Aube is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. As with sixty departments in France, this department is named after a river: the Aube. With 305,606 inhabitants, Aube is 76th department in terms of population; the inhabitants of the department are known as Aubois or AuboisesThe department was constituted as it is today by a decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790. The Aube department is located in the south-west side of the Grand Est region, it borders the departments of Marne in the north, Haute-Marne to the east, Côte-d'Or in the south-east, Yonne in the south-west, Seine-et-Marne in the west. Within the department regions of natural or traditional countryside can be identified as follows: northwest quarter: Champagne crayeuse northwestern tip: the Nogentais southwest of Troyes: the Othe region to the south: le Chaourçois to the northeast: the Briennois to the east: the Barrois between Troyes and Barrois: Champagne wetlands Aube is divided into 431 communes totalling 308,503 inhabitants.

Major cities with more than 10,000 inhabitants) are: Troyes, Romilly-sur-Seine, La Chapelle-Saint-Luc, Saint-André-les-Vergers and Sainte-Savine. They are located in the centre of the department. Four of those five cities are part of the Agglomeration of Troyes. There are 23 rivers throughout the department, the four main rivers being the Seine, the Aube, the Armance, the Vanne; the department has 140,000 hectares of forests. Located in the Community of communes of Forests and lands in Champagne, the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park was one of the first natural parks created in France. In the same place, there is the Orient Lake and the Amance and Temple lakes where fishing, recreational water sports, bathing are available; each lake specialises in one or more of these activities. The climate is moderate without intense cold or excessive heat which represents a climate similar to continental and oceanic. Between 1950 and 1985 the average annual temperature recorded in the department was 10.1 °C, equivalent to the Paris basin and the cities of north-eastern France.

The average sunshine hours per year is 1771. Average annual rainfall is quite high. In general there is more rain in autumn than in winter but rainfall is highest during spring. In contrast summer is the season. There is, more rain in the south-east than the north-west. Snow is infrequent. Prevailing wind is from the west; the department has 150 km of autoroutes, 33 km of national roads, 4,517 km of departmental roads and 2,116 km of local roads. In the Agglomeration of Troyes TCAT provides a transport network between communes. Unlike many networks that are provided by other operators, the agglomeration community of the city is the owner of the company; the network serves eleven communes including two outside the Troyes agglomeration. Other cities, including Romilly-sur-Seine, have no transport network. Aube has intercity transport networks. 21 regular bus routes are operated between the major cities of the department. The use of these lines is entrusted to private coaches: Transdev – The Carriers of Aube has 15 routes, Keolis Sud Lorraine has 4 routes, Procars Champagne has 2 routes, Autocars Bardy has one route.

Five railway stations are in operation. These are: Nogent-sur-Seine, Romilly-sur-Seine, Vendeuvre-sur-Barse, Bar-sur-Aube. Aube does not have a strong rail coverage. Only one main non-electrified line passes through Aube – the line that connects Paris-Est to Mulhouse; the department has 34.8 km of navigable waterways. The city of Nogent-sur-Seine has two river ports for grain; the first inhabitants of Aube were the Tricasses and Lingones with a substantial human settlement around the year 400 BC. Saints Potentian and Savinian, Greek priests from Samos, came to preach the gospel from the middle of the 3rd century. Saint Patroclus was one of the first martyrs of the new faith in the year 259. Shortly after Saint Jule and some notables of the city of Tricasses suffered martyrdom; as elsewhere, the Christian community became large enough to accommodate a bishop. Saint Amateur was the first in 340. In the year 286 the Bagaudae ravaged the land. Emperor Julian rescued it; the territory making up Aube was first attached to France following the Treaty of Verdun.

Two important monasteries were founded in the department: one at Clairvaux in 1114, created by Bernard of Clairvaux, the other at Paraclete, by his illustrious rival, Pierre Abélard and of which Héloïse d'Argenteuil was the first abbess. Bernard of Clairvaux was noted for his eloquence at the Council of Troyes and his preaching of the Second Crusade which had no result and whose outcome was disastrous; the reunion of Champagne with the kingdom of France was finalised in 1361. Yet people wanted the incorporation of Champagne but in 1328 King Philip VI gave the city of Bar-sur-Seine to Philippe de Croy; the inhabitants, ransomed him to return it to the king on the condition that it become inalienable. The decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790 formally established the department of Aube, its first president was Augustin-Henri-Marie Picot and his first deputy was Louis Antoine Joseph Robin. Jacques Claude Beugnot was elected Attorney-General and MP; the 19th century marked the emergence of the Hosiery business i

Iu Mien people

The Iu Mien people are a Southeast Asian subset of the Yao people, a minority group from China. Displaced by the Vietnam War, many settled in the United States from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s. From China, the Iu Mien migrated to Vietnam and Thailand, they speak the Iu Mien language. The Iu Mien people were the first civilization in China according to the chanting song story, Iu Mien Elders, a shaman's worship book written by Iu Mien elders in ancient Chinese characters; the Iu Mien nation was located in the southern part of China today known as Guangdong and Hunan provinces and was ruled by the king of the Iu Mien people. The last Iu Mien King was King Pan, the namesake of the modern Iu Mien surnames: Phan, Saephan, Pharn, Pham, etc. King Pan and the Chinese emperor declared war against each other 800 years ago over disputed territory. Iu Mien, led by King Pan, were fighting to protect their territory. King Pan and Iu Mien suffered tremendous losses. King Pan lost countless soldiers and civilian casualties as well as territory to the Chinese emperor.

The Chinese emperor captured most of the Iu Mien's territory. Iu Mien and King Pan were unable to fight due to outnumbered soldiers and weapons, which forced King Pan to negotiate with the Chinese emperor; the Chinese emperor gave two options to King Pan and Iu Mien people: 1) Surrender to the Chinese emperor and sign a treaty to give all territorial land to the Chinese emperor, or 2) King Pan could continue to fight, but the Chinese would wipe out Iu Mien society in a short period. King Pan and his government chose to give up all territories to China and signed the treaty called “Passport to travel in the hill” or “Passport to cross the mountain.” This document contained relevant information. The Chinese emperor had written this document in Chinese character. “Iu Mien people have rights to maintain their identity, language and worship system and live on the hill side or in the mountain to cultivate land for farming and crops and raise their family. The Iu Mien would not be allowed to form their own government and have no rights to pursue their own nation.

Iu Mien, who possesses this document, has the legal rights to cross any territories/ borders to settle and to build their village in the hill/mountain to make a living by farming without delaying by any regional governments. The governments of that country are responsible for their wellbeing and educating them to follow the rules of laws of the country that Iu Mien are living in.” After the loss of their nation, the 12 existing clans of Iu Mien people had to separate into small villages due to the mountainous area and foot hill land. Each village consisted of 15 to 20 families; the majority of people in each village were related. In some cases, they kept their clan together, their farming life style was slash-and-burn to fertilize crops. Hunting and fishing were their primary career for men to provide foods for their families, they hunt many different kinds of wild animals ranging from birds, monkeys, wild buffalo, to elephants. Iu Mien women's primary role is to take care of household chores and feed animals.

Iu Mien's written language is similar to Chinese character, for religious and chant only songs. No written language for daily speaking; every five to ten years, the mountain where the Iu Mien people lived and farmed would no longer be able to grow crops because the slash and burn process destroys proper elements soils needed to grow crops in the region. They had to move to a new place and location in the deep tropical forest to start a new life and a new village all over again. Iu Mien people were scattered all over the mountains in China; the mountains where they lived burn farming. They looked for new places such as other mountainous areas to build new villages, they had to search further south and moved into Vietnam. No known record indicates what year the Iu Mien had entered Vietnam because of the constant fear of persecution by the Chinese emperor; the method of slash and burn used throughout mountainous regions in China led to a drought which caused the Iu Mien people to migrate to Vietnam.

They saw Vietnam as an opportunity to cultivate forest for farming. The Iu Mien population migrated into Vietnam, in the province called “Moung Lai.” The lands had rich natural soil. The Iu Mien people were able to produce enough food to support their families. However, the local people persecuted the Iu Mien; when one of the local people died, they brought the dead body to an Iu Mien village and put in front of Iu Mien hut house door late at night. At dawn the next morning, the Iu Mien found a dead body in front of their door step, they reported this to the local authorities. The local authorities and local people accused the Iu Mien people of murdering the victim, they charged Iu Mien people with all of the wealth they had. In some cases, they charged the Iu Mien capital punishment by hanging to death for a crime that they did not commit; the local government imposed a high tax on Iu Mien families. Each year when a family couldn't afford to pay tax, the local government would force the Iu Mien people to sell a child to pay the tax due.

The Iu Mien families were deteriorated by the government's action and no longer be able to continue to live in Vietnam. They were searching for a new place again. During 1600s and 1800s, the Iu Mien people found Thailand, they migrated to Laos and Thailand. Since Iu Mien people had settled into Laos and Thailand, they gained more independence. One group of Iu Mien migrated from Vietnam to Thailand; the other migrated from Vietnam to Laos. They were able to run by village chiefs. Laos and Tha

Madras Day

Madras Day is a festival organized to commemorate the founding of the city of Madras in Tamil Nadu, India. It is celebrated on 22 August every year, 22 August 1639 being the agreed date for the purchase of the village of Madraspatnam or Chennapatnam by East India Company factors Andrew Cogan and Francis Day from Damarla Venkatadri Nayaka, the viceroy of the Vijayanagar Empire; the idea of a Madras Day was first suggested by Chennai-based journalist Vincent D'Souza to historian S. Muthiah during a meeting of the trustees of the Chennai Heritage foundation in 2004. Since Madras Day celebrations have been held every year without fail, its highlights being exhibitions, film screenings and quizzes; the Madras Day festival has registered a steady increase in popularity year after year. The 2014 and 2015 editions lasted through August and extended into September as well, prompting demands to rename Madras Day as Madras Week, or Madras Month. There has been a contention that the deed of purchase was dated 22 July 1639 and not 22 August.

The first recorded celebration of the founding of Madras was its tercentenary commemoration in 1939. Unlike anniversaries, the celebrations were sponsored by the British government and a special tercentenary commemoration volume was issued with essays on the different aspects of Madras city authored by leading experts of the time. An exhibition of pictures, maps and coins was inaugurated by Diwan Bahadur S. E. Runganadhan, the Vice-Chancellor of the Madras University and a short play writing competition was organized; the 350th anniversary in 1989 was celebrated with the opening of a commemorative monument titled "Madras 350" built in the Classical Style by builder Frankpet Fernandez at the junction of the Poonamallee High Road and the New Avadi Road. Other major events included the commissioning of a book by S. Muthiah titled Madras — The Gracious City by the Murugappa Group which organized the first Madras Quiz which has continued to the present day; the idea to celebrate the birth of the city every year was born when journalists Shashi Nair and Vincent D'Souza met S. Muthiah at his residence for coffee.

It was based on the success of another event called Mylapore Festival which D'Souza had been organising every year in January. It was decided by the trio to start celebrating Madras Day from 2004. According to them, the "primary motive of celebrating'Madras Day' was to focus on the city, its past and its present." The idea started off with about five events in 2004 but grew gradually. The second edition in 2005 had events throughout the week. In 2008, there were a total of 60 events conducted. In 2007, a commemorative postal cover was released by Chief Postmaster-General of Tamil Nadu Circle at a function at Fort St George as a part of the Madras Day celebrations, thereby inaugurating a tradition that continued through the editions; the 2010 celebrations extended well into the following week as well. The 375th Madras Day was celebrated with more than a hundred events that lasted from 10 August to 14 September 2014. However, despite expectations to the contrary, Tamil Nadu government departments did not participated in the celebrations which they felt "colonial heritage".

The celebrations were deemed a roaring success and the events got nationwide coverage for the first time. "The Madras Song" was composed to commemorate the occasion and a website was launched by The Hindu titled for residents of the city to create online petitions voicing their civic grievances. Historian and entrepreneur V. Sriram designed a mobile app named Chennai Past Forward for users to keep in track with the heritage of the city; the 376th Madras Day celebrations were bigger with events being held in suburbs like Tambaram. Apart from heritage walks, the 2015 edition included a walk of the L. V. Prasad film studios; the focus was, however, on restoration of the Coovum River and a presentation on the history and heritage of the Coovum River was held at the Madras Literary Society by author Anusha Venkatesh on 15 August. The Cycling Yogis, a Chennai cyclists' group, conducted a 72 km bicycle ride along with the Coovum River on 16 August 2015; the 377th Madras Day celebrations were kick-started in a grand manner by The Hindu Group through their Madras Beats 2016 song.

Composed and performed by Opus g7, a band, selected as winner through a competition floated by The Hindu, the song "Endrum Padhinaaru" was launched on 21 August 2016 and went viral on social media. Madras Day focuses on the city, its history, its past and its present and the core team motivates communities, groups and campuses in the city to host events that celebrate the city; the celebration consists of events such as heritage walks, public talks, poetry reading sessions, public performances, food festivals and special programs on local radio. It includes contests such as T-shirt designing, documentary film contest, multimedia presentation for schools and quizzes in both Tamil and English. T-shirts to mark the event are released; the talks delivered to mark the week-long celebrations involve lectures explaining the heritage and history of the city. There are events for the retired citizens where they can post about their life years ago on the "Stories about Madras section" on Madras Day's website and share their views on how Madras grew into the Chennai of today.

The programmes for Madras Day 2015 included: Heritage walks organized by the Chennai Heritage foundation Quizzes and competitions for children organized by the British Council Daily lectures organized by the Roja Muthiah Research Library Daily lectures organized by the Press Institute of India Tree walks by the Nizhal Foundation Field trips by the