United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Hiratsuka is a city located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of April 1, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 257,877, with 109,020 households, a population density of 3,800 persons per km²; the total area is 67.88 km². Hiratsuka is located on the western Kantō Plain midway between Tokyo and Mount Fuji, has a 5-kilometer coastline in the Shōnan area on the Pacific Ocean in Sagami Bay. Chigasaki Hadano Atsugi Isehara Samukawa Nakai Oiso Ninomiya The area around Hiratsuka has been settled since prehistoric times, mention of the area as part of ancient Ōsumi District, Sagami Province is found in Nara period records. From the Heian period through Kamakura period, the area was divided into shōen controlled by various samurai clans and in the Sengoku period was the site of several battles between the Hōjō clan of Odawara and the Miura clan. After the defeat of the Hōjō at the Battle of Odawara by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the area came under the control of Tokugawa Ieyasu, who built a summer palace in 1596 at the site now occupied by the Hiratsuka City Nakahara Elementary/Primary School.
Hiratsuka was retained as tenryō territory after the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, flourished as Hiratsuka-juku, a post town on the Tōkaidō connecting Edo with Kyoto. As the 7th station, it is depicted in the series of ukiyo-e about the 53 Stations of the Tōkaidō made among others by artists such Hokusai and Hiroshige. After the Meiji Restoration, Hiratsuka town was founded on April 1, 1889, as part of the new Naka District within Kanagawa Prefecture, it merged with neighboring Suma Town on April 1, 1929, was proclaimed Hiratsuka City on April 1, 1932. Prior to World War II, Hiratsuka was the location of the Hiratsuka Navy Ammunitions Arsenal of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Japan International Aircraft Industries, a Nissan group military aircraft factory. Hiratsuka was destroyed on July 16, 1945, during the Bombing of Hiratsuka in World War II. Due to its strategic location and wide beaches, it was one of the targets for the planned invasion of Japan during the final stages of World War II.
The city rebuilt after the war, annexing several neighboring villages in the mid-1950s to attain its current area. The population exceeded 200,000 by 2001 and Hiratsuka became a special city with increased autonomy from the central government; the current mayor is the independent OCHIAI Katsuhiro, elected April 24, 2011, assumed office on April 30. He had served two terms on the Hiratsuka city council and as council chairperson for the majority of the second term. OCHIAI succeeded Ritsuko ÔKURA the city's first female mayor who served from 2003 to 2011. Hiratsuka has a mixed economy, with tax revenue coming from wagers made at Shonan Bank Cycling Velodrome, several industries located in industrial parks in the outskirts of town. Major plants are operated by Nissan Shatai, Yokohama Rubber Company, Furukawa Electric, Kansai Paint, Mitsubishi Plastics. Nissan Shatai produced the largest employment on the City, but announced the plan to let a factory move to Kanda. Western firms such as Moog and MacDermid Performance Solutions have a strong presence in this city.
Hiratsuka is a bedroom community for Yokohama and Tokyo, with residents attracted by the "Shōnan lifestyle". JR East - Tōkaidō Main Line, Shōnan Shinjuku Line Hiratsuka Station Japan National Route 1, to Tokyo or Kyoto Japan National Route 129, to Sagamihara Japan National Route 134, to Yokosuka via Kamakura Japan National Route 271, to Atsugi or Odawara Odawara-Atsugi Road Shinshōnan Bypass Tanabata festival Shonan Bellmare football club, three-time Japanese champions based at Hiratsuka Athletics Stadium Yokohama The largest city after Tokyo; the modern cityscape with the Yokohama Port and Chinatown are popular with tourists. Kamakura The ancient capital of the Kamakura period, where many historical sites such as the Great Buddha and temples and shrines remain. Hakone Hakone is one of the most famous hot spring resorts in Japan. You can enjoy the view of Mt. Fuji and nature such as volcano. Takayama, Japan, since October 22, 1982 Hanamaki, Japan, since April 27, 1984 Izu, Japan, since February 6, 2013 Lawrence, United States, since September 21, 1990 Alytus, since 2017 Yukari Fukui - voice actress Yamanashi Hanzō - general, politician Michael Hora - former child actor Phongchi - Japanese idol of Vietnamese descent Official Website
Sakura Domain was a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan, located in Shimōsa Province, Japan. It was centered on Sakura Castle in what is now the city of Chiba, it was ruled for most of its history by the Hotta clan. Sakura Domain was created for Takeda Tadateru, the fifth son of Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1593, near the site of an ancient castle of the Chiba clan, which had fallen into ruins in the early Sengoku period; the domain subsequently passed through a bewildering number of hands during the 1600s, before coming under the control of the Hotta clan in the mid-18th century. During the Bakumatsu period, Hotta Masayoshi was one of the major proponents of rangaku and an ending to the country’s national isolation policy, he was one of the signers of the Treaty of Commerce with the United States. His son, Hotta Masatomo was a key supporter of the Tokugawa shogunate in the early stages of the Boshin War. After the Meiji Restoration, he was pardoned, made a count in the kazoku peerage.
As with most domains in the han system, Sakura Domain consisted of several discontinuous territories calculated to provide the assigned kokudaka, based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. Shimōsa Province 31 villages in Chiba District 146 villages in Imba District 26 villages in Shimohabu District 3 villages in Katori District 3 villages in Sōsa District 2 villages in Kaijō District 8 villages in Sōma District Dewa Province 45 villages in Murayama District Hitachi Province 3 villages in Tsukuba District 3 villages in Makabe District Shimotsuke Province 16 villages in Tsuga District 10 villages in Shioya District Musashi Province 3 villages in Saitama District 1 village in Koma District 2 villages in Iruma District 14 villages in Yokomi District Sagami Province 5 villages in Kōza District 10 villages in Ōsumi District 2 villages in Aiko District Papinot, E. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tuttle 1972. Bolitho, Harold. Treasures among men. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Kodama Kōta 児玉幸多, Kitajima Masamoto 北島正元. Kantō no shohan 関東の諸藩. Tokyo: Shin Jinbutsu Ōraisha. Genealogy of the lords of Sakura
Tanzawa-Ōyama Quasi-National Park
Tanzawa-Ōyama Quasi-National Park is a quasi-national park in the Kantō region of Honshū in Japan. It is rated a protected landscape according to the IUCN; the park includes the Tanzawa Mountains, Miyagase Dam and its surrounding forests, Hayato Great Falls, the religious sites of Mount Ōyama in the mountains of western Kanagawa Prefecture. In May 1960, a 38,762-hectare area of western Kanagawa Prefecture in the Tanzawa Mountains was designated for protection as the Tanzawa-Ōyama Prefectural Natural Park; the central portion of this area was further designated a quasi-national park on March 25, 1965. Like all Quasi-National Parks in Japan, the park is managed by the local prefectural governments; the park spans the borders of the municipalities of Atsugi, Isehara, Matsuda and Yamakita. List of national parks of Japan Wildlife Protection Areas in Japan Southerland and Britton, Dorothy; the National Parks of Japan. Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-1971-8
A hatamoto was a samurai in the direct service of the Tokugawa shogunate of feudal Japan. While all three of the shogunates in Japanese history had official retainers, in the two preceding ones, they were referred to as gokenin. However, in the Edo period, hatamoto were the upper vassals of the Tokugawa house, the gokenin were the lower vassals. There was no precise difference between the two in terms of income level, but hatamoto had the right to an audience with the shōgun, whereas gokenin did not; the word hatamoto means "at the base of the flag", is translated into English as "bannerman". Another term for the Edo-era hatamoto was jikisan hatamoto, sometimes rendered as "direct shogunal hatamoto", which serves to illustrate the difference between them and the preceding generation of hatamoto who served various lords; the term hatamoto originated in the Sengoku period. The term was used for the direct retainers of a lord. Many lords had hatamoto. In the eyes of the Tokugawa shogunate, hatamoto were retainers who had served the family from its days in Mikawa onward.
However, the ranks of the hatamoto included people from outside the hereditary ranks of the Tokugawa house. Retainer families of defeated provincial strongmen like Takeda, Hōjō, or Imagawa were included, as were branch families of feudal lords. Included were heirs to lords whose domains were confiscated, local power figures in remote parts of the country who never became daimyōs; the act of becoming a hatamoto was known as bakushin toritate. Many hatamoto fought on both sides of the conflict; the hatamoto remained retainers of the main Tokugawa clan after the fall of the shogunate in 1868, followed the Tokugawa to their new domain of Shizuoka. The hatamoto lost their status along with all other samurai in Japan following the abolition of the domains in 1871; the line between hatamoto and gokenin amongst hatamoto of lower rank, was not rigid, the title of hatamoto had more to do with rank rather than income rating. In the context of an army, it could be compared to the position of an officer. Throughout the Edo period, hatamoto held the distinction that if they possessed high enough rank, they had the right to personal audience with the shōgun.
All hatamoto can be divided into two categories, the kuramaitori, who took their incomes straight from Tokugawa granaries, the jikatatori, who held land scattered throughout Japan. Another level of status distinction amongst the hatamoto was the class of kōtai-yoriai, men who were heads of hatamoto families and held provincial fiefs, had alternate attendance duties like the daimyōs. However, as kōtai-yoriai were men of high income in terms of the spectrum of hatamoto stipends, not all jikatatori hatamoto had the duty of alternate attendance; the dividing line between the upper hatamoto and the fudai daimyōs—the domain lords who were vassals of the Tokugawa house—was 10,000 koku. Infrequently, some hatamoto were granted an increase in income and thus promoted to the rank of fudai daimyō. One example of such a promotion is the case of the Hayashi family of Kaibuchi, who began as jikatatori hatamoto but who became fudai daimyōs and went on to play a prominent role in the Boshin War, despite their domain's small size of 10,000 koku.
The term for a hatamoto with income of about 8,000 koku or greater was taishin hatamoto. The hatamoto who lived in Edo resided in their own private districts and oversaw their own police work and security. Men from hatamoto ranks could serve in a variety of roles in the Tokugawa administration, including service in the police force as yoriki inspectors, city magistrates, magistrates or tax collectors of direct Tokugawa house land, members of the wakadoshiyori council, many other positions; the expression "eighty thousand hatamoto" was in popular use to denote their numbers, but a 1722 study put their numbers at about 5,000. Adding the gokenin brought the number up to about 17,000. Famous hatamoto include Jidayu Koizumi, Nakahama Manjirō, Ōoka Tadasuke, Tōyama Kagemoto, Katsu Kaishū, Enomoto Takeaki, Hijikata Toshizō and the two Westeners William Adams and Jan Joosten. Hatamoto patronized the development of the martial arts in the Edo period. Two hatamoto who were directly involved in the development of the martial arts were Yagyū Munenori and Yamaoka Tesshū.
Munenori's family became hereditary sword instructors to the shōgun. Hatamoto appeared as figures in popular culture before the Edo era ended. Recent depictions of hatamoto include the TV series Hatchōbori no Shichinin, the manga Fūunjitachi Bakumatsu-hen, Osamu Tezuka's manga Hidamari no ki. Bolitho, Harold.. Treasures Among Men: The Fudai Daimyo in Tokugawa Japan. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01655-0. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Edo no hatamoto jiten. Toky
Cities of Japan
A city is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as towns and villages, with the difference that they are not a component of districts. Like other contemporary administrative units, they are defined by the Local Autonomy Law of 1947. Article 8 of the Local Autonomy Law sets the following conditions for a municipality to be designated as a city: Population must be 50,000 or greater At least 60% of households must be established in a central urban area At least 60% of households must be employed in commerce, industry or other urban occupations Any other conditions set by prefectural ordinance must be satisfied The designation is approved by the prefectural governor and the Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications. A city can theoretically be demoted to a town or village when it fails to meet any of these conditions, but such a demotion has not happened to date; the least populous city, Hokkaido, has a population of six thousand, while a town in the same prefecture, Hokkaido, has nearly forty thousand.
Under the Act on Special Provisions concerning Merger of Municipalities, the standard of 50,000 inhabitants for the city status has been eased to 30,000 if such population is gained as a result of a merger of towns and/or villages, in order to facilitate such mergers to reduce administrative costs. Many municipalities gained city status under this eased standard. On the other hand, the municipalities gained the city status purely as a result of increase of population without expansion of area are limited to those listed in List of former towns or villages gained city status alone in Japan; the Cabinet of Japan can designate cities of at least 200,000 inhabitants to have the status of special city, core city, or designated city. These statuses expand the scope of administrative authority delegated from the prefectural government to the city government. Tokyo, Japan’s capital, existed as a city until 1943, but is now classified as a special type of prefecture called a metropolis; the 23 special wards of Tokyo, which constitute the core of the Tokyo metropolitan area, each have an administrative status analogous to that of cities.
Tokyo has several other incorporated cities and villages within its jurisdiction. Cities were introduced under the "city code" of 1888 during the "Great Meiji mergers" of 1889; the -shi replaced the previous urban districts/"wards/cities" that had existed as primary subdivisions of prefectures besides rural districts since 1878. There were 39 cities in 1889: only one in most prefectures, two in a few, none in some – Miyazaki became the last prefecture to contain its first city in 1924. In Okinawa-ken and Hokkai-dō which were not yet equal prefectures in the Empire, major urban settlements remained organized as urban districts until the 1920s: Naha-ku and Shuri-ku, the two urban districts of Okinawa were only turned into Naha-shi and Shuri-shi in May 1921, six -ku of Hokkaidō were converted into district-independent cities in August 1922. By 1945, the number of cities countrywide had increased to 205. After WWII, their number doubled during the "great Shōwa mergers" of the 1950s and continued to grow so that it surpassed the number of towns in the early 21st century.
As of October 1 2018, there are 792 cities of Japan. Administrative division Urban area List of cities in Japan Directory of current Japanese city leaders and outline of system "Japan's Evolving Nested Municipal Hierarchy: The Race for Local Power in the 2000s," by A. J. Jacobs at Urban Studies Research, Vol. 2011.
The Mōri clan was a Japanese samurai clan descended from Ōe no Hiromoto. The family's most illustrious member, Mōri Motonari expanded the clan's power in Aki Province. During the Edo period his descendants became daimyō of the Chōshū Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate. After the Meiji Restoration with the abolition of the han system and daimyō, the Mōri clan became part of the new nobility; the founder of the clan, Mōri Suemitsu, was the fourth son of Ōe no Hiromoto. He founded the clan when he took the name from his shōen named "Mōri" in Aikō District, Sagami Province. After the Jōkyū War, Suemitsu was appointed to the jitō office of a shōen in Aki Province, he was defeated by Hōjō Tokiyori in 1247 and committed suicide at Minamoto no Yoritomo's shrine along with his Miura clan allies. The genealogy of the Mori clan is well verified because it matches up from several different sources such as the Mōri Family Tree, Sonpi Bunmyaku and Ōe Family Tree. According to the Sonpi Bunmyaku from the late 14th century: Ōe no Hiromoto ┃ Mōri Suemitsu ┃ Mōri Tsunemitsu ┃ Mōri Tokichika ┃ Mōri Sadachika ┃ Mōri Chikahira, moved the family to Aki Province.
┃ Mōri Motoharu During the Kamakura shogunate the Mōri were a gokenin family due to the fame of their ancestor Ōe no Hiromoto. Mōri Suemitsu, the fourth son of Ōe no Hiromoto inherited Mōri-shōen from his father and, why he began to use the name, it is reasonable to say he is the first head of the Mōri clan but in the Mōri family tradition he is the 39th head of the family according to him being the 39th linear descendant of Amenohohi-no-mikoto, an ancient god of Japan. After the third head of the clan, Mōri Tokichika, his son Mōri Sadachika was supposed to succeed him but he and his son were both killed by the Hōjō clan and the great-grandson of Tsunemitsu became the next head of the clan. At the end of the Kamakura shogunate they became distant from the shogunate and showed a favorable attitude to Ashikaga Takauji. In the Sengoku period, Mōri Motonari expanded their power to the whole of Aki province and to other neighboring provinces. In his generation, Mōri became the daimyō from a local jizamurai.
During the war with the Oda clan and the Ikkō-ikki, the Mōri helped the Ikkō-ikki clans by establishing a naval trade route between each other's provincial docks and harbours, the Oda nullified this by laying siege to the trade ships between the two clans and went to further disrupt trade by attempting to destroy the Mōri fleet, failing on their first attempt in 1571. The second battle took place in 1579 with the Oda sending eight Atakebune warships to destroy the Mōri naval threat. After a struggle between Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who led his army as a general of Oda Nobunaga, the two sides made peace and Mōri remained as a daimyō who kept five provinces in Chūgoku. In 1600, Mōri Terumoto nominally led the West Army in the Battle of Sekigahara; the West Army lost the battle and the Mōri clan lost three eastern provinces and moved their capital from Hiroshima to present-day Hagi, Yamaguchi. The newer fief, Mōri han, consisted of two provinces: Suō Province. Derived from the former, Mōri han was referred to as Chōshū han.
After the Meiji Restoration with the abolition of the han system and daimyō, the Mōri clan became part of the new nobility. They became a Duke family. Mōri Suemitsu, fourth son of Ōe no Hiromoto, gokenin of the Kamakura shogunate. Mōri Tsunemitsu, gokenin of the Kamakura shogunate. Mōri Tokichika, gokenin of the Kamakura shogunate. Mōri Motoharu, great-grandson of Tokichika skipped over, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Mōri Hirofusa, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Mōri Mitsufusa, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Mōri Hiromoto, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Mōri Toyomoto, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Mōri Hiromoto, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Died young of alcohol poisoning. Mōri Okimoto, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Died young of alcohol poisoning, succeeded by his infant son. Mōri Kōmatsumaru, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Died at only 9 years of age, succeeded by his uncle.
Mōri Motonari, arguably the most famous member of the clan. Expanded the clan's power to nearly all of the Chūgoku region. Mōri Takamoto, became head of the clan when his father "retired" but died young before his father, suspected assassination by poisoning. Mōri Terumoto, 1st daimyō of Hiroshima Domain, taken away from him after Battle of Sekigahara. Mōri Hidenari, 1st daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Tsunahiro, 2nd daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Yoshinari, 3rd daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Yoshihiro, 4th daimyō of Chōshū Domain, adopted from the Chōfu-Mōri branch family. Mōri Yoshimoto, 5th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Munehiro, 6th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Shigenari, 7th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Haruchika, 8th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Narifusa, 9th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Narihiro, 10th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Narimoto, 11th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Naritō, 12th daimyō of Chōshū Doma