Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of the ancient city-state of Athens. Of the ancient dialects, it is the most similar to Greek and is the standard form of the language, studied in ancient Greek language courses. Attic Greek is sometimes included in the Ionic dialect. Together and Ionic are the primary influences on Modern Greek. Greek is the primary member of the Hellenic branch of the Indo-European language family. In ancient times, Greek had come to exist in several dialects, one of, Attic; the earliest attestations of Greek, dating from the 16th to 11th centuries BC, are written in Linear B, an archaic writing system used by the Mycenaean Greeks in writing their language. Mycenaean Greek represents an early form of Eastern Greek, the group to which Attic belongs. Greek literature wrote about three main dialects: Aeolic and Ionic. "Old Attic" is used in reference to the dialect of Thucydides and the dramatists of 5th-century Athens whereas "New Attic" is used for the language of writers following conventionally the accession in 285 BC of Greek-speaking Ptolemy II to the throne of the Kingdom of Egypt.
Ruling from Alexandria, Ptolemy launched the Alexandrian period, during which the city of Alexandria and its expatriate Greek-medium scholars flourished. The original range of the spoken Attic dialect included Attica and a number of the central Cyclades islands; the texts of literary Attic were studied far beyond their homeland: first in the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean, including in Ancient Rome and the larger Hellenistic world, in the Muslim world and other parts of the world touched by those civilizations. The earliest Greek literature, attributed to Homer and is dated to the 8th or 7th centuries BC, is written in "Old Ionic" rather than Attic. Athens and its dialect remained obscure until the establishment of its democracy following the reforms of Solon in the 6th century BC: so began the classical period, one of great Athenian influence both in Greece and throughout the Mediterranean; the first extensive works of literature in Attic are the plays of the dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles and Aristophanes dating from the 5th century BC.
The military exploits of the Athenians led to some universally read and admired history, as found in the works of Thucydides and Xenophon. Less known because they are more technical and legal are the orations by Antiphon, Lysias and many others; the Attic Greek of the philosophers Plato and his student Aristotle dates to the period of transition between Classical Attic and Koine. Students who learn Ancient Greek begin with the Attic dialect and continue, depending upon their interests, to the Koine of the New Testament and other early Christian writings, to the earlier Homeric Greek of Homer and Hesiod, or to the contemporaneous Ionic Greek of Herodotus and Hippocrates. Attic Greek, like other dialects, was written in a local variant of the Greek alphabet. According to the classification of archaic Greek alphabets, introduced by Adolf Kirchhoff, the old-Attic system belongs to the "eastern" or "blue" type, as it uses the letters Ψ and Χ with their classical values, unlike "western" or "red" alphabets, which used Χ for /ks/ and expressed /kʰ/ with Ψ.
In other respects, Old Attic shares many features with the neighbouring Euboean alphabet. Like the latter, it used an S-shaped variant of sigma, it lacked the consonant symbols xi for /ks/ and psi for /ps/, expressing these sound combinations with ΧΣ and ΦΣ respectively. Moreover, like most other mainland Greek dialects, Attic did not yet use omega and eta for the long vowels /ɔː/ and /ɛː/. Instead, it expressed the vowel phonemes /o, oː, ɔː/ with the letter Ο and /e, eː, ɛː/ with the letter Ε. Moreover, the letter Η was used as heta, with the consonantal value of /h/ rather than the vocalic value of /ɛː/. In the 5th century, Athenian writing switched from this local system to the more used Ionic alphabet, native to the eastern Aegean islands and Asia Minor. By the late 5th century, the concurrent use of elements of the Ionic system with the traditional local alphabet had become common in private writing, in 403 BC, it was decreed that public writing would switch to the new Ionic orthography, as part of the reform following the Thirty Tyrants.
This new system called the "Eucleidian" alphabet, after the name of the archon Eucleides, who oversaw the decision, was to become the Classical Greek alphabet throughout the Greek-speaking world. The classical works of Attic literature were subsequently handed down to posterity in the new Ionic spelling, it is the classical orthography in which they are read today. Proto-Greek long ā → Attic long ē, but ā after e, i, r. ⁓ Ionic ē in all positions. ⁓ Doric and Aeolic ā in all positions. Proto-Greek and Doric mātēr → Attic mētēr "mother" Attic chōrā ⁓ Ionic chōrē "place", "country"However, Proto-Greek ā → Attic ē after w, deleted by the Classical Period. Proto-Greek korwā → early Attic-Ionic *korwē → Attic korē Proto-Greek ă → Attic ě. ⁓ Doric: ă remains. Doric Artamis ⁓ Attic Artemis Compensatory lengthening
"You're Gettin' to Me Again" is a song written by Pat McManus and Woody Bomar and recorded by American country music artist Jim Glaser. It was released in June 1984 as the fifth single from the album The Man in the Mirror. In September, the song was his only No. 1 hit on the Hot Country Singles charts, holding that position for one week, spending twenty one weeks on this chart. The song peaked at number three on the Canadian country music charts published by RPM; when "You're Gettin' to Me Again" reached No. 1, Glaser accomplished something that he failed to do with his better-known brother, Tompall. Jim had recorded as part of the trio Tompall and the Glaser Brothers, the closest any of their hits came to the top was 1981's "Loving Her Was Easier," stopping at No. 2 that July. A music video was produced for "You're Getting to Me Again"
The Literary and Scientific Society of the Queen's University of Belfast is the university's debating society. The purposes of the Society, as per its Laws are to "encourage debating and rhetoric throughout the student body of the University and beyond"; the Society was founded in 1850 as a paper-reading society for students of the new Queen's College, with its first president being Edwin Lawrence Godkin. The Literific was used, during its early years, as a democratic body which could negotiate with the College on behalf of the students until the formation of the Students' Union Society and the Students' Representative Council in 1900; the Society established itself as the principal debating body of the University, however in the 1960s the Literific came under fire and was banned for several weeks in 1964 "in view of the disorders and improprieties of conduct and obscene language". In the decade the Society merged into the Union Debating Society from which it re-emerged in 2011; the Society operates as the sole debating society at QUB and has an affiliation with the Queen's University Belfast Students' Union as well as to the University itself.
The Society holds weekly meetings on a particular motion of interest during term. In 2018 the Literific, supported by the QUB Law Society, hosted the 58th Grand Final of the Irish Times Debate at which the Training Officer of the 170th session spoke as an individual finalist; the Event saw 12 speakers discuss the motion: “This House Believes That Ireland Has Failed Its Youth”. The debate was chaired by Lord Justice Stephens and judged by Irish Times editor Paul O’Neill, Queen’s Professor Adrienne Scullion, Pro Vice-Chancellor for Arts and Social Sciences. Edwin Lawrence Godkin - First president of the Society editor of The Nation and the New York Evening Post. Robert James McMordie - President 1871-72, barrister, M. P. and Lord Mayor of Belfast. Thomas Teevan - President of the Society and Ulster Unionist West Belfast MP - Youngest Chairman of a local Authority in Northern Ireland at 21, he was President of the Queen's Law Society and Chairman of the Unionist Association. Sheelagh Murnaghan - President 1946-47, first female president of the Society and Ireland Women's hockey player Northern Ireland M.
P. for the Ulster Liberal Party. Eamonn McCann - President 1964-65, writer and political activist. Only individual Q. U. B. Winner of the Irish Times Debate. Cyril Toman - President 1965-66, Northern Irish political activist. Queen's University Belfast Students' Union Literary and Historical Society College Historical Society University Philosophical Society UCC Philosophical Society