500. Osborn, H. Fragments of Entomological History Including Some Personal Recollections of Men and Events, Columbus, OH, pp. 1–394. Published by the author. Malarial Expert Dies: Dr. Shannon, With Rockefeller Foundation, Leaves 2 Notes, New York Times, March 9, 1945

Saskatchewan Highway 55

Highway 55 is a paved, undivided provincial highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Alberta Highway 55 the Alberta border, west of Pierceland, to Highway 9, near Mountain Cabin. Highway 55 is 652 km long, it forms part of the interprovincial Northern Water Route. On the West portion of Highway 55 from the Alberta border, the Village of Pierceland is located at Highway 21. To the North of Pierceland is the Meadow Lake Provincial Park; this top rated Park stretches about 115 kilometres from the Alberta border to just North of the City of Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan. The regional park of Morin Lake is 15 km south of the highway near Debden and Victoire, Saskatchewan. Nipawin Bridge located on highway 55 is Saskatchewan's longest bridge. Wildcat Hill Provincial Park is located just south of the eastern end of the highway, however the park itself is only accessible by ATV or snowmobile. From west to east

2009 Italian electoral law referendum

Three referendums on reforming the electoral law were held in Italy on 21–22 June 2009. They were promoted by Mario Segni, Giovanni Guzzetta, Arturo Parisi, Antonio Martino and Daniele Capezzone. With a turnout of 23.31% / 23.84%, the referendums did not reach the necessary quorum of 50% voters, so were not valid. The three questions were about giving the majority prize to the most voted list in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate as opposed to the most voted coalition, as is the current law, about preventing politicians from standing in multiple constituencies at the same time; the Promoting Committee and Democratic Party had proposed holding the referendums together with European Parliament elections, whereas The People of Freedom as its main ally, the Lega Nord, opposed the referendums and answered that never, in Italian history, an election and a referendum were jointly celebrated. Several PdL party officials had long supported the referendums, the main long-term goal of the PdL being to transform Italian politics into a two-party system.

The PD saw the referendums as an opportunity to overcome its current political hard times and to divide the centre-right. The referendums did not reach the quorum required by law for their validity. Italian Chamber of Deputies — Abrogation of the connection between lists and of the attribution of the majority prize to a coalition of lists. Italian Senate — Abrogation of the connection between lists and of the attribution of the majority prize to a coalition of lists. Italian Chamber of Deputies — Abrogation of the possibility for a candidate to stand for election in more than one constituency