In atomic theory and quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus; the term atomic orbital may refer to the physical region or space where the electron can be calculated to be present, as defined by the particular mathematical form of the orbital. Each orbital in an atom is characterized by a unique set of values of the three quantum numbers n, ℓ, m, which correspond to the electron's energy, angular momentum, an angular momentum vector component; each such orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two electrons, each with its own spin quantum number s. The simple names s orbital, p orbital, d orbital, f orbital refer to orbitals with angular momentum quantum number ℓ = 0, 1, 2, 3 respectively; these names, together with the value of n, are used to describe the electron configurations of atoms.
They are derived from the description by early spectroscopists of certain series of alkali metal spectroscopic lines as sharp, principal and fundamental. Orbitals for ℓ > 3 continue alphabetically, omitting j because some languages do not distinguish between the letters "i" and "j". Atomic orbitals are the basic building blocks of the atomic orbital model, a modern framework for visualizing the submicroscopic behavior of electrons in matter. In this model the electron cloud of a multi-electron atom may be seen as being built up in an electron configuration, a product of simpler hydrogen-like atomic orbitals; the repeating periodicity of the blocks of 2, 6, 10, 14 elements within sections of the periodic table arises from the total number of electrons that occupy a complete set of s, p, d, f atomic orbitals although for higher values of the quantum number n when the atom in question bears a positive charge, the energies of certain sub-shells become similar and so the order in which they are said to be populated by electrons can only be rationalized somewhat arbitrarily.
With the development of quantum mechanics and experimental findings, it was found that the orbiting electrons around a nucleus could not be described as particles, but needed to be explained by the wave-particle duality. In this sense, the electrons have the following properties: Wave-like properties: The electrons do not orbit the nucleus in the manner of a planet orbiting the sun, but instead exist as standing waves, thus the lowest possible energy an electron can take is similar to the fundamental frequency of a wave on a string. Higher energy states are similar to harmonics of that fundamental frequency; the electrons are never in a single point location, although the probability of interacting with the electron at a single point can be found from the wave function of the electron. The charge on the electron acts like it is smeared out in space in a continuous distribution, proportional at any point to the squared magnitude of the electron's wave function. Particle-like properties: The number of electrons orbiting the nucleus can only be an integer.
Electrons jump between orbitals like particles. For example, if a single photon strikes the electrons, only a single electron changes states in response to the photon; the electrons retain particle-like properties such as: each wave state has the same electrical charge as its electron particle. Each wave state has a single discrete spin depending on its superposition. Thus, despite the popular analogy to planets revolving around the Sun, electrons cannot be described as solid particles. In addition, atomic orbitals do not resemble a planet's elliptical path in ordinary atoms. A more accurate analogy might be that of a large and oddly shaped "atmosphere", distributed around a tiny planet. Atomic orbitals describe the shape of this "atmosphere" only when a single electron is present in an atom; when more electrons are added to a single atom, the additional electrons tend to more evenly fill in a volume of space around the nucleus so that the resulting collection tends toward a spherical zone of probability describing the electron's location, because of the uncertainty principle.
Atomic orbitals may be defined more in formal quantum mechanical language. In quantum mechanics, the state of an atom, i.e. an eigenstate of the atomic Hamiltonian, is approximated by an expansion into linear combinations of anti-symmetrized products of one-electron functions. The spatial components of these one-electron functions are called atomic orbitals. A state is a function of the coordinates of all the electrons, so that their motion is correlated, but this is approximated by this independent-particle model of products of single electron wave functions. In atomic physics, the atomic spectral lines correspond to transitions between quantum states of an atom; these states are labeled by a set of quantum numbers summarized in the term symbol and associated with particular electron configurations, i.e. by occupation schemes of atomic orbitals (for example
Studies in Slavic and General Linguistics is an academic book series, founded in 1980 by A. A. Barentsen, B. M. Groen and R. is published by Rodopi. SSGL is devoted to the field of descriptive linguistics. Although SSGL is intended to be a means of publication for linguists from the Low Countries, the editors are pleased to accept contributions by linguists from abroad. SSGL appears at irregular intervals, but the editors aim at bringing out on the average one volume a year. Egbert Fortuin Peter Houtzagers Janneke Kalsbeek R. Alexander, A. A. Barentsen, B. Comrie, B. M. Groen, F. H. H. Kortlandt, W. Lehfeldt, J, Schaeken, G. Spieß, W. R. Vermeer. Volumes include: # 41. Innovation in Tradition: Tönnies Fonne’s Russian-German Phrasebook.. By Pepijn Hendriks. ISBN 978-90-420-3830-1 E-ISBN 978-94-012-1075-1 # 40. Dutch Contributions to the Fifteenth International Congress of Slavists. Minsk. August 20–27, 2013. Linguistics. Edited by Egbert Fortuin, Peter Houtzagers, Janneke Kalsbeek and Simeon Dekker. ISBN 978-90-420-3818-9 E-ISBN 978-94-012-1065-2 #39.
Selected Writings on Slavic and General Linguistics. By Frederik Kortlandt. ISBN 978-90-420-3363-4 E-ISBN 978-94-012-0060-8 #38. Language Contact in Times of Globalization. Edited by Cornelius Hasselblatt, Peter Houtzagers and Remco van Pareren. ISBN 978-90-420-3343-6 E-ISBN 978-94-012-0043-1 #37. Accent Matters. Papers on Balto-Slavic accentology. Edited by Tijmen Pronk and Rick Derksen. ISBN 978-90-420-3332-0 E-ISBN 978-94-012-0032-5 #36; the Slovene Dialect of Egg and Potschach in the Gailtal, Austria. By Tijmen Pronk. ISBN 978-90-420-2774-9 #35. Stressing the past. Papers on Baltic and Slavic accentology. Edited by Thomas Olander and Jenny Helena Larsson. ISBN 978-90-420-2555-4 #34. Dutch Contributions to the Fourteenth International Congress of Slavists. Ohrid, September 10–16, 2008. Linguistics. Edited by Peter Houtzagers, Janneke Kalsbeek and Jos Schaeken. ISBN 978-90-420-2442-7 #33. Evidence and Counter-Evidence. Essays in Honour of Frederik Kortlandt. Volume 2: General Linguistics. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky, Jos Schaeken and Jeroen Wiedenhof.
With the assistance of Rick Derksen and Sjoerd Siebenga. ISBN 978-90-420-2471-7 #32. Evidence and Counter-Evidence. Essays in Honour of Frederik Kortlandt. Volume 1: Balto-Slavic and Indo-European Linguistics. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky, Jos Schaeken and Jeroen Wiedenhof. With the assistance of Rick Derksen and Sjoerd Siebenga. ISBN 978-90-420-2470-0 #31. Nicolaas van Wijk. Slavist, philanthropist. By Jan Paul Hinrichs. ISBN 978-904-202-023-8 #30. Dutch Contributions to the Thirteenth International Congress of Slavists. Ljubljana, August 15–21, 2003. Linguistics. Edited by Jos Schaeken, Peter Houtzagers and Janneke Kalsbeek. ISBN 978-90-420-0847-2 #29. Govor derevni Ostrovcy Pskovskoj oblasti, by Zep Honselaar. ISBN 978-90-420-1444-2 #28. Languages in Contact, Edited by John Nerbonne and Jos Schaeken. ISBN 978-90-420-1322-3 Slavistics Studies in Slavic and General Linguistics on the publishers website Department of Russian Studies & Slavic Languages and Cultures at Leiden University
Sout El-Hob Records is an Egyptian record label founded in 1972 by Atef Montasser and owned by Dozzan Music Group. Sout El-Hobwas home to many artists from every genre and has the 4th largest Arabic music catalogue in Middle East & North Africa, it has distributed many movies domestically and abroad under the name of “Sout El-Hob Movies ”. Mohsen Gaber, the owner of “Alam El-Phan” company and “Mazzika” TV channels is Atef Montasser’s cousin, Mohsen worked with Atef as a distributor before he set up his own company. In 2015, Sherif Montasser, Atef Montasser’s nephew has taken over Sout El-Hob as owner and CEO through Sout El-Hob Entertainment, one of the companies Dozzan Music Group owns. Sout El-Hob Entertainment's mission is to protect Arabic artists and new singing talents' rights on the Internet and to encourage and expand their international presence by distributing their music digitally through Modissa, one of the companies Dozzan Music Group owns. Modissa as a digital music aggregator distributes Sout El-Hob music and other content globally to all digital stores and streaming platforms.
Hany Shaker is one of the first singers that Sout El-Hob has discovered their talents and produced his first 4 releases. Montasser is credited with discovering the talents of Ahmed Adaweyah, Aziza Jalal, Mohamed Fouad, Medhat Saleh, Metkal Kenawy, he is credited with bringing Algerian singer, Warda to prominence and he produced one of her movies entitled “Ah ya liel ya zaman” in 1977. Sout El-Hob has distributed many movies domestically and abroad under the name of “Sout El-Hob Movies ” and recorded Omar Khairat’s music, the recited Quran by Sheikh Mahmoud Khalil Al-Hussary; the Quran was composed of the recited Quran by Sheikh al-Tablawi. Sout El-Hob has revived the musical heritage of Sayed Darwish after discovering the talent of Iman El Bahr Darwish and recorded the songs of Fayza Ahmed and Najat on cassettes for the first time. Moreover, Sout El-Hob has produced a song titled “Fe Aman Allah” by Mohammed Abdu in his early career. Atef Montasser met composer Hani Shenouda in the mid-1970s and they established “El-Masryeen Band”.
The first cassette for the band was released in 197. The recording process took eight months and the cassette tapes were imported from Germany and Switzerland. Members of the band were: Eman Younis, Tahseen Yalmaz, Mamdouh Qassem and Omar Fathi. Many prominent poets have written songs including Salah Jahin and Omar Batesha. Montasser met Doctor Ezzat Abu Ouf in the mid-1970s and they established together a band titled “Four M”. Members of the band were Ezzat Abu Ouf’s sisters: Mona, Maha and Mervat. EMI Records Ltd, a British-American records company and one of Universal Music Group companies, selected “Sout El-Hob” to be its partner and take charge of its production in the Arab world in 1985; this partnership lasted for six years. Sout El-Hob has the fourth largest Arabic music catalog in the Middle North Africa. Ahmed Adaweyah Warda Al-Jazairia El-Masryeen Band Hamid Al-Shairi Mohammad Fouad Medhat Saleh Leila Mourad Omar Khairat Hany Shaker Najat Al Saghira Iman El Bahr Darwish Aziza Jalal Fatma Eid Fayza Ahmed Four M Hany Mehanna Hany Shanouda Huda Sultan Mohamed El-Helw Majd El Qassem Mohammed Tharwat Mohammed Abdu Metkal Kenawy "El Sah El Dah Embo" by Ahmed Adaweyah "Esmaouny" by Warda Al-Jazairia "Fe El Seka" by Mohammad Fouad "Keda Bardo Ya Amar" by Hany Shaker "Kawkab Tany" by Medhat Saleh "Matehsebosh Ya Banat" by El-Masryeen Band "El Leila El Kebira" by Four M band "Mahsobkom Endas" by Iman El Bahr Darwish "Fe Aman Allah" by Mohammed Abdu Sout El-Hob Entertainment managed to acquire exclusive rights to distribute thousands of tracks of many artists and new singing talents in the Arab world globally to all digital stores and streaming platforms through Modissa, one of the companies Dozzan Music Group owns.
Amr Diab Fairuz Tamer Hosny Ahmed Mekky Amal Maher Hany shaker Adham Seliman Cairokee Tamer Ashour Mahmoud El Esseily Mohammad Al Sharnouby Abyusif Illmagdy Cheb Khaled Sherine Nawal El Zoughbi Saber Rebaei Amr Mostafa Carmen Seliman Angham Nancy Ajram Sout El-Hob Sonar Watary Sout El Delta Randaphone Takima El Sobky
Rebecca Lucy Kitteridge is the current Director of the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service. Kitteridge attended Upper Hutt College, is a graduate of Victoria University of Wellington, she was Secretary of the Cabinet from 2008 to November 2013. During the last six months of this time she was seconded to the GCSB to carry out a review of compliance systems and processes there, in response to concerns of illegal spying on Kim Dotcom. In March 2014, Kitteridge was made a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order by the Queen at a private ceremony at Buckingham Palace. In 2017, Kitteridge won the Public Policy Award at the New Zealand Women of Influence Awards
The Alliance of Democracies foundation is a non-profit organisation dedicated to the advancement of democracy and free markets across the globe. It was established in December 2017 by former NATO Secretary General and former Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen together with businessman Fritz Schur and lawyer Klaus Søgaard. According to its founder, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, the United States is retreating form the world stage, leaving behind a vacuum, filled by autocrats like Vladimir Putin, Kim Jong-un, Bashar al-Assad. Democracy is under pressure from protectionism, nationalism and autocracy. Against this backdrop, the Alliance of Democracies foundation seeks to unite world democracies. According to Rasmussen, the new alliance of democracies would not be a new U. N. but rather an organisation that would supplement it. The Foundation runs three programs: The Copenhagen Democracy Summit is a conference bringing together political and business leaders, including current and former heads of government, from the world’s democracies.
In light of a decline of liberal democracies across the world, the aim is to be a top international forum for analysis on the security and economic challenges facing the democratic world as well as a forum for analysis on the interplay between technology and democratic norms. The first annual Copenhagen Democracy Summit took place in Copenhagen on July 22, 2018. Among those who attended were current Danish Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen, Joe Biden, Tony Blair, Stephen Harper, Felipe Calderón, José María Aznar, former Estonian President Toomas Ilves. A total of 350 participants attended from over 40 countries. One of the publications released at the conference concluded that people's trust in government is lower in democracies than in non-democratic states; the Alliance of Democracies seeks to organise a Copenhagen Democracy Summit every summer and a similar winter conference in Denver, Colorado. The Expeditionary Economics Program is rooted in Cold War efforts by the United States to strengthen post-war Europe and create a better economic model than the communist one offered by the Soviet Union.
The program supports entrepreneurial projects in developing states, emerging democracies, post-conflict areas for the purpose of strengthening democracy in fragile states by developing a local economic base. The Campaign for Democracy seeks to connect supporters of democracy across the world and build an intellectual movement for democracy through a network of local associations, online presence, media engagement, support for dissidents. On the sidelines of the Copenhagen Democracy Summit Anders Fogh Rasmussen together with Michael Chertoff launched the Transatlantic Commission on Election Integrity, which has Joe Biden, Nick Clegg, Toomas Ilves, Felipe Calderón among its members; the Commission is tasked with bolstering the defences of Western democracies against outside interference
HMS Vengeance was a 48-gun frigate of the French Navy and lead ship of her class. She engaged USS Constellation during the Quasi-War, in an inconclusive engagement that left both ships damaged. During the French Revolutionary Wars, HMS Seine hunted Vengeance down and captured her after a sharp action, she was recommissioned in the Royal Navy as the 38-gun fifth rate HMS Vengeance, but the British never returned her to seagoing service. Accounts are divided as to her eventual fate, she may have been broken up in 1803 after grounding in 1801, or continued as a prison ship until 1814. Vengeance was one of two frigates built to Pierre Degay's design of 1793 ordered as Bonne Foi, launched on 8 November 1794, she was a member of one of the larger classes of frigate, armed with 24-pounders. On 8 August 1796, off Guadeloupe, Vengeance encountered the 32-gun Mermaid, under the command of Captain Robert Waller Otway; the subsequent action was prolonged but indecisive. When the 40-gun British frigate Beaulieu came up, Vengeance retired to the shelter of the batteries of Basseterre.
Mermaid had suffered no casualties. Within the month, on 25 August, Vengeance again engaged the British when she chased the 26-gun Raison, under Captain John Poo Beresford, to the west of the Gulf of Maine. After the vessels had exchanged fire for two hours, foggy weather helped Raison escape, but not before she had suffered three killed and six wounded. Vengeance suffered an unknown number of wounded. On 31 January 1800, during the Quasi-War, Vengeance engaged the USS Constellation. Toll reports that Vengeance had a broadside of 559 pounds compared to the American vessel's 372 pounds. Troude reports her armament as twenty-six 18-pounders, ten 6-pounders and four 36-pounder carronades, compared to Constellation's twenty-eight 18-pounders, ten 12-pounders and one 32-pounder carronade. Constellation had sailed under Captain Thomas Truxtun from Saint Kitts on 30 January, came across Vengeance the following day. Vengeance was bound for France under Capitaine de Vaisseau François Pitot, carrying passengers and specie, attempted to outrun Constellation.
Truxton gave chase, came within range during the evening. Before dawn, Vengeance hoisted her flag, Constellation answered with a red-tailed flag and a blue jack that the French did not understand. After Pitot refused a request to surrender, the two began to exchange broadsides, with Vengeance aiming high to damage Constellation's rigging. Constellation eluded Pitot's attempts to board her, around 9:00 and again around 11:00; the action lasted until one o'clock the following morning, having been fought in poor light, with the ships ill defined shapes to each other. Vengeance's and Constellation's guns fell silent; the two ships drifted apart. The Americans believed Vengeance had sunk, but her captain had managed to sail her as far as Curaçao, where he ran her onto the beach to prevent her from sinking. Estimates of French casualties ran to 160, while Constellation had 25 wounded. Pitot recorded that his guns had fired 742 rounds during the action, while Constellation had fired 1,129. According to Troude, Constellation never identified herself.
The French returned her to service. On 20 August 1800 the frigate HMS Seine, under the command of Captain David Milne, attacked her in the Mona Passage. Both ships sustained heavy casualties. Vengeance, still under the command of Pitot, sustained worse damage and surrendered after about an hour and a half of hard fighting. One source estimates that Vengeance suffered some 35 men killed and some 70 wounded before she struck. At the time of her capture Vengeance was armed with twenty-eight 18-pounders on her main deck, sixteen 12-pounders and eight 42-pounder carronades on her quarterdeck and forecastle, brass swivel guns on the gunwale, shifting guns on the main and quarter decks. All these measures were in French pounds. In English measures the broadsides in this case were 498 pounds for 434 for Vengeance. Crew sizes were 326 men, respectively. Troude attributes to Vengeance an armament of twenty-six 18-pounders, ten 8-pounders and four 36-pounder carronades, totalling a broadside of 346 pounds.
The naval historian William James subsequently exaggerated the engagement in favour of the French. He declared that as Seine had done what Constellation could not, British naval forces were "more potent than American thunder". In 1847 the Admiralty awarded the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "Seine 20 Augt. 1800" to any surviving crew members of Seine that came forward to claim it. Vengeance was re-armed with 18-pounders but not commissioned. After Galgo foundered in 1800, with heavy loss of life, the Admiralty issued an order stopping the purchase of captured enemy warships. Still, the Navy did buy her. Having been damaged by grounding in 1801, she became a receiving ship at Portsmouth; some records indicate that she was broken up in 1803. The National Maritime Museum reports that she was commissioned as a prison ship at Portsmouth in 1808 under Lieutenant A. Gilmour. Lieutenant J. Graves, who served until 1811, replaced him in 1810. Lieutenant G. King commanded her in 1813, Lieutenant J. Graves commanded her in 1814.
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