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Attica

Attica, or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of Greece. It is a peninsula projecting into the Aegean Sea, bordering on Boeotia to the north and Megaris to the west; the southern tip of the peninsula, known as Laurion, was an important mining region. The history of Attica is linked with that of Athens, the Golden Age of Athens during the classical period. Ancient Attica was divided into demoi or municipalities from the reform of Cleisthenes in 508/7 BC, grouped into three zones: urban in the region of Athens main city and Piraeus, coastal along the coastline and inland in the interior; the modern administrative region of Attica is more extensive than the historical region and includes Megaris as part of the regional unit West Attica, the Saronic Islands and Cythera, as well as the municipality of Troizinia on the Peloponnesian mainland, as the regional unit Islands. Attica is a triangular peninsula jutting into the Aegean Sea, it is divided to the north from Boeotia by the 10 mi long Cithaeron mountain range.

To the west of Eleusis, the Greek mainland narrows into Megaris, connecting to the Peloponnese at the Isthmus of Corinth. The western coast of Attica known as the Athens Riviera, forms the eastern coastline of the Saronic Gulf. Mountains separate the peninsula into the plains of Pedias and the Thriasian Plain; the mountains of Attica are the Hymettus, the eastern portion of the Geraneia, Parnitha and Penteli. Four mountains—Aigaleo, Parnitha and Hymettus —delineate the hilly plain on which the Athens urban area now spreads. Mesogeia lies to the east of Mount Hymettus and is bound to the north by the foothills of Mount Penteli, to the east by the Euboean Gulf and Mount Myrrhinous, to the south by the mountains of Lavrio and Laureotic Olympus; the Lavrio region terminates in Cape Sounion. Athens' water reservoir, Lake Marathon, is an artificial reservoir created by damming in 1920. Pine and fir forests cover the area around Parnitha. Hymettus, Penteli and Lavrio are forested with pine trees, whereas the rest are covered by shrubbery.

The Kifisos is the longest river of Attica. According to Plato, Attica's ancient boundaries were fixed by the Isthmus, toward the continent, they extended as far as the heights of Cithaeron and Parnes; the boundary line came down toward the sea, bounded by the district of Oropus on the right and by the river Asopus on the left. During antiquity, the Athenians boasted about being'autochthonic', to say that they were the original inhabitants of the area and had not moved to Attica from another place; the traditions current in the classical period recounted that, during the Greek Dark Ages, Attica had become the refuge of the Ionians, who belonged to a tribe from the northern Peloponnese. The Ionians had been forced out of their homeland by the Achaeans, forced out of their homeland by the Dorian invasion; the Ionians integrated with the ancient Atticans, afterward, considered themselves part of the Ionian tribe and spoke the Ionian dialect. Many Ionians left Attica to colonize the Aegean coast of Asia Minor and to create the twelve cities of Ionia.

During the Mycenaean period, the Atticans lived in autonomous agricultural societies. The main places where prehistoric remains were found are Marathon, Nea Makri, Thorikos, Agios Kosmas, Menidi, Spata and Athens. All of these settlements flourished during the Mycenaean period. According to tradition, Attica comprised twelve small communities during the reign of Cecrops, the legendary Ionian king of Athens. Strabo assigns these the names of Cecropia, Epacria, Eleusis, Thoricus, Cytherus, Sphettus and Phaleron; these were said to have been incorporated in an Athenian state during the reign of Theseus, the mythical king of Athens. Modern historians consider it more that the communities were progressively incorporated into an Athenian state during the 8th and the 7th centuries BC; until the 6th century BC, aristocratic families lived independent lives in the suburbs. Only after Peisistratos's tyranny and the reforms implemented by Cleisthenes did the local communities lose their independence and succumb to the central government in Athens.

As a result of these reforms, Attica was divided into a hundred municipalities, the demes, into three large sectors: the city, which comprised the areas of central Athens, Ymittos and the foot of Mount Parnes, the coast, that included the area between Eleusis and Cape Sounion and the area around the city, inhabited by people living on the north of Mount Parnitha and the area east of the mountain of Hymettus. Principally, each civic unit would include equal parts of townspeople and farmers. A “trittýs” of each sector constituted a tribe. Attica comprised ten tribes. During the classical period, Athens was fortified to the north by the fortress of Eleutherae, preserved well. Other fortresses are those of Oenoe and Aphidnae. To protect the mines at Laurium, on the coast, Athens was fortified by the walls at Rhamnus, Sounion, Anavyssos and Eleusis. Although these forts and walls had been constructed, Attica did not establish a fortification system until l

Belarusian Gymnasium of Vilnia

The Belarusian Gymnasium of Vilnia was an important Belarusian school in Vilnius. Many notable Belarusian cultural figures of the 20th century graduated from the school; the Belarusian Gymnasium of Vilnius was founded in early 1919, by the allowance of the Council of Lithuania and functioned during the Interbellum, when the city belonged to Poland. Prior to their retreat from the city to Kaunas, Lithuanians allowed opening of the gymnasium in the premises of the former Basilian monastery; the lessons started on February 1, 1919. In the first year of its existence the school served as an Orphanage for children from surrounding regions. After the Soviet occupation of Republic of Lithuania in 1944 the school was closed down, it was reestablished after the Collapse of the USSR as the Francishak Skaryna Belarusian School of Vilnius. Radasłaŭ Astroŭski, Principal from 1924 to 1936. Notable scientist in the United States and member of the Belarusian American community Michał Vituška, general and military commander Vincent Zhuk-Hryshkevich, president of the Belarusian Democratic Republic in exile Jan Stankievič, linguist and philosopher Maxim Tank and translator Boris Koverda, murderer of Pyotr Voykov The Francishak Skaryna Belarusian School of Vilnius Юбілей беларускага школьніцтва ў Вільні // Рэгіянальны партал «Сьвіслач» Гісторыя школы і гімназіі // Віленская сярэдняя школа імя Францішка Скарыны

Hockley Row

Hockley Row – known as Evans Row or Victoria House – is a set of four architecturally significant rowhouses, located in the Rittenhouse Square West neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Design of the row – 237, 239 & 241 South 21st Street and 2049 Locust Street – is attributed to architect Allen Evans, partner in the firm of Furness & Evans, they were built as speculative housing by Evans's father, 1884-86, the architect made #237 his own residence. Each features a rusticated stone basement level, with three brick stories above, bay or box windows, wrought iron railings, elaborately shaped chimneys, shed- and gabled-roofed dormers; the house at # 237 features a two-story, shingled corner tower. The house at the northeast corner of 21st & Locust Streets has its entrance from the south, is numbered 2049 Locust Street; the houses were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. Directly north of this row, at 235 S. 21st Street, is the Thomas Hockley House, designed by architect Frank Furness.

Allen Evans was a draftsman in Furness's office when it was built