Zeus /ˈzjuːs/ is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who ruled as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter and his mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of the Indo-European deities such as Indra, Perun and Odin. Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, in most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is usually said to have fathered Ares and Hephaestus. At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, Zeus was infamous for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Artemis, Persephone, Perseus, Helen of Troy and the Muses. He was equated with many foreign weather gods, permitting Pausanias to observe That Zeus is king in heaven is a common to all men. His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle and oak, in addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical cloud-gatherer derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East, such as the scepter.
Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses, striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his right hand. The gods name in the nominative is Ζεύς Zeús and it is inflected as follows, vocative, Ζεῦ Zeû, accusative, Δία Día, genitive, Διός Diós, dative, Διί Dií. Diogenes Laertius quotes Pherecydes of Syros as spelling the name, Ζάς, Zeus is the Greek continuation of *Di̯ēus, the name of the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky, called *Dyeus ph2tēr. The god is known under this name in the Rigveda, Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology. The earliest attested forms of the name are the Mycenaean Greek
In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Turkey, centered on the Sakarya River. This Midas was, the last independent king of Phrygia before Cimmerians sacked the Phrygian capital, Phrygia became subject to Lydia, and successively to Persia and his Hellenistic successors, Pergamon and Byzantium. Phrygians gradually became assimilated into other cultures by the medieval era, after the Turkish conquest of Anatolia. Phrygia describes an area on the end of the high Anatolian plateau. The climate is harsh with hot summers and cold winters, olives will not easily grow here and the land is used for livestock grazing. South of Dorylaeum, there is another important Phrygian settlement, Midas City, situated in an area of hills, to the south again, central Phrygia includes the cities of Afyonkarahisar with its marble quarries at nearby Docimium, and the town of Synnada. At the western end of Phrygia stood the towns of Aizanoi, from here to the southwest lies the hilly area of Phrygia that contrasts to the bare plains of the regions heartland.
Southwestern Phrygia is watered by the Maeander and its tributary the Lycus, one of the so-called Homeric Hymns describes the Phrygian language as not mutually intelligible with that of Troy. According to ancient tradition among Greek historians, the Phrygians anciently migrated to Anatolia from the Balkans, Herodotus says that the Phrygians were called Bryges when they lived in Europe. Some classical writers connected the Phrygians with the Mygdones, the name of two groups of people, one of which lived in northern Macedonia and another in Mysia. The classical historian Strabo groups Phrygians, Mysians, Phrygian continued to be spoken until the 6th century AD, though its distinctive alphabet was lost earlier than those of most Anatolian cultures. The so-called Handmade Knobbed Ware found in Western Anatolia during this period has been identified as an import connected to this invasion. These scholars seek instead to trace the Phrygians origins among the nations of western Anatolia who were subject to the Hittites.
Some scholars dismiss the claim of a Phrygian migration as a mere legend, no one has conclusively identified which of the many subjects of the Hittites might have represented early Phrygians. Josephus called Togarmah the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians, the Greek source cited by Josephus is unknown, and it is unclear if there was any basis for the identification other than name similarity. Scholars of the Hittites believe Tegarama was in eastern Anatolia - some locate it at Gurun - far to the east of Phrygia, some scholars have identified Phrygia with the Assuwa league, and noted that the Iliad mentions a Phrygian named Asios. Another possible early name of Phrygia could be Hapalla, the name of the easternmost province that emerged from the splintering of the Bronze Age western Anatolian empire Arzawa, scholars are unsure if Hapalla corresponds to Phrygia or to Pisidia, further south. Herodotus claims that Phrygian colonists founded the Armenian nation, little is known about these eastern Mygdones, and no evidence of Phrygian language in that region has been found
Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian, at its greatest extent, the Kingdom of Lydia covered all of western Anatolia. Lydia was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, with Sardis as its capital, appointed by Cyrus the Great, was the first satrap. Lydia was the name of a Roman province, coins are said to have been invented in Lydia around the 7th century BC. The endonym Śfard survives in bilingual and trilingual stone-carved notices of the Achaemenid Empire and these in the Greek tradition are associated with Sardis, the capital city of King Gyges, constructed during the 7th century BC. The region of the Lydian kingdom was during the 15th-14th centuries part of the Arzawa kingdom, the Lydian language is not part of the Luwian subgroup. An Etruscan/Lydian association has long been a subject of conjecture, recent decipherment of Lydian and its classification as an Anatolian language mean that Etruscan and Lydian were not even part of the same language family.
The boundaries of historical Lydia varied across the centuries and it was bounded first by Mysia, Caria and coastal Ionia. Later, the power of Alyattes II and Croesus expanded Lydia. Lydia never again shrank back into its original dimensions, the Lydian language was an Indo-European language in the Anatolian language family, related to Luwian and Hittite. It used many prefixes and grammatical particles, Lydian finally became extinct during the 1st century BC. Lydia developed after the decline of the Hittite Empire in the 12th century BC, in Hittite times, the name for the region had been Arzawa. According to Greek source, the name of the Lydian kingdom was Maionia, or Maeonia. Homer describes their capital not as Sardis but as Hyde, Hyde may have been the name of the district in which Sardis was located. Later, Herodotus adds that the Meiones were renamed Lydians after their king Lydus, son of Atys and this etiological eponym served to account for the Greek ethnic name Lydoi. During Biblical times, the Lydian warriors were famous archers, some Maeones still existed during historical times in the upland interior along the River Hermus, where a town named Maeonia existed, according to Pliny the Elder and Hierocles.
In Greek myth, Lydia had adopted the symbol, that appears in the Mycenaean civilization. Omphale, daughter of the river Iardanos, was a ruler of Lydia, all three heroic ancestors indicate a Lydian dynasty claiming Heracles as their ancestor
It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece. Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a collection of narratives. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a variety of gods, heroes, heroines. These accounts initially were disseminated in a tradition, today the Greek myths are known primarily from ancient Greek literature. The oldest known Greek literary sources, Homers epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, focus on the Trojan War, archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles, in the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an influence on the culture, arts. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes, Greek mythology is known today primarily from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c.
Mythical narration plays an important role in every genre of Greek literature. Nevertheless, the only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus and this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens lived from c, 180–125 BC and wrote on many of these topics. His writings may have formed the basis for the collection, however the Library discusses events that occurred long after his death, among the earliest literary sources are Homers two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the cycle, but these and lesser poems now are lost almost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the Homeric Hymns have no connection with Homer. They are choral hymns from the part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiods Works and Days, a poem about farming life, includes the myths of Prometheus, Pandora. The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, lyrical poets often took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became gradually less narrative and more allusive.
Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, and bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, myth was central to classical Athenian drama
The shepherds crook is an important albeit primitive device used by shepherds. Sheep can feed on rough pasture which is unsuitable for cattle or agriculture, seasonal herding along mountainous routes gave rise to what are now known as drovers roads. A strong, multi-purpose stick can be used for balance, examining dangerous undergrowth, the innovation of a hook facilitates the recovery of fallen animals by ensnaring them by neck or leg. For this reason the crook has been used as a symbol of care. The shape of the Shepherds crook is named the Johnson Curve for highly intensive engineering calculations, Muse of comedy in Greek mythology, was usually seen holding a shepherds crook. The shepherds crook and the flail are insignia of pharaonic authority, the Crook and flail
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black.
The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age
Food and drink prohibitions
Some people abstain from consuming various foods and beverages in conformity with various religious, legal or other societal prohibitions. Many of these prohibitions constitute taboos, some prohibitions are specific to a particular part or excretion of an animal, while others forgo the consumption of plants or fungi. Food prohibitions can be defined as rules, codified by religion or otherwise, about which foods, or combinations of foods, may not be eaten, the origins of these prohibitions are varied. In some cases, they are thought to be a result of health considerations or other reasons, in others. Some foods may be prohibited during certain periods, at certain stages of life, or to certain classes of people. Various religions forbid the consumption of certain types of food, for example, Judaism prescribes a strict set of rules, called Kashrut, regarding what may and may not be eaten, and notably forbidding the mixing of meat with dairy products. Islam has similar laws, dividing foods into haraam and halal, jains often follow religious directives to observe vegetarianism.
Most Hindus do not eat beef, and some Hindus apply the concept of ahimsa to their diet and consider vegetarianism as ideal, in some cases, the process of preparation rather than the food itself comes under scrutiny. The Kapu system was used in Hawaii until 1819, aside from formal rules, there are cultural taboos against the consumption of some animals. Within a given society, some meats will be considered to be not for consumption that are outside the range of the accepted definition of a foodstuff. Novel meats, i. e. animal-derived food products not familiar to an individual or to a culture, generally provoke a disgust reaction, which may be expressed as a cultural taboo. For example, although dog meat is eaten, in circumstances, in Korea, Vietnam. Likewise, horse meat is eaten in the English-speaking world, although it is part of the national cuisine of countries as widespread as Kazakhstan, Italy. Sometimes food prohibitions enter national or local law, as with the ban on cattle abattoirs in most of India, even after reversion to Chinese rule, Hong Kong has not lifted its ban on supplying meat from dogs and cats, imposed during British colonial rule.
Environmentalism, ethical consumerism and other activist movements are giving rise to new prohibitions, a fairly recent addition to cultural food prohibitions is the meat and eggs of endangered species or animals that are otherwise protected by law or international treaty. Examples of such protected species include species of whales, sea turtles. Similarly, sustainable seafood advisory lists and certification discourage the consumption of certain seafoods due to unsustainable fishing, organic certification prohibits certain synthetic chemical inputs during food production, or genetically modified organisms and the use of sewage sludge. The Fair Trade movement and certification discourage the consumption of food, Judaism strictly forbids the consumption of amphibians, such as frogs
A Gallus was a eunuch priest of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis, whose worship was incorporated into the state religious practices of ancient Rome. Under Claudius, this ban was lifted, eventually Domitian reaffirmed that Roman citizens were forbidden to practice eviratio. The Galli castrated themselves during a celebration called the Dies sanguinis, or Day of Blood. At the same time put on womens costume, mostly yellow in colour. They wore their long, and bleached, and wore heavy make-up. They wandered around with followers, begging for charity, in return for which they were prepared to tell fortunes, on the day of mourning for Attis they ran around wildly and disheveled. They performed dances to the music of pipes and tambourines, and, in an ecstasy, stephanus Byzantinus said that the name came from King Gallus. Ovid says that the name is derived from the Gallus river in Phrygia, the term Gallus is a multiple pun in Latin, meaning a Gaul, or a rooster, as well as a castrated priest.
They originally seem to have been consecrated to the god Enki, by coincidence there was a category of Mesopotamian priests called kalu, in Sumerian gala. These priests played the tympanum and were involved in bull sacrifice, another category of Mesopotamian priests called assinnu and kurgarru had a sacred function. These transgender or eunuch priests participated in liturgical rites, during which they were costumed and masked and they played music and danced, most often in ceremonies dedicated to the goddess Ishtar. Fundamental to understanding the meaning and the function of the myth, the role of prototype of the mythical castration of Attis for the institution of the priesthood of the Galli has almost always been emphasised, even if to different degrees. This kind of appears to be too simplistic as, to some extent. The earliest references to the Galli come from the Anthologia Palatina although they dont explicitly mention emasculation, more interesting is the fragment attributed to Callimachus, in which the term Gallai denotes castration that has taken place.
The high priests are well-documented from archaeology, at Pessinus, the centre of the Cybele cult, there were two high priests during the Hellenistic period, one with the title of Attis and the other with the name of Battakes. The high priests had considerable influence during this period, and letters exist from a high priest Attis to the kings of Pergamon, Eumenes II and Attalus II. Later, during the Flavian period, there was a college of ten priests, not castrated, and now Roman citizens, in Rome, the head of the galli was known as the archigallus, at least from the period of Claudius on. A number of archaeological finds depict the archigallus wearing luxurious and extravagant costumes, the archigallus was always a Roman citizen chosen by the quindecimviri sacris faciundis, whose term of service lasted for life
Tarsus is a historic city in south-central Turkey,20 km inland from the Mediterranean. It is part of the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Turkey with a population of 3 million people, Tarsus forms an administrative district in the eastern part of the Mersin Province and lies in the core of Çukurova region. With a history going back over 6,000 years, Tarsus has long been an important stop for traders, during the Roman Empire, Tarsus was the capital of the province of Cilicia. It was the scene of the first meeting between Mark Antony and Cleopatra, and the birthplace of Paul the Apostle, the climate is typical of the Mediterranean region, with very hot summers and chilly, damp winters. Industries include agricultural machinery, spare parts, fruit-processing, brick-making, agriculture is an important source of income, half the land area in the district is farmland and most of the remainder is forest and orchard. The farmland is mostly well-irrigated and managed with up-to-date equipment, first mentioned in historical record in Akkadian texts of the Neo-Assyrian era as Tarsisi.
During the Hellenistic era it was known as Antiochia on the Cydnus and it was known as Juliopolis to the Romans, Darson in Western Armenian and Tarson in Eastern Armenian. Excavation of the mound of Gözlükule reveals that the development of Tarsus reaches back to the Neolithic Period and continues unbroken through Chalcolithic. The settlement was located at the crossing of important trade routes, linking Anatolia to Syria. Because the ruins are covered by the city, archaeology has barely touched the ancient city. A Greek legend connects it with the memory of the Assyrian king Sardanapalus, still preserved in the Dunuk-Tach, called tomb of Sardanapalus, much of this legend of the foundation of Tarsus, appeared in the Roman era, and none of it is reliable. The geographer Strabo states that Tarsus was founded by people from Argos who were exploring this coast, another legend states that Bellerophon fell off his winged horse Pegasus and landed here, hurting his foot, and thus the city was named tar-sos.
Other candidates for legendary founder of the city include the hero Perseus and Triptolemus, son of the earth-goddess Demeter, the coinage of Tarsus bore the image of Hercules, due to yet another tale in which the hero was held prisoner here by the local god Sandon. Tarsus has been suggested as an identification of the biblical Tarshish, where the prophet Jonah wanted to flee. In historical times, the city was first ruled by the Hittites, followed by Assyria, Tarsus, as the principal town of Cilicia, was the seat of a Persian satrapy from 400 BC onward. Indeed, Xenophon records that in 401 BC, when Cyrus the Younger marched against Babylon, at this period the patron god of the city was Sandon, of whom a large monument existed at Tarsus at least until the 3rd century AD. Alexander the Great passed through with his armies in 333 BC, by this time Tarsus was already largely influenced by Greek language and culture, and as part of the Seleucid Empire it became more and more hellenized. Strabo praises the cultural level of Tarsus in this period with its philosophers, the schools of Tarsus rivaled those of Athens and Alexandria
From tribal and village beginnings, the state of Phrygia arose in the eighth century BC with its capital at Gordium. During this period, the Phrygians extended eastward and encroached upon the kingdom of Urartu, the descendants of the Hurrians, the last mention of the Phrygian language in literature dates to the fifth century CE and it was likely extinct by the seventh century. The Phrygians spoke Phrygian, an Indo-European language, some contemporary historians, among which Strabo is the most known, consider the Phrygians a Thracian tribe, part of a wider Thraco-Phrygian group. A conventional date of c.1180 BC is often used for the influx of the pre-Phrygian Bryges or Mushki, following this date, Phrygia retained a separate cultural identity. Phrygia developed an advanced Bronze Age culture, Phrygian Midas, the king of the golden touch, was tutored in music by Orpheus himself, according to the myth. Another musical invention that came from Phrygia was the aulos, an instrument with two pipes.
Marsyas, the satyr who first formed the instrument using the hollowed antler of a stag, was a Phrygian follower of Cybele. He unwisely competed in music with the Olympian Apollo and inevitably lost, whereupon Apollo flayed Marsyas alive and provocatively hung his skin on Cybeles own sacred tree, a pine. It was the Great Mother, Cybele, as the Greeks and Romans knew her, who was worshipped in the mountains of Phrygia. In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a belted dress, a polos. It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the holding the tympanon. The Phrygians venerated Sabazios, the sky and father-god depicted on horseback, although the Greeks associated Sabazios with Zeus, representations of him, even at Roman times, show him as a horseman god. The name of the earliest known mythical king was Nannacus, the next king mentioned in extant classical sources was called Manis or Masdes. According to Plutarch, because of his exploits, great things were called manic in Phrygia.
Thereafter the kingdom of Phrygia seems to have become fragmented among various kings, one of the kings was Tantalus who ruled over the north western region of Phrygia around Mount Sipylus. Tantalus was endlessly punished in Tartarus, because he killed his son Pelops and sacrificially offered him to the Olympians. Tantalus was accused of stealing from the lotteries he had invented. In the mythic age before the Trojan war, during a time of an interregnum, the kingless Phrygians had turned for guidance to the oracle of Sabazios at Telmissus, in the part of Phrygia that became part of Galatia
Ostia Antica is a large archeological site, close to the modern suburb of Ostia, that was the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, which is approximately 30 kilometres to the northeast. Ostia is a derivation of os, the Latin word for mouth, at the mouth of the River Tiber, Ostia was Romes seaport, but due to silting the site now lies 3 kilometres from the sea. The site is noted for the excellent preservation of its ancient buildings, magnificent frescoes, Ostia may have been Romes first colonia. An inscription seems to confirm the establishment of the old castrum of Ostia in the 7th century BC, the oldest archaeological remains so far discovered date back to only the 4th century BC. The most ancient buildings currently visible are from the 3rd century BC, notably the Castrum, Ostia was a scene of fighting during the period of the civil wars Sullas first civil war between Gaius Marius and Sulla during the 1st century BC. In 87 BC, Marius attacked the city in order to cut off the flow of trade to Rome, forces led by Cinna and Sertorius crossed the Tiber at three points before capturing the city and plundering it.
After his victory here, Marius moved on to attack and capture Antium, Aricia, in 68 BC, the town was sacked by pirates. During the sack, the port was set on fire, the war fleet was destroyed. Within a year, the pirates had been defeated, the town was re-built, and provided with protective walls by the statesman and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero. During Julius Caesars time as Dictator, one of his improvements to the city was his establishment of better supervision of the supply of grain to Rome and he proposed better access to grain by the use of a new harbor in Ostia along with a canal from Tarracina. The town was developed during the first century AD under the influence of Tiberius. The town was enriched by the construction of a new harbor on the northern mouths of the Tiber. The new harbor, not surprisingly called Portus, from the Latin for harbor, was excavated from the ground at the orders of the emperor Claudius. This harbor became silted up and needed to be supplemented by a built by Trajan finished in the year 113 AD, it has a hexagonal form.
Moreover, it must remember that at a short distance. These elements took business away from Ostia itself and began its commercial decline, Ostia itself was provided with all the services a town of the time could require, in particular, a famous lighthouse. By 1954 eighteen mithraea had been discovered, Mithras had his largest following among the population that were the majority of this port town. Archaeologists discovered the public latrinae, organised for collective use as a series of seats that allow us to imagine today that their function was a social one
Midas is the name of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia. The most famous King Midas is popularly remembered in Greek mythology for his ability to turn everything he touched into gold and this came to be called the golden touch, or the Midas touch. The Phrygian city Midaeum was presumably named after this Midas, according to Aristotle, legend held that Midas died of starvation as a result of his vain prayer for the gold touch. However, Homer does not mention Midas or Gordias, while instead mentioning two other Phrygian kings and Otreus. Another King Midas ruled Phrygia in the late 8th century BC, up until the sacking of Gordium by the Cimmerians, when he is said to have committed suicide. Most historians believe this Midas is the person as the Mita, called king of the Mushki in Assyrian texts. Phrygia was by that time a Lydian subject, Herodotus says that Croesus regarded the Phrygian royal house as friends but does not mention whether the Phrygian royal house still ruled as kings of Phrygia.
There are many, and often contradictory, legends about the most ancient King Midas. In one, Midas was king of Pessinus, a city of Phrygia, who as a child was adopted by King Gordias and Cybele, the goddess whose consort he was, and who was the goddess-mother of Midas himself. According to some accounts, Midas had a son, the reaper of men. According to other accounts he had a son Anchurus, arrian gives an alternative story of the descent and life of Midas. According to him, Midas was the son of Gordios, a peasant. While they were still deliberating, Midas arrived with his father and mother and they, comparing the oracular response with this occurrence, decided that this was the person whom the god told them the wagon would bring. They therefore appointed Midas king and he, putting an end to their discord, in addition to this the following saying was current concerning the wagon, that whosoever could loosen the cord of the yoke of this wagon, was destined to gain the rule of Asia. This someone was to be Alexander the Great, in other versions of the legend, it was Midas father Gordias who arrived humbly in the cart and made the Gordian Knot.
However, some believe that this throne was donated by the later. One day, as Ovid relates in Metamorphoses XI, Dionysus found that his old schoolmaster and foster father, the old satyr had been drinking wine and wandered away drunk, to be found by some Phrygian peasants who carried him to their king, Midas. Midas recognized him and treated him hospitably, entertaining him for ten days and nights with politeness, while Silenus delighted Midas and his friends with stories, on the eleventh day, he brought Silenus back to Dionysus in Lydia