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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention, reducing temperature extremes between day and night. By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, small amounts of other gases. Air contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air composition and atmospheric pressure vary with altitude, air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth's troposphere and in artificial atmospheres; the atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15×1018 kg, three quarters of, within about 11 km of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space.

The Kármán line, at 100 km, or 1.57% of Earth's radius, is used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km. Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition; the study of Earth's atmosphere and its processes is called atmospheric science. Early pioneers in the field include Richard Assmann; the three major constituents of Earth's atmosphere are nitrogen and argon. Water vapor accounts for 0.25% of the atmosphere by mass. The concentration of water vapor varies from around 10 ppm by volume in the coldest portions of the atmosphere to as much as 5% by volume in hot, humid air masses, concentrations of other atmospheric gases are quoted in terms of dry air; the remaining gases are referred to as trace gases, among which are the greenhouse gases, principally carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ozone. Besides argon mentioned, other noble gases, helium and xenon are present.

Filtered air includes trace amounts of many other chemical compounds. Many substances of natural origin may be present in locally and seasonally variable small amounts as aerosols in an unfiltered air sample, including dust of mineral and organic composition and spores, sea spray, volcanic ash. Various industrial pollutants may be present as gases or aerosols, such as chlorine, fluorine compounds and elemental mercury vapor. Sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide may be derived from natural sources or from industrial air pollution; the average molecular weight of dry air, which can be used to calculate densities or to convert between mole fraction and mass fraction, is about 28.946 or 28.96 g/mol. This is decreased; the relative concentration of gases remains constant until about 10,000 m. In general, air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere. However, temperature has a more complicated profile with altitude, may remain constant or increase with altitude in some regions.

Because the general pattern of the temperature/altitude profile, or lapse rate, is constant and measurable by means of instrumented balloon soundings, the temperature behavior provides a useful metric to distinguish atmospheric layers. In this way, Earth's atmosphere can be divided into five main layers. Excluding the exosphere, the atmosphere has four primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere and thermosphere. From highest to lowest, the five main layers are: Exosphere: 700 to 10,000 km Thermosphere: 80 to 700 km Mesosphere: 50 to 80 km Stratosphere: 12 to 50 km Troposphere: 0 to 12 km The exosphere is the outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere, it extends from the exobase, located at the top of the thermosphere at an altitude of about 700 km above sea level, to about 10,000 km where it merges into the solar wind. This layer is composed of low densities of hydrogen and several heavier molecules including nitrogen and carbon dioxide closer to the exobase; the atoms and molecules are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another.

Thus, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, the particles escape into space. These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate in and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind; the exosphere is located too far above Earth for any meteorological phenomena to be possible. However, the aurora borealis and aurora australis sometimes occur in the lower part of the exosphere, where they overlap into the thermosphere; the exosphere contains most of the satellites orbiting Earth. The thermosphere is the second-highest layer of Earth's atmosphere, it extends from the mesopause at an altitude of about 80 km up to the thermopause at an altitude range of 500–1000 km. The height of the thermopause varies due to changes in solar activity; because the thermopause lies at the lower boundary of the exosphere, it is referred to as th

Treat Her Like a Lady (Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose song)

"Treat Her Like a Lady" is a 1971 single by Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose. Written by Eddie Cornelius, it was a big success in the American R&B and pop charts reaching the U. S. R&B Top 20 and the Billboard Hot 100 No. 3 in July. The song charted in Canada, reaching No. 10. Billboard ranked "Treat Her Like a Lady" as the No. 15 song for 1971. The record was awarded a gold disc on 2 August 1971 for one million sales by the Recording Industry Association of America. "Treat Her Like a Lady" appeared during the opening credits of Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy. Billboard Hot 100: Reached #3 in July Cashbox: 92, 89, 88, 85, 79, 70, 65, 54, 45, 37, 31, 26, 14, 10, 8, 5, 2, 3, 6, 8, 25, 35, 53 "Treat Her Like a Lady" was covered on March 30, 2010, during the ninth season of American Idol by Lee DeWyze

Eduard Vogel

Eduard Vogel was a German explorer in Central Africa. Vogel was born in Krefeld, he studied mathematics and astronomy at Leipzig and Berlin, studying with Encke at the latter institution. In 1851, he was engaged as assistant astronomer to director John Russel Hind at George Bishop's private observatory in London; that year August Heinrich Petermann introduced Vogel to the Royal Geographical Society. In 1853 Petermann arranged for Vogel to be chosen by the British government to join the Richardson and Barth expedition with supplies; that expedition had been sent to Africa in 1849 to find a trade route. Vogel was to be a replacement for Richardson who had died two years earlier and was tasked to make geographical and meteorological observations and to collect botanical specimens. In 1853, the expedition was in the western Sudan. Vogel sailed from England on 20 February 1853; the day Vogel left London, news had arrived that Overweg had died, leaving Barth on his own. On 25 July, Vogel left Tripoli with a caravan to catch up with Barth.

Vogel arrived at the end of the Trans-Saharan trade route, the capital of Bornu on 13 January 1854. Vogel's specimens, the fact that both expedition engineers were soldiers, made the king there suspicious of his intentions, Vogel's movements were restricted. Instead of waiting for Barth to return, on 19 July, Vogel joined a steamboat expedition heading up the Niger and Benue Rivers to the Mandara Mountains where he was imprisoned by the king of Mora who had received a message about the suspicious stranger from Bornu. Vogel escaped to Marghi in Nigeria where he waited for news of Barth. Upon hearing of a change of king in Bornu, Vogel returned to wait for Barth, whom he met December 1854. By some accounts Vogel was disliked by the other members of the expedition due to his poor attitude, difficult personality and unwillingness to learn Arabic, the lingua franca of north Africa; the arrival of Barth helped defuse some of the conflict, although one of the two engineers refused to travel any further while Vogel was part of the expedition.

Barth himself contemplated stealing his equipment. Vogel left Barth, taking one engineer and four servants headed for Bauchi where he ingratiated himself with the Emir by killing a man the Emir disliked, he became the first European to cross the Muri mountains angering the Tangale people in the process as he desecrated their shrines by sleeping in them during the journey. He penetrated south to the upper course of the Benue, returning to Kuka 1 December 1855. From this date, the notes of his expedition cease. Vogel left Kuka for the Nile Valley, leaving his engineer, MacGuire, with his notes and specimen collections. Vogel got as far as Wadai in southern Sudan. MacGuire was killed by brigands while returning to Tripoli. Several search expeditions were organized to ascertain Vogel's fate and to recover his papers, but it was not until 1873 that Gustav Nachtigal, on reaching Wadai, learnt of the circumstances of Vogel's February 1856 death in Wara, the capital of Wadai. Nachtigal's account was that Vogel's odd habit of existing solely on eggs and writing with a pencil rather than the expected ink was of concern to the Sultan's advisors who had advised the Sultan to kill him "just in case".

The sultan was hesitant but Vogel climbed Mount Treya, sacred and off limits to all but the highest officials. Vogel was beaten to death by Kubartu with iron tipped cudgels. According to Nachtigal, Kubartu were a Wadai clan consisting of executioners, his sister Elise Vogel Polko was a popular German novelist. She published his notes in her Erinnerungen an einen Verschollenen. Another resource is Adolf Pahde's Der Afrikaforscher Eduard Vogel. Hamburg, 1889. Polko, Elise. Erinnerungen an einen Verschollenen: Aufzeichnungen und Briefe von und über Eduard Vogel. Leipzig: Weber. Wright, Ed. Lost Explorers. Murdock Books. ISBN 978-1-74196-139-3. Gilman, D. C.. "Vogel, Eduard". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Vogel, Eduard". Encyclopedia Americana

Binghamton Rumble Ponies

The Binghamton Rumble Ponies are an American minor league baseball team based in Binghamton, New York. The team, which plays in the Eastern League, is the Double-A affiliate of the New York Mets major-league club; the Rumble Ponies play in NYSEG Stadium, located in Binghamton. In 1976, the franchise played as the Williamsport Bills in Pennsylvania, it played in Jersey City, New Jersey, in 1977 and 1978 Buffalo, New York, from 1979 through 1984. It returned to Williamsport in 1987; the team was an affiliate of the Cleveland Indians in 1987 and 1988, of the Seattle Mariners during the 1989 and 1990 seasons. It was purchased by the New York Mets in 1991, moved to Binghamton in 1992 as the Binghamton Mets. In 2016, the franchise announced a plan to stay in Binghamton for the foreseeable future, to change the team's name; the team held a name-the-team contest on its website from May 17 to June 1. On November 3, 2016, the team announced that it would be rebranding as the Binghamton Rumble Ponies, released a new logo.

In 2019, Major League Baseball released a proposal to sever ties with 42 minor-league teams, including the Rumble Ponies and fellow AA teams Erie SeaWolves and Chattanooga Lookouts. At least some of the 42 teams are expected to cease operations if they lose their major-league affiliations. Williamsport Bills1987: 60–79, managers Steve Swisher & Orlando Gomez 1988: 66–73, manager Mike Hargrove 1989: 63–77, manager Jay Ward 1990: 61–79, manager Rich Morales 1991: 60–79, manager Clint HurdleBinghamton Mets Binghamton Rumble Ponies Official website Statistics from Baseball-Reference

Spoon theory

The spoon theory or spoon metaphor is a disability metaphor, a neologism used to explain the reduced amount of mental and physical energy available for activities of living and productive tasks that may result from disability or chronic illness. Spoons are a visual representation used as a unit of measure in order to quantify how much energy a person has throughout a given day; each activity requires a given number of spoons, which will only be replaced as the person "recharges" through rest. A person who runs out of spoons has no choice; this metaphor is used to describe the planning that many people have to do to conserve and ration their energy reserves to accomplish their activities of daily living. The planning and rationing of energy-consuming tasks has been described as being a major concern of those with chronic and fatigue-related diseases, illness, or conditions; the theory explains the difference between those who don't seem to have energy limits and those that do. The theory is used to facilitate discussions between those with limited energy reserves and those without.

Because healthy people are not concerned with the energy expended during ordinary tasks such as bathing and getting dressed, the theory can help others empathize with the consequences of chronic illness or pain on daily routine. Spoons are discussed within autoimmune, disability and other chronic illness online communities, as an emic descriptor; the term spoonie is sometimes used to refer to a person with a chronic illness that can be explained with the spoon theory. The term spoons in this sense was coined by Christine Miserandino in 2003 in her essay "The Spoon Theory"; the essay describes a conversation between a friend. The discussion was initiated by a question from the friend in which she asked about what having lupus feels like; the essay describes the actions of Miserandino, who took spoons from nearby tables to use as a visual aid. She handed her friend twelve spoons and asked her to describe the events of a typical day, taking a spoon away for each activity. In this way, she demonstrated that her spoons, or units of energy, must be rationed to avoid running out before the end of the day.

Miserandino asserted that it is possible to exceed one's daily limit, but that doing so means borrowing from the future and may result in not having enough spoons the next day. Miserandino suggested that spoon theory can be helpful for explaining the experience of living with any disease or illness. In a 2016 article for The Sydney Morning Herald, freelance writer Naomi Chainey, who has chronic fatigue syndrome, describes how the theory can be applied to mental health conditions and cognitive or social disabilities, such as autism or major depressive disorder, as long as they are chronic conditions, but it most refers to the experience of having an invisible disability, because people with no outward symptoms or symbols of their condition are perceived as lazy, inconsistent or having poor time management skills by those who have no first-hand knowledge of living with a chronic illness. She describes how the term has been appropriated by some in the wider disability community, the able-bodied community, to refer to non-chronic forms of fatigue and mental exhaustion – which she attributes to people with invisible disabilities being a sometimes marginalized group within the disability community.

According to the spoon theory, spoons may be replaced after a night of sleep. However, people with chronic diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, various disabilities may have sleep difficulties; this can result in a low supply of energy. Some people with a disability may not be fatigued by the disabilities themselves, but by the constant effort required to pass as non-disabled. Chronic pain Ego depletion Invisible disability Opportunity cost

Laetentur Caeli

Laetentur Caeli: Bulla Unionis Graecorum was a papal bull issued on 6 July 1439 by Pope Eugene IV at the Council of Ferrara-Florence. It reunited the Roman Catholic Church with the Eastern Orthodox Churches, temporarily ending the East–West Schism; the incipit of the bull is derived from Psalms 95:11 in the Vulgate Bible. In 1439 the Byzantine Empire was on the verge of collapse, retaining little more than the city of Constantinople, as the Ottoman Empire swept into Europe. During the reign of John V Palaiologos in the preceding century, the Byzantine Emperor had issued pleas to the West for aid in exchange for a union of the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches. In 1369, after the fall of Adrianople to the Ottomans, John V had again issued a plea for help, hastening to Rome and publicly converting to Roman Catholicism. Help had not come, John V was instead forced to become a vassal of Ottoman Sultan Murad I. A brief respite from Ottoman control came as Timur pressured the Ottomans on the east, but by the 1420s Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos again acutely felt the need for assistance from the West.

He again made the same plea his predecessor had, travelling with a delegation to the Council of Ferrara-Florence to reconcile with the Western Church. He consulted with Neoplatonist philosopher Gemistus Pletho, who advised him that the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox delegations should have equal voting power at the Council. In order to help the Russian Orthodox Church unite with the Western Church, John VIII appointed Isidore of Kiev as Metropolitan of Kiev in 1436 against the wishes of Vasily II of Moscow; the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches had developed several theological differences in the course of the East–West Schism of 1054 and the centuries following. The chief difference revolved around the insertion of the word Filioque into the Latin version of the Nicene Creed by the Roman Catholic Church, which Orthodox bishops had refused to accept. Thus, Eastern Orthodox dogma held that the Holy Spirit proceeded from God the Father, whereas Roman Catholic dogma held that it proceeded from both the Father and the Son.

The Eastern bishops at the Council of Florence emphatically denied that an ecumenical council had the power to add anything to the creed. A second central issue was that of Papal supremacy, which the Orthodox bishops had rejected. Important was the issue of the doctrine of Purgatory, which the Eastern churches rejected, the issue of leavening, wherein the Orthodox Churches used leavened bread for the Eucharist while the Roman Catholics used unleavened bread; the 700 Eastern Orthodox delegates at the Council of Ferrara-Florence were maintained at the Pope's expense. Eastern Orthodox Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople was in attendance, but when he died before the council ended, Emperor John VIII took Church matters into his own hands. To this end, he appointed the pro-union Metrophanes II of Constantinople as Joseph II's successor. In the summer of 1439 the council was moved from Ferrara to Florence because, at the instigation of Cosimo de' Medici, Florence offered to pay to maintain the Greek delegates, whom the Papacy was struggling to support.

Since the Roman Catholic West held all of the bargaining power given John VIII's desperate situation, the union of the churches was a simple matter for John: the Emperor ordered the Eastern representatives to accept the Western doctrines of the Filioque, Papal supremacy, Purgatory, as Eugene IV asked. In return, Eugene pledged to provide military assistance for the defence of Constantinople and to encourage the King of Germany Albrecht II to war against the Ottomans. On 6 July 1439 the Emperor and all of the present bishops except one assented, signing their names to Eugene's Articles of Union; the day was proclaimed a public holiday in Florence, the Day of Union, triumphal ceremonies were held. Eugene IV officially proclaimed the union in the form of a bull, Laetentur Coeli; the bull was read from the pulpit of the Florence Cathedral by a Greek, Basilios Bessarion, a Latin, Julian Cesarini. Laetentur Caeli contained the first formal conciliar definition of Papal primacy, it has been suggested that Eugenius IV insisted on this because his primacy was at the time being threatened by a rival Antipope, Felix V, the Conciliar Movement at the Council of Basel.

The bull mentioned no differences between Eastern and Western understandings of the Papacy but rather restated the Western position. On the subject of the Filioque, it took a similar tone, emphasizing the commonalities between the theologies of the East and West but siding with the Roman Catholic position without mentioning Eastern Orthodox objections. On the subject of bread, the bull provided for either unleavened or leavened bread to be used according to local custom; the doctrine of Purgatory and the effectiveness of prayer for those in Purgatory were affirmed, again according to the Roman Catholic doctrine. The bull defined the order of primacy among the patriarchs of the pentarchy as being Rome, Alexandria and lastly Jerusalem; the lone dissenting voice against the bull was that of Mark of Ephesus, who refused to compromise on either the Filioque or Purgatory and held that Rome continued in heresy and schism. Upon seeing that Mark's signature was missing, Eugene IV responded, “And so we have accomplished nothing.”

Nonetheless the union was