Oklahoma State Highway 3
State Highway 3 abbreviated as SH-3 or OK-3, is a highway maintained by the U. S. state of Oklahoma. Traveling diagonally through Oklahoma, from the Panhandle to the far southeastern corner of the state, SH-3 is the longest state highway in the Oklahoma road system, at a total length of 615 miles via SH-3E. Highway 3 begins at the Colorado state line 19 mi north of Oklahoma. At this terminus, it is concurrent with US-287/US-385, it remains concurrent with the two U. S. Routes until reaching Boise City, where it encounters a traffic circle which contains five other highways. After the circle, US-385 splits off, SH-3 overlaps US-287, US-56, US-64, US-412, though US-56 and US-287 both split off within the next 8 miles. In Guymon, US-64 splits off. At Elmwood, US-270 joins US-412, coming from a concurrency with State Highway 23. SH-3 remains concurrent with US-270 through Watonga. In Seiling, US-183 leaves the concurrency but is replaced by U. S. Highway 281. SH-33 joins the roadbed 20 miles later. In Watonga, SH-33 and SH-3 split off from US-270 and US-281.
Highways 3 and 33 remain concurrent for 28 more miles, until Kingfisher, where SH-3 joins U. S. Highway 81, it will stay concurrent with US-81 through the town of Okarche. Three miles after Okarche, SH-3 leaves US-81; this marks the first point. Beginning at the split from US-81, Highway 3 becomes a major artery in the Oklahoma City highway system known as the Northwest Expressway because it is a diagonal route and because it serves the northwestern part of the metro area, it skirts the northern limits of El Reno before entering the Oklahoma City limits. The often-congested Northwest Expressway passes through the suburb of Warr Acres and passes close to Lake Hefner. At the intersection with the Lake Hefner Parkway, SH-3 again re-enters a concurrency; the Lake Hefner Parkway ends shortly after, SH-3 becomes concurrent with Interstate 44 through the western side of the city. Near Will Rogers World Airport, Highway 3 transfers to I-240 along the southern side of the city. After I-240 ends, SH-3 is transferred onto I-40.
In Shawnee, SH-3 splits into two highways, SH-3E and SH-3W. SH-3W splits off I-40 onto U. S. Highway 177, along with US-270, at I-40 milemarker 181, it continues along with US-270 and 177 through the west side of Shawnee, continues south of that city until Tecumseh, where US-270 splits off. South of Asher, Oklahoma, SH-3W leaves veers southeast toward Ada. SH-3E, the longer of the two split routes, was the original routing of Highway 3 before the two highways were split, it remains on I-40 for five miles. When it does split off, it soon joins SH-18, it follows a route closer to the center of Shawnee. After leaving Shawnee, it heads southeast toward Seminole. Here, it meets US-377/SH-99. SH-3E merges onto this highway, they will remain concurrent until after they reach Ada. In Ada, SH-3E and SH-3W are become SH-3 once again. SH-3 becomes part of the Richardson Loop, a freeway around the west and south sides of Ada. Throughout the Richardson Loop, it overlaps US-377 / SH-99 at different times; the highway becomes two-lane once again and heads southeast to the town of Coalgate, where begins an 18-mile concurrency with U.
S. Highway 75, lasting through Atoka. In Atoka, US-75 splits off to join U. S. Highway 69. Two miles west of Antlers, the highway has an interchange with the Indian Nation Turnpike, in Antlers it intersects U. S. Highway 271. After reaching the town of Broken Bow, Oklahoma, it turns southward and overlaps US-259 and US-70. Near Idabel, the highway splits off after being with US-259 for 13 mi. Twenty-eight miles it becomes Highway 32 as it crosses the state line into Arkansas; the current SH-3 was designated on 15 May 1939. The original highway included all of current SH-3 up to Antlers, where it terminated at US-271, it was extended to the Arkansas state line on 4 August 1952. SH-3 ended there concurrent with US-70 and SH-7, near Arkansas. On 7 January 1963, the highway was given its own alignment from near Idabel to Arkansas, taking over that of SH-21, eliminated at that time. From the highway's commissioning to 1976, there was only one fork of SH-3 between Shawnee and Ada, the path of current SH-3E.
SH-3W and SH-3E were created on 4 October 1976. Other than minor realignments, the highway remains the same today. In the early 1980s, Governor George Nigh was able to obtain $97.1 million to upgrade the highway between Oklahoma City and Colorado, despite opponents labeling the project "the highway to nowhere". House Concurrent Resolution 1067 labeled the highway as "Governor George Nigh's Northwest Passage." ODOT named the highway on 2 February 1981. SH-3's concurrency with Interstate 44 in Oklahoma City is an example of a wrong-way concurrency – I-44 West is SH-3 East and vice versa. SH-3's concurrency with US-70 is a wrong-way concurrency, as US-70 is signed as going west and SH-3 as going east; the SH-3 bypass around Atoka is named the Cecil B. "Bud" Greathouse Bypass. It was designated by ODOT on 4 October 1982. SH-3 had one lettered spur, SH-3A, which continued the alignment of the Northwest Expressway for two more miles before ending at Interstate 44 near Penn Square Mall, it was known as SH-66A, a spur off U.
S. Highway 66; the combined effect of US-66 being decommissioned and "3A" being a more logical name for an extension of Highway 3 led to the name change. State Highway 3A was decommissioned in 2009. SH-3 at OKHighways.com SH-3E at O
Oklahoma's 2nd congressional district
Oklahoma's Second Congressional District is one of five United States Congressional districts in Oklahoma and covers one-fourth of the state in the east. The district borders Arkansas, Kansas and Texas and includes a total of 24 counties; the district has supported conservative Democrats, was reckoned as a classic Yellow Dog Democrat district. However, the growing Republican trend in the state has overtaken the district since the start of the 21st century. In the last two elections, the Republican presidential candidate has carried it by the largest margin in the state. Urban voters represent a third of the district; the district is represented by Republican Markwayne Mullin, becoming only the second Republican after Tom Coburn to hold the seat since 1921. The district borders Kansas to the north and Arkansas to the east, Texas to the south, it covers all or part of 26 counties. It includes the remainder of Rogers County, not included in the 1st District, also, all of the following counties: Adair, Craig, Mayes, Cherokee, Muskogee, Okfuskee, McIntosh, Haskell, LeFlore, Pittsburg, Coal, Pushmataha, McCurtain, Bryan and Johnston.
Some of the principal cities in the district include Miami, Muskogee, Okmulgee, McAlester, Durant. The northern half of the district includes most of the area of Oklahoma referred to as Green Country, while the southern half of the district includes a part of Oklahoma referred to as Little Dixie. According to the 2000 U. S. Census, the district is 35.51 percent urban, 23.95 percent non-white, has a population, 2.40 percent Latino and 1.36 percent foreign-born. The district has a higher percentage of Native Americans than any other congressional district in Oklahoma, its representative, Markwayne Mullin, is one of two Native Americans serving in Congress. Presidential races Source: 2004 Election Results, via OK.gov Source: 2006 Election Results, via OK.gov Source: 2008 Election Results, via OK.gov Source: 2010 Election Results, via OK.gov The district favored conservative Democratic candidates, with only three Republicans taking the district. The district shifted Republican most notably in electing Tom Coburn, who vacated the seat due to a self-imposed term limit pledge.
It has since been held by Dan Boren. In 2012 the 2nd has again elected a Republican to the House and current Rep is Markwayne Mullin and a Pentecostal; the district's Democratic leanings stem from historic migration patterns into the state. The Little Dixie region of the district imported the people and culture of southern states such as Mississippi after Reconstruction. Voter registration in Little Dixie runs as high as 90 percent Democratic. Additionally, Native Americans in the region tend to vote for Democratic candidates and they have helped Democratic candidates win statewide elections; this is where Democratic presidential candidates perform best in the state. Bill Clinton carried the district in 1992 and 1996. However, the district has been swept up in the growing Republican trend in Oklahoma. George W. Bush received 59 percent of the vote in this district in 2004. John McCain received 66 percent of the vote in this district in 2008. Muskogee has produced more than any other city in the district.
Tahlequah has produced the second most of any city in the district. Oklahoma's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Atoka is a city in, the county seat of, Atoka County, United States. The population was 3,107 at the 2010 census, an increase of 4.0 percent from 2,988 at the 2000 census. The city was settled by the Choctaw and named in 1867 by a Baptist missionary for Chief Atoka, whose name means "ball ground" in English. Atoka was founded by the Choctaw Indians in the 1850s, named for Captain Atoka, a leader of the Choctaw Nation and the signer of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, which began the process of re-locating the Choctaw people from Mississippi to Oklahoma in 1830; the name "Atoka" is derived from the Choctaw word hitoka. He is believed to be buried near the town of Farris. Atoka is the site of the oldest Catholic parish in the Indian Territory, the oldest chapter of the Freemasons in Oklahoma, the oldest chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star in Oklahoma. A small Civil War confrontation occurred on February 1864, north of Atoka. Early in 1864, Colonel William A. Philips set out with some 1,500 Union troops from Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, to cut a swath through Confederate Indian Territory.
Their purpose was to break Confederate control over the Indian Territory and gain the support and recruits from the Native Americans. "I take you with me to clean out the Indian Nation south of the river and drive away and destroy rebels. Let me say a few words to you that you are not to forget.... Those who are still in arms are rebels. Do not kill a prisoner after he has surrendered, but I do not ask you to take prisoners. I ask you to make your footsteps terrible. Muskogees! the time has now come when you are to remember the authors of all your sufferings. Stand by me faithfully and we will soon have peace...." -- Colonel William A. Philips, to his men before beginning the campaign Along the way, Colonel Phillips sent out an advance of about 350 men toward Boggy Depot, a large Confederate supply base located on the Texas Road with the intention of capturing the outpost. While en route, his command encountered a small Confederate camp on the banks of the Middle Boggy River, made up of around 90 Confederate soldiers.
In the ensuing skirmish 47 Confederate soldiers were killed. Among the dead were those wounded, left behind when their comrades retreated, they were found on the battlefield with their throats slashed. There were no Union deaths as a result of the battle; the Confederate Museum in Atoka commemorates this battle. Though the Choctaw Indians had inhabited the area since the 1830s with a small town located near the city today, the city was founded by a Baptist missionary named J. S. Murrow in 1867 and supplanted the dying town of Boggy Depot as the chief city in Atoka County. A main contributing factor in the early growth of Atoka was the MKT Railroad, which came through the area in 1872; the railroad provided the economic lifeblood to Atoka that any isolated rural town needs to survive and flourish. Many businesses moved to Atoka from Boggy Depot. In 1872, Father Michael Smyth founded St. Patrick's Catholic Church; this was the first Roman Catholic church in. On October 12, 1875, the Sacred Heart Mission, what became St. Gregory's University, was founded in Atoka by the Benedictine monks Father Isidore Robot, O.
S. B. and Brother Dominic Lambert, O. S. B. In 1876, the mission relocated to near Konawa and became an abbey. About 1896, Robert L. Williams, who would become the third Governor of Oklahoma and first Chief Justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court, moved to Atoka from Troy, Alabama. In 1898, land allotments were implemented and town lots were sold, as required by the Dawes Commission. Despite being strategically located at the intersection of two major highways, Atoka is struggling to create a town attractive to both new business and new residents. Though the town has experienced an economic upturn in the past few years, it still lacks the main thing that ensures economic prosperity and attracts new residents: well-paying jobs. However, there is a beacon of hope for Atoka in the future. For the past several years, economic growth has been moving northward along U. S. 75 from Dallas, Texas. Two towns located to the south of Atoka, Durant and Sherman, are experiencing tremendous economic and population growth.
As this wave of development moves north, the next town in line is the city of Atoka. If the growth continues, it is possible that Atoka could begin to see the type of expansion underway across the Red River to the south. National Register of Historic Places sites in Atoka include the Atoka Armory Building, Atoka Community Building, Boggy Depot Site, First Methodist Church Building, the Indian Citizen Building, the Old Masonic Temple building, the Middle Boggy Battlefield Site and Confederate Cemetery, Old Atoka County Courthouse, Old Atoka State Bank, Pioneer Club, Joe Ralls House, Captain James S. Standley House and the Zweigel Hardware Store Building. Atoka is located at 34°23′3″N 96°7′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.5 square miles, of which 8.3 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles, or 2.00%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,107 people residing in the city; the population density was 354.7 people per square mile. There were 1,499 housing units at an average density of 178.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 72.86% White, 11.51% African American, 10.27% Nativ
Pittsburg County, Oklahoma
Pittsburg County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,837, its county seat is McAlester. The county was formed from part of the Choctaw Nation in Indian Territory in 1907. County leaders believed that its coal production compared favorably with Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at the time of statehood. Pittsburg County comprises OK Micropolitan Statistical Area; the area forms the present Pittsburg county was part of the Choctaw Nation after the Choctaw tribe was forced to relocate to Indian Territory from its home in the Southeastern United States in the early 1830s. Some important trails, including the Texas Road and one route of the California Trail passed through it. In 1840, James Perry established a village called Perryville that became an important stop near the place where the two trails crossed. During the Civil War, Perryville served as an important supply depot for Confederate forces until the Union Army captured and burned the town.
It became defunct after the Missouri and Texas Railway bypassed it in 1872, the remaining inhabitants moved to McAlester. The Butterfield Overland Mail route followed a route through this area. James J. McAlester moved to the Choctaw Nation in 1872, opened a trading post and married a Chickasaw woman; this qualified him to obtain citizenship rights in the Chickasaw Nations. When the MK&T built its line, McAlester laid claim to the coal deposits in the Perryville area, which he and some partners leased to the Osage Coal and Mining Company, owned by the Missouri Pacific Railroad and acquired by the MK&T in 1888. Pittsburg County was formed on July 1907 as an original county from Choctaw land. County leaders, thinking its coal production compared favorably with Pittsburgh, named the new county after the Pennsylvania city with the "h" removed. Coal mining continued to expand until the early 20th century. Production began to decline after 1920, never recovered. By 1966, the county production was no longer reported.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,378 square miles, of which 1,305 square miles is land and 72 square miles is water; the county's topography is hilly to mountainous. The Ouachita Mountains extend into the southeastern portion; the Canadian River drains most of the county and with Eufaula Lake form the northern boundary of the county. The southern part of the county is drained by several creeks that flow into the Kiamichi River and into the Red River. McIntosh County Haskell County Latimer County Pushmataha County Atoka County Coal County Hughes County As of the census of 2010, there were 45,837 people, 18,623 households, 15,389 families residing in the county; the population density was 13/km². There were 22,634 housing units at an average density of 6/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 73.6% White/Caucasian, 3.3% Black or African American, 13.8% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 7.6% from two or more races.
3.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.4% were of American, 12.7% Irish, 11.3% German, 9.4% English and 7.2% Italian ancestry according to Census 2010. There were 18,623 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.90% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 24.60% from 45 to 64, 17.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 101.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,679, the median income for a family was $35,190.
Males had a median income of $28,470 versus $19,886 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,494. About 13.60% of families and 17.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. Although Pittsburg county was noted for its coal production, agriculture has long been important to the county economy. Just after statehood, farmers controlled 20 percent of the county's land area; the most important cash crops were cotton. By 1960, sorghum had become the most important crop. In 2000, wheat had become the top crop. Manufacturing became significant when the U. S. Navy built an ammunition depot at McAlester during World War II, it employed 8,000 people in 1945. The U. S. Army took over the facility in 1977; the Corps of Engineers built Eufaula Lake between 1956 and 1964, which brought tourism, land development and a major source of hydroelectric power. Haileyville Hartshorne Krebs McAlester Arpelar Blanco Longtown Bache Blocker Bugtussle Haywood Ti The following sites in Pittsburg County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Choctaw County, Oklahoma
Choctaw County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,205, its county seat is Hugo. The county was created at the time of Oklahoma statehood. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, the name is derived from Chahta, the mythical founder of the Choctaw people; the Choctaw Nation moved into the area now occupied by Choctaw County in 1831-1832, as a result of their forcible expulsion from the Southeastern United States. The U. S. Army had established Fort Towson in the area in 1824, took on the mission of protecting the newcomers from other tribes. In 1837, the Chickasaws settled the area around Doaksville, adjacent to the fort. Both the town of Fort Towson and Doaksville served as the capital of the Choctaw Nation. Doaksville became a ghost town after the Civil War. In 1848, the Presbyterian church established a mission, which still exists and is now known as Goodland Academy; the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway built a line through the town of Hugo in 1902, causing the town to become a commercial center for the region.
Before statehood, the area of Choctaw County was part of Jackson, Kiamichi and Towson counties, Choctaw Nation. When Oklahoma became a state in 1907, Choctaw County was created and Hugo was named the county seat. In October 2011 the U. S. Navy announced plans to honor Choctaw County with the naming of a ship; the upcoming vessel—a Joint High Speed Vessel --will honor the three American counties named Choctaw County, in Alabama and Oklahoma. "I grew up in Miss.. Where people work hard to raise their families and provide for their children," Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus said in announcing the plan. "I chose to name JHSV after Choctaw County to honor those men and women who represent rural America." USNS Choctaw County will bear hull number JHSV-2. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 800 square miles, of which 770 square miles is land and 29 square miles is water; the major streams in the county are the Kiamichi River, the Muddy Boggy River and the Clear Boggy River, which all drain into the Red River.
Lakes include Hugo Lake, on the Kiamichi River, Raymond Gary Lake. U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 271 State Highway 93 Indian Nation Turnpike Pushmataha County McCurtain County Red River County, Texas Lamar County, Texas Bryan County Atoka County As of the census of 2000, there were 15,342 people, 6,220 households, 4,285 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 7,539 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.55% White, 10.94% Black or African American, 14.96% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 4.90% from two or more races. 1.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 97.1 % spoke 1.6 % Spanish and 1.3 % Choctaw as their first language. There were 6,220 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.30% were married couples living together, 14.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.10% were non-families.
28.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 24.70% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 90.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,743, the median income for a family was $28,331. Males had a median income of $25,777 versus $18,805 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,296. About 20.40% of families and 24.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.50% of those under age 18 and 21.70% of those age 65 or over. Agriculture and lumber have been the mainstays of the county economy since statehood. In 1910, cotton was the main crop.
By 1930, the local agriculture industry had diversified to include corn, prairie hay, peanuts. At the start of the 21st century, soybeans and corn were the main crops. Retail businesses and health care were the largest employers. Hugo Boswell Fort Towson Sawyer Soper Grant Swink National Register of Historic Places listings in Choctaw County, Oklahoma Hugo and Choctaw County: Official Website Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Choctaw County Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public coach used to carry paying passengers and light packages on journeys long enough to need a change of horses. It is sprung and drawn by four horses. Used before steam-powered rail transport was available a stagecoach made long scheduled trips using stage stations or posts where the stagecoach's horses would be replaced by fresh horses; the business of running stagecoaches or the act of journeying in them was known as staging. Familiar images of the stagecoach are that of a Royal Mail coach passing through a turnpike gate, a Dickensian passenger coach covered in snow pulling up at a coaching inn, a highwayman demanding a coach to "stand and deliver"; the yard of ale drinking glass is associated by legend with stagecoach drivers, though it was used for drinking feats and special toasts. The stagecoach was a closed four-wheeled vehicle drawn by hard-going mules, it was used as a public conveyance on an established route to a regular schedule. Spent horses were replaced with fresh horses at posts, or relays.
A simplified and lightened form of stagecoach, known as a stage wagon, mud-coach, or mud-wagon, was used in the United States under difficult conditions. These were the vehicles. In addition to the stage driver or coachman who guided the vehicle, a shotgun messenger armed with a coach gun might travel as a guard beside him. A stagecoach traveled at an average speed of about 5 miles per hour, with the average daily mileage covered being around 60 to 70 miles.'Stage' referred to the distance between stage stations on a route but through metonymy it came to be applied to the stagecoach. The first crude depiction of a coach was in an English manuscript from the 13th century; the first recorded stagecoach route ran from Edinburgh to Leith. This was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the island. By the mid 17th century, a basic stagecoach infrastructure had been put in place. A string of coaching inns operated as stopping points for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool.
The stagecoach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took ten days to make the journey during the summer months. Stagecoaches became adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century and travelled at a few miles per hour. Shakespeare's first plays were performed at coaching inns such as Southwark. By the end of the 17th century stagecoach routes ran down the three main roads in England; the London-York route was advertised in 1698: Whoever is desirous of going between London and York or York and London, Let them Repair to the Black Swan in Holboorn, or the Black Swan in Coney Street, where they will be conveyed in a Stage Coach, which starts every Thursday at Five in the morning. The novelty of this method of transport excited much controversy at the time. One pamphleteer denounced the stagecoach as a "great evil mischievous to trade and destructive to the public health." Another writer, argued that: Besides the excellent arrangement of conveying men and letters on horseback, there is of late such an admirable commodiousness, both for men and women, to travel from London to the principal towns in the country, that the like hath not been known in the world, and, by stage-coaches, wherein any one may be transported to any place, sheltered from foul weather and foul ways.
The speed of travel remained constant until the mid-18th century. Reforms of the turnpike trusts, new methods of road building and the improved construction of coaches led to a sustained rise in the comfort and speed of the average journey - from an average journey length of 2 days for the Cambridge-London route in 1750 to a length of under 7 hours in 1820. Robert Hooke helped in the construction of some of the first spring-suspended coaches in the 1660s and spoked wheels with iron rim brakes were introduced, improving the characteristics of the coach. In 1754, a Manchester-based company began a new service called the "Flying Coach", it was advertised with the following announcement - "However incredible it may appear, this coach will arrive in London in four days and a half after leaving Manchester." A similar service was begun from Liverpool three years using coaches with steel spring suspension. This coach took an unprecedented three days to reach London with an average speed of eight miles per hour.
More dramatic improvements were made by John Palmer at the British Post Office. The postal delivery service in Britain had existed in the same form for about 150 years—from its introduction in 1635, mounted carriers had ridden between "posts" where the postmaster would remove the letters for the local area before handing the remaining letters and any additions to the next rider; the riders were frequent targets for robbers, the system was inefficient. Palmer made much use of the "flying" stagecoach services between cities in the course of his business, noted that it seemed far more efficient than the system of mail delivery in operation, his travel from Bath to London took a single day to the mail's three days. It occurred to him that this stagecoach service could be developed into a national mail delivery service, so in 1782 he suggested to the Post Office in London that they take up the idea, he met resistance from officials who believed that th