Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns was a French composer, organist and pianist of the Romantic era. His best-known works include Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso, the Second Piano Concerto, the First Cello Concerto, Danse macabre, the opera Samson and Delilah, the Third Violin Concerto, the Third Symphony and The Carnival of the Animals. Saint-Saëns was a musical prodigy. After studying at the Paris Conservatoire he followed a conventional career as a church organist, first at Saint-Merri, Paris and, from 1858, La Madeleine, the official church of the French Empire. After leaving the post twenty years he was a successful freelance pianist and composer, in demand in Europe and the Americas; as a young man, Saint-Saëns was enthusiastic for the most modern music of the day that of Schumann and Wagner, although his own compositions were within a conventional classical tradition. He was a scholar of musical history, remained committed to the structures worked out by earlier French composers; this brought him into conflict in his years with composers of the impressionist and dodecaphonic schools of music.
Saint-Saëns held only one teaching post, at the École de Musique Classique et Religieuse in Paris, remained there for less than five years. It was important in the development of French music: his students included Gabriel Fauré, among whose own pupils was Maurice Ravel. Both of them were influenced by Saint-Saëns, whom they revered as a genius. Saint-Saëns was born in Paris, the only child of Jacques-Joseph-Victor Saint-Saëns, an official in the French Ministry of the Interior, Françoise-Clémence, née Collin. Victor Saint-Saëns was of Norman ancestry, his wife was from an Haute-Marne family. Less than two months after the christening, Victor Saint-Saëns died of consumption on the first anniversary of his marriage; the young Camille was taken to the country for the sake of his health, for two years lived with a nurse at Corbeil, 29 kilometres to the south of Paris. When Saint-Saëns was brought back to Paris he lived with his mother and her widowed aunt, Charlotte Masson. Before he was three years old he enjoyed picking out tunes on the piano.
His great-aunt taught him the basics of pianism, when he was seven he became a pupil of Camille-Marie Stamaty, a former pupil of Friedrich Kalkbrenner. Stamaty required his students to play while resting their forearms on a bar situated in front of the keyboard, so that all the pianist's power came from the hands and fingers rather than the arms, Saint-Saëns wrote, was good training. Clémence Saint-Saëns, well aware of her son's precocious talent, did not wish him to become famous too young; the music critic Harold C. Schonberg wrote of Saint-Saëns in 1969, "It is not realized that he was the most remarkable child prodigy in history, that includes Mozart." The boy gave occasional performances for small audiences from the age of five, but it was not until he was ten that he made his official public debut, at the Salle Pleyel, in a programme that included Mozart's Piano Concerto in B♭, Beethoven's Third Piano Concerto. Through Stamaty's influence, Saint-Saëns was introduced to the composition professor Pierre Maleden and the organ teacher Alexandre Pierre François Boëly.
From the latter he acquired a lifelong love of the music of Bach, little known in France. As a schoolboy Saint-Saëns was outstanding in many subjects. In addition to his musical prowess, he distinguished himself in the study of French literature and Greek, mathematics, his interests included philosophy and astronomy, of which the last, he remained a talented amateur in life. In 1848, at the age of thirteen, Saint-Saëns was admitted to the Paris Conservatoire, France's foremost music academy; the director, Daniel Auber, had succeeded Luigi Cherubini in 1842, brought a more relaxed regime than that of his martinet predecessor, though the curriculum remained conservative. Students outstanding pianists like Saint-Saëns, were encouraged to specialise in organ studies, because a career as a church organist was seen to offer more opportunities than that of a solo pianist, his organ professor was François Benoist, whom Saint-Saëns considered a mediocre organist but a first-rate teacher. In 1851 Saint-Saëns won the Conservatoire's top prize for organists, in the same year he began formal composition studies.
His professor was a protégé of Cherubini, Fromental Halévy, whose pupils included Charles Gounod and Bizet. Saint-Saëns's student compositions included a symphony in A major and a choral piece, Les Djinns, after an eponymous poem by Victor Hugo, he was unsuccessful. Auber believed that the prize should have gone to Saint-Saëns, considering him to have more promise than the winner, Léonce Cohen, who made little mark during the rest of his career. In the same year Saint-Saëns had greater success in a competition organised by the Société Sainte-Cécile, with his Ode à Sainte-Cécile, for which the judges unanimously v
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
William March was an American writer of psychological fiction and a decorated US Marine. The author of six novels and four short-story collections, March was praised by critics but never attained great popularity. March grew up in rural Alabama in a family so poor that he could not finish high school, he did not earn a high school equivalency until he was 20, he studied law but was again unable to afford to finish his studies. In 1917, while working in a Manhattan law office, he volunteered for the US Marines and saw action in World War I, for which he was decorated with some of the highest honors—the French Croix de Guerre, the American Distinguished Service Cross, the U. S. Navy Cross. After the war he again worked in a law office before embarking on a financially successful business career. While working in business he began writing, first short stories in 1933 a novel based on his war experiences, Company K, his follow-up work was the "Pearl County" series and short fiction set in his native south Alabama, the most successful of, the novel The Looking-Glass.
However, literary success eluded him. His last novel, The Bad Seed, was published in 1954, the year March died, it became a bestseller, but he never saw his story adapted first for the stage in 1954, for film in 1956, 1985, 2018. March was one of twelve inaugural inductees to the Alabama Writers Hall of Fame on June 8, 2015. William March was born William Edward Campbell, his father worked as a "timber cruiser", estimating which stands of trees were big enough to warrant lumber companies investing in a saw mill in the area. He grew up in and around Mobile, Alabama, his father was an occasional heavy drinker who had a fondness for reciting poetry at the dinner table. His mother, whose maiden name was Susan March, was better educated and taught the children to read and write. Neither parent seemed to have supported young March's literary efforts. Having 8 other siblings, March was afforded no privileges, by the time he was 14 the family moved to Lockhart, preventing him from going to high school. Instead, March received occasional schooling in one-room edifices common in sawmill towns.
He found employment in the office of a lumber mill. Two years March had returned to Mobile and found employment in a local law office. By 1913, he had saved enough money to take a high school course at Valparaiso University in Indiana, which allowed him to enroll at the University of Alabama to study law, he could not afford the necessary tuition to complete his law degree. In the fall of 1916, he moved to New York. There he lived in a small boarding house in Brooklyn, found work as a clerk in the Manhattan law firm of Nevins and Kellog, attended plays. On June 5, 1917, March registered for military service, a little over a month after the U. S. entered World War I. He volunteered for the U. S. Marines on July 25, after completing his training on Parris Island was shipped to France in February 1918. Along with two other future World War I literary figures, John W. Thomason and Laurence Stallings), March embarked on USS Von Steuben at Philadelphia, he reached France in March 1918 and served as a sergeant in Co F, 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines, 4th Brigade of Marines, Second Division of the U.
S. Army Expeditionary Force. March's company took part in every major engagement in which American troops were involved, incurring heavy casualties; as a member of the 5th Marines, March saw his first action on the old Verdun battlefield near Les Éparges and shortly afterwards at Belleau Wood, where he was wounded in the head and shoulder. He returned to the front in time for the offensive at the battles of Saint-Mihiel. March was twice promoted and had attained the rank of sergeant when he was assigned to French troops in the Blanc Mont area, on "statistical duties". During the assault on Blanc Mont, which started on 3 October, March "left a shelter to rescue wounded"; the next day, "during a counterattack, the enemy having advanced to within 300 meters of the first aid station, he entered the engagement and though wounded refused to be evacuated until the Germans were thrown back". As a result of his actions, March received the French Croix de Guerre with Palm and the Army Distinguished Service Cross for valor.
A curious detail emerges from the account of his war experiences that would find its way into his fiction: though it appears he was never gassed badly enough to be hospitalized for it, upon his return from the war he told people that he was and that he only had a short time to live. Roy Simmonds, March's biographer, locates the origin of what he calls the "two worlds of William March" in this period: throughout his life, March appears to have mixed reality with imagined memory, telling historical anecdotes that may not have been true. An experience March told a number of times included his jumping into a bomb crater to take shelter and coming face to face with a young German soldier, whom he bayoneted; the official citation to the Croix de Guerre reads as follows: During the operations in Blanc Mont
Yvonne Printemps was a French singer and actress who achieved stardom on stage and screen in France and internationally. Printemps went on the stage in Paris at the age of 12, at 21 she was singled out by the actor and playwright Sacha Guitry as a leading lady. In 1919 they were married, worked together until 1932, when they divorced. Printemps never remarried, but had a personal and professional partnership with the actor Pierre Fresnay which lasted until his death in 1975; as a performer, Printemps was famed for her personal charm. Among those who composed for her were André Messager, Reynaldo Hahn, Noël Coward and Francis Poulenc, her voice could have led her to an operatic career, but guided by Guitry she concentrated on operette and other types of musical show, along with non-musical plays and films. In addition to her many successes in Paris she appeared to great acclaim in the West End of London, on Broadway in New York. Printemps was born in a northern suburb of Paris, as Yvonne Wigniolle.
Despite the misgivings of what she described as "my bourgeois family", she made her debut as a performer at the age of 12 in a revue at La Cigale in Paris. The music critic J. B. Steane writes of her, "A career at the Opéra-Comique seemed possible, for she had a voice of delightful quality with prodigious breath control."The possibility of an operatic career did not materialise. Printemps was dancing at the Folies Bergère at the age of 13, she was given the sobriquet Printemps by her fellow chorus members because of her sunny disposition, adopted it as her stage name. She appeared in small roles in light musical shows such as Les Contes de Perrault. Louis Verneuil saw her in one of them while he was writing a revue, 1915, insisted on casting her in the leading part in it. In the revue she performed a parody of the actor-playwright Sacha Guitry, "whose mannerisms she imitated with spry irreverence." Guitry's wife, saw the show, was amused and soon afterwards brought her husband to see it. In November 1915 Guitry cast Printemps in his new revue, which he did not appear in.
A year they acted together in his new comedy, Jean de la Fontaine. It was rumoured that Printemps was having an affair with Guitry's father, the eminent actor Lucien Guitry. Charlotte Guitry, discovering the liaison, left her husband. Guitry wrote many plays for some musical and others straight comedies. Both he and his father appeared with her in several of them, including Mon Père avait raison and Comment on ecrit l'histoire, they played together not only in the West End of London. All three appeared at the Aldwych Theatre in a four-week season in 1920. Sir John Gielgud wrote that Printemps and her husband "returned … many times to delight London in various pieces artfully contrived by him to show them both off to the best possible advantage." He described her thus: With a trim, elegant figure, appealing spaniel eyes, a broad turned-up nose not unlike that of our own Gertrude Lawrence... her acting had something of the same inimitable brand of impish sentimental comedy. But unlike Gertie Lawrence, whose singing voice, fascinating though it was, could be distinctly unreliable and wobbly, Printemps' tones were exquisitely delicate and true.
She was sometimes tempted to prolong her top notes unduly in order to show off her brilliant breath control, to yield rather too to demands for encores. In 1925 Guitry had the idea of writing a musical comedy about the life of the youthful Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart while in Paris in the 1770s. To compose the score he approached André Messager, with whom he had collaborated in 1923 on a show for Printemps, L'amour masqué. Messager was unavailable and recommended the young composer Reynaldo Hahn, who accepted the commission; the resulting production, took some liberties with historical accuracy, but it proved popular. Printemps, in a breeches role and sang the young Mozart, with Guitry as the composer's patron, Baron Grimm. Gielgud recalled, "she seemed ravishingly youthful and touching in her powdered wig, black knee breeches and buckled shoes, while Sacha hovered over her with avuncular authority, not attempting to try to sing himself, but contributing a kind of flowing, rhythmic accompaniment with his speeches, delivered in a deep caressing voice."
After playing at the Théâtre Edouard VII, the company presented the piece for a three-week season in London in June and July 1926. The critic James Agate wrote, "It is not exaggerating to say that on Monday evening people were observed to cry, by that I mean shed tears, when Music's heavenly child appeared at the top of the stairs. At that moment of her entrance this exquisite artist made conquest of the house, subsequently held it in thrall until the final curtain." After the London production, Guitry took the piece to Broadway and Montreal in late 1926 and early 1927. In 1932 Printemps's marriage to Guitry broke up. Guitry soon remarried. In February 1934 she had a personal success in London in Noël Coward's Conversation Piece. Coward wrote the role of Melanie with Printemps in mind, as she spoke no English, she learned the part phonetically, her singing of the big romantic number, "I'll follow my secret heart", was the highlight of the show. The Times said of her performance: Mlle. Printemps is enchanting.
Pierrot is a stock character of pantomime and commedia dell'arte whose origins are in the late seventeenth-century Italian troupe of players performing in Paris and known as the Comédie-Italienne. His character in contemporary popular culture—in poetry and the visual arts, as well as works for the stage and concert hall—is that of the sad clown, pining for love of Columbine, who breaks his heart and leaves him for Harlequin. Performing unmasked, with a whitened face, he wears a loose white blouse with large buttons and wide white pantaloons. Sometimes he appears with a frilled collaret and a hat with a close-fitting crown and wide round brim, more with a conical shape like a dunce's cap, but most since his reincarnation under Jean-Gaspard Deburau, he wears neither collar nor hat, only a black skullcap. The defining characteristic of Pierrot is his naïveté: he is seen as a fool the butt of pranks, yet nonetheless trusting, it was a buffoonish Pierrot that held the European stage for the first two centuries of his history.
And yet early signs of a respectful sympathetic attitude toward the character appeared in the plays of Jean-François Regnard and in the paintings of Antoine Watteau, an attitude that would deepen in the nineteenth century, after the Romantics claimed the figure as their own. For Jules Janin and Théophile Gautier, Pierrot was not a fool but an avatar of the post-Revolutionary People, sometimes tragically, to secure a place in the bourgeois world, and subsequent artistic/cultural movements found him amenable to their cause: the Decadents turned him, like themselves, into a disillusioned disciple of Schopenhauer, a foe of Woman and of callow idealism. In short, Pierrot became an alter-ego of the artist of the famously alienated artist of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, his physical insularity. Much of that mythic quality still adheres to the "sad clown" of the postmodern era, he is sometimes said to be a French variant of the sixteenth-century Italian Pedrolino, but the two types have little but their names and social stations in common.
Both are comic servants, but Pedrolino, as a so-called first zanni acts with cunning and daring, an engine of the plot in the scenarios where he appears. Pierrot, on the other hand, as a "second" zanni, is a static character in his earliest incarnations, "standing on the periphery of the action", dispensing advice that seems to him sage, courting—unsuccessfully—his master's young daughter, with bashfulness and indecision, his origins among the Italian players in France are most unambiguously traced to Molière's character, the lovelorn peasant Pierrot, in Don Juan, or The Stone Guest. In 1673 inspired by Molière's success, the Comédie-Italienne made its own contribution to the Don Juan legend with an Addendum to "The Stone Guest", which included Molière's Pierrot. Thereafter the character—sometimes a peasant, but more now an Italianate "second" zanni—appeared regularly in the Italians’ offerings, his role always taken by one Giuseppe Giaratone, until the troupe was banished by royal decree in 1697.
Among the French dramatists who wrote for the Italians and who gave Pierrot life on their stage were Jean Palaprat, Claude-Ignace Brugière de Barante, Antoine Houdar de la Motte, the most sensitive of his early interpreters, Jean-François Regnard. He acquires there a distinctive personality, he seems an anomaly among the busy social creatures. Columbine laughs at his advances, his is a solitary voice, his estrangement, however comic, bears the pathos of the portraits—Watteau's chief among them—that one encounters in the centuries to come. An Italian company was called back to Paris in 1716, Pierrot was reincarnated by the actors Pierre-François Biancolelli and, after Biancolelli abandoned the role, the celebrated Fabio Sticotti and his son Antoine Jean, but the character seems to have been regarded as unimportant by this company, since he appears infrequently in its new plays. His real life in the theater in the eighteenth century is to be found on the lesser stages of the capital, at its two great fairs, the Foires Saint-Germain and Saint-Laurent.
There he appeared in the marionette theaters and in the motley entertainments—featuring song, audience participation, acrobatics—that were calculated to draw a crowd while sidestepping the regulations that ensured the Théâtre-Français a monopoly on "regular" dramas in Paris. Sometimes he spoke gibberish; the result, far from "regular" drama, tended to put a strain on his character, and, as a consequence, the early Pierrot of the fairg
The phonautograph is the earliest known device for recording sound. Tracings had been obtained of the sound-producing vibratory motions of tuning forks and other objects by physical contact with them, but not of actual sound waves as they propagated through air or other media. Invented by Frenchman Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, it was patented on March 25, 1857, it transcribed sound waves as undulations or other deviations in a line traced on smoke-blackened paper or glass. Intended as a laboratory instrument for the study of acoustics, it could be used to visually study and measure the amplitude envelopes and waveforms of speech and other sounds, or to determine the frequency of a given musical pitch by comparison with a recorded reference frequency, it did not occur to anyone before the 1870s that the recordings, called phonautograms, contained enough information about the sound that they could, in theory, be used to recreate it. Because the phonautogram tracing was an insubstantial two-dimensional line, direct physical playback was impossible in any case.
Several phonautograms recorded before 1861 were played as sound in 2008 by optically scanning them and using a computer to process the scans into digital audio files. Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville, a printer and bookseller by trade, was inspired when he happened to read about the anatomy of the human ear in the course of his business. His phonautograph was constructed as an analog of the ear canal and ossicles. Scott created several variations of the device; the functions of the ear canal and eardrum were simulated by a funnel-like horn or a small open-ended barrel with a flexible membrane of parchment or other suitable material stretched over the small end. A pig bristle or other lightweight stylus was connected to the membrane, sometimes by an indirect linkage which simulated the ossicles and served as an amplifying lever; the bristle traced a line through a thin coating of lampblack—finely divided carbon deposited by the flame of an oil or gas lamp—on a moving surface of paper or glass.
The sound collected by the simulated ear and transmitted to the bristle caused the line to be modulated in accordance with the passing variations in air pressure, creating a graphic record of the sound waves. Martinville's first patent described a flat recording surface and a weight-driven clockwork motor, but the and more familiar form of his invention, marketed by Rudolph Koenig in 1859, recorded on a sheet of lampblack-coated paper wrapped around a cylinder, hand-cranked; the cylinder was carried on a coarsely threaded rod so that it progressed along its axis as it rotated, producing a helical tracing. The length of the recording that could be accommodated depended on the speed of rotation, which had to be rapid in order to resolve the individual waveforms of various sounds with good detail. If only longer-term dynamics such as the cadences of speech were being studied, the cylinder could be rotated much more and a longer recording could be made; some phonautographs included a tuning fork or other means of recording a known reference frequency.
Several other inventors subsequently produced modified versions of the phonautograph and recorded the sound-modulated line by the use of various implements and in various formats, either in attempts to improve on Scott's apparatus or to adapt it to specific applications. In at least one instance, a complete return to the device's conceptual origins was made by employing the preserved parts of an actual human ear. By mid-April 1877, Charles Cros had realized that a phonautograph recording could be converted back into sound by photoengraving the tracing into a metal surface to create a playable groove using a stylus and diaphragm similar to those of the phonautograph to reverse the recording process and recreate the sound. Before he was able to put his ideas into practice, the announcement of Thomas Edison's phonograph, which recorded sound waves by indenting them into a sheet of tinfoil from which they could be played back temporarily relegated Cros's less direct method to obscurity. Ten years the early experiments of Emile Berliner, the creator of the disc Gramophone, employed a recording machine, in essence a disc form of the phonautograph.
It traced a clear sound-modulated spiral line through a thin black coating on a glass disc. The photoengraving method first proposed by Cros was used to produce a metal disc with a playable groove. Arguably, these circa 1887 experiments by Berliner were the first known reproductions of sound from phonautograph recordings. However, as far as is known, no attempt was made to use this method to play any of the surviving early phonautograms made by Scott de Martinville; this was because the few images of them available in books and periodicals were of unpromising short bursts of sound, of fragmentary areas of longer recordings, or too crude and indistinct to encourage such an experiment. Nearly 150 years after they had been recorded, promising specimens of Scott de Martinville's phonautograms, stored among his papers in France's patent office and at the Académie des Sciences, were located by American audio historians. High-quality images of them were obtained. In 2008, the team played back the recordings as sound for the first time.
Modern computer-based image processing methods were used to accomplish the playback. The first results were obtained by using a specialized system developed for optically playing recordings on more conventional media which were too fragile or damaged to be played by traditional means. Available image-editing and image-to-sound conversion software, requiring only a high-quality scan of the phonautogram and an ordinary personal computer