Auburn Dam was a proposed concrete arch dam on the North Fork of the American River east of the town of Auburn, California in the United States, on the border of Placer and El Dorado Counties. The California State Water Resources Control Board denied water rights for the dam project in 2008 due to lack of construction progress, some groups continue to support construction of the dam, which they state would provide important water regulation and flood protection. The citys increasing population necessitated the construction of a system of levees on the two rivers to prevent flooding. These early flood control works were insufficient, in 1862, the city was inundated so completely that the government was temporarily moved to San Francisco. In 1956, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers built the Folsom Dam at the confluence of the North and South Forks of the American River to provide control for the Sacramento metropolitan area. However, the Folsom Dam with a capacity of just 1 million acre feet compared to the annual American River flow of 2.7 million acre feet proved inadequate.
A flood in 1955 filled the Folsom Reservoir to capacity, before the dam was even completed, the demand for irrigation water in the Sacramento area and other parts of the Central Valley were growing. In 1854, a dam was constructed on the North Fork American River at the site of Auburn Dam. Irrigation with dam and canal systems was favored because the nature of the American River caused floods in some years. A large dam at the Auburn site was considered for both flood control and water supply. In the 1950s, the Bureau of Reclamation created the first plans for a dam at Auburn. Several designs, ranging from earth-fill to concrete gravity dams, were considered, before the dam could be built, the Auburn-Foresthill Road – which crosses the river just upstream of the dam site – had to be relocated. Even before the project was authorized, contracts were let for the construction of a bridge to carry the road over the proposed reservoir. The eventual design of Auburn Dam called for the creation of a reservoir with 2,300,000 acre feet of capacity, the extra storage would greatly reduce the flood risk to Sacramento.
Congress authorized the project in 1965, the completion date was 1973. One of the first ideas, publicized in the late 1950s, in 1963, a 690-foot earthfill dam holding back 2,500,000 acre feet of water was proposed. The pre-construction design was finalized in 1967, for a concrete gravity structure over 680 feet high. This dam would be 4,200 feet long,196 feet thick at the base, two concrete-lined flip bucket spillways would abut both sides of the dam
Camping is an outdoor recreational activity involving overnight stays away from home in a shelter such as a tent, a caravan, or even a motorhome. Generally participants leave developed areas to spend time outdoors in more natural ones in pursuit of activities providing them enjoyment, to be regarded as camping a minimum of one night is spent outdoors, distinguishing it from day-tripping and other similarly short-term recreational activities. Camping can be enjoyed through all four seasons, Camping as a recreational activity became popular among elites in the early 20th century. With time, it more democratic, and varied. Modern campers frequent publicly owned natural resources such as national and state parks, wilderness areas, Camping is a key part of many youth organizations around the world, such as Scouting, which use it to teach both self-reliance and teamwork. Camping describes a range of activities and approaches to outdoor accommodation, survivalist campers set off with as little as possible to get by, whereas recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped with their own electricity and patio furniture.
Camping may be combined with hiking, as in backpacking, and is enjoyed in conjunction with other outdoor activities such as canoeing, fishing. There is no universally held definition of what is and what is not camping, fundamentally, it reflects a combination of intent and the nature of activities involved. A childrens summer camp with dining hall meals and bunkhouse accommodations may have camp in its name but fails to reflect the spirit, cultures with itinerant lifestyles or lack of permanent dwellings cannot be said to be camping, it is just their way of life. The history of camping is often traced back to Thomas Hiram Holding, a British travelling tailor. By the 1880s large numbers of visitors took part in the pastime, the early camping equipment was very heavy, so it was convenient to transport it by boat or to use craft that converted into tents. Although Thomas Hiram Holding is often seen as the father of modern camping in the UK and he experienced the activity in the wild from his youth, when he had spent much time with his parents traveling across the American prairies.
Later he embarked on a cycling and camping tour with friends across Ireland. He wrote The Campers Handbook in 1908, so that he could share his enthusiasm for the outdoors with the world. Possibly the first commercial camping ground in the world was Cunningham’s camp, near Douglas, Isle of Man, in 1906 the Association of Cycle Campers opened its first own camping site, in Weybridge. By that time the organization had several hundred members, in 1910 the Association was merged into the National Camping Club. Although WW1 was responsible for a hiatus in camping activity. The International Federation of Camping Clubs was founded in 1932 with national clubs from all over the world affiliating with it, by the 1960s camping had become an established family holiday standard and today camp sites are ubiqitous across Europe and North America
Devils Postpile National Monument
Devils Postpile National Monument is located near Mammoth Mountain in eastern California. The national monument protects Devils Postpile, a rock formation of columnar basalt. In addition, the John Muir Trail and Pacific Crest Trail merge into one trail as they pass through the monument, excluding a small developed area containing the monument headquarters, visitor center and a campground, the National Monument lies within the borders of the Ansel Adams Wilderness. The monument was once part of Yosemite National Park, but discovery of gold in 1905 near Mammoth Lakes prompted a change that left the Postpile on adjacent public land. Later, a proposal to build a dam called for blasting the Postpile into the river. Influential Californians, including John Muir, persuaded the government to stop the demolition and, in 1911. The flora and fauna at Devils Postpile are typical of the Sierra Nevada, dark-eyed juncos and white-crowned sparrows are common in the summer. The name Devils Postpile refers to a cliff of columnar basalt.
Radiometric dating indicates the formation was created by a flow at some time less than 100,000 years ago. Estimates of the thickness range from 400 feet to 600 feet. The lava that now makes up the Postpile was near the bottom of this mass, because of its great thickness, much of the mass of pooled lava cooled slowly and evenly, which is why the columns are so long and so symmetrical. Columnar jointing occurs when certain types of contract while cooling. A glacier removed much of this mass of rock and left a surface on top of the columns with very noticeable glacial striations. The Postpiles columns average 2 feet in diameter, the largest being 3.5 feet, together they look like tall posts stacked in a pile, hence the features name. If the lava had cooled perfectly evenly, all of the columns would be expected to be hexagonal, but some of the columns have different polygonal cross-sections due to variations in cooling. A survey of 400 of the Postpiles columns found that 44. 5% were 6-sided,37. 5% 5-sided,9. 5% 4-sided,8.
0% 7-sided, compared with other examples of columnar jointing, the Postpile has more hexagonal columns. Another feature that places the Postpile in a category is the lack of horizontal jointing. Several stones from the Devils Postpile can be seen at the entrance to the United States Geological Survey headquarters lot in Reston, although the basaltic columns are impressive, they are not unique
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild, techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. Fishing may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, crustaceans, the term is not normally applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. According to United Nations FAO statistics, the number of commercial fishermen. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries, in 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms. In addition to providing food, modern fishing is a recreational pastime, Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the remains of Tianyuan man, a 40.
Archaeology features such as middens, discarded fish bones, and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival. During this period, most people lived a lifestyle and were, of necessity. However, where there are examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir. The British dogger was a type of sailing trawler from the 17th century. The Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a build and had a tall gaff rig. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water, the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries. The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century, an Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper. It was only in the 1846, with the expansion in the fishing industry. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849, the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port.
The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world, influencing fishing fleets everywhere, by the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with almost 1,000 at Grimsby. These trawlers were sold to fishermen around Europe, including from the Netherlands, twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet
Trail running is a sport which consists of running and hiking over trails. In the United Kingdom and Ireland it is called mountain or fell running and it differs from road running and track running in that it generally takes place on hiking trails, often in mountainous terrain, where there can be much larger ascents and descents. It is difficult to definitively distinguish trail running from cross country running, in general, cross country is an IAAF governed discipline that is typically raced over shorter distances, whereas trail running is loosely governed, and run over longer routes. The number of runners is increasing annually. They have grown from 4.5 million to more than 6 million in the United States alone between 2006 and 2012, the amount of organized trail races has grown over the past few years throughout the world, now well into the hundreds in North America alone. Runners often cite less impact stress compared to running, as well as the landscape and non-urban environment. This move to nature is reflected in a large increase in competitors in non-traditional/off-road triathlons.
Mountain or fell running, known as running, is the sport of running and racing, off road. The name arises from the origins of the English sport on the fells of northern Britain, fell races are organized on the premise that contenders possess mountain navigation skills and carry adequate survival equipment as prescribed by the organizer. According to a 2010 special report on trail running published by the Outdoor Industry Foundation,4.8 million Americans ages 6 and this research shows a particularly heavy following in the Mountain States, the Western US, and California. Because of the natural or serene setting, trail running is viewed as a spiritual activity than roadside running or jogging. Another reason for growth and popularity is the acknowledgment of environmentalism. There is a stress among many trail-race organizers to keep these races green or environmentally friendly, many trail runners use specially designed shoes that have aggressively knobby soles that are generally more rigid than road running shoes.
The usually EVA compound midsole often contain a lightweight, flexible nylon plastic layer to protect the feet from puncture wounds from sharp rocks or other objects, trail running shoes are low to the ground which provides the best stability on uneven terrain. Recently, very thick sole running shoes are gaining popularity especially in Ultra-marathons, in events over 100 miles, they were the most common type of shoe used in 2013. Other equipment includes wicking garments, water bottles, sunglasses, insect repellant spray, some trail runners attach lightweight crampons to the bottom of their shoes to aid with traction in the snow and on ice. An alternative way to water is use a hydration bladder with drinking tube carried in a backpack or waistpack. Carrying the Ten Essentials may reduce the hazards inherent in wilderness travel, some trail runners use ultra light hiking poles to increase speed and stability
Placer County, California
Placer County, officially the County of Placer, is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 348,432, Placer County is included in the Sacramento-Roseville-Arden-Arcade, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is located in both the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada regions, in what is known as the Gold Country and it stretches from the suburbs of Sacramento to Lake Tahoe and the Nevada border. The discovery of gold in 1848 brought tens of thousands of miners from around the world, in addition to many more thousands intending to provide goods and services to the miners. Only three years after the discovery of gold, the county was formed from portions of Sutter. Placer County took its name from the Spanish word for sand or gravel deposits containing gold, miners washed away the gravel, leaving the heavier gold, in a process known as placer mining. Gold mining was a major industry through the 1880s, but gradually the new residents turned to farming the fertile soil, harvesting timber.
Auburn was settled when Claude Chana discovered gold in Auburn Ravine in May 1848 and became a shipping, the cornerstone of Placers beautiful and historic courthouse, which is clearly visible from Interstate 80 through Auburn, was laid on July 4,1894. The building itself was renovated during the late 1980s and continues to serve the public today with courtrooms, a sheriffs office. Loomis and Newcastle began as mining towns, but soon became centers of a booming fruit-growing industry, penryn was founded by a Welsh miner, Griffith Griffith, who turned from mining to establish a large granite quarry. Rocklin began as a town and became home to a number of granite quarries. Lincoln and Sheridan continue to support ranching and farming, Lincoln is the home of one of the countys oldest businesses, the Gladding, McBean terra cotta clay manufacturing plant established in 1875. The 1960 Winter Olympics were hosted in Squaw Valley, which is located in Placer County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,502 square miles.
Watercourses in Placer County include the American River and Bunch Creek, Lake Tahoe has 40. 96% of its surface area in Placer County, more than in any of the four other counties in which it lies. El Dorado National Forest in part Tahoe National Forest in part The 2010 United States Census reported that Placer County had a population of 348,432. The racial makeup of Placer County was 290,977 White,4,751 African American,3,011 Native American,20,435 Asian,778 Pacific Islander,13,375 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 44,710 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 248,399 people,93,382 households, the population density was 177 people per square mile
The American River is a 120-mile-long river in California that runs from the Sierra Nevada mountain range to its confluence with the Sacramento River in the Sacramento Valley. Via the Sacramento River, it is part of the San Francisco Bay watershed, the river still has high quality water, and it is the main source of drinking water for Sacramento. This river is dammed extensively for irrigation, flood control, the American River watershed supports Mediterranean and montane ecosystems, and it is the home of a diverse array of fish and wildlife. They utilized the vast amount of resources of the American River for shelter, baskets, the Nisenan called the river Kum Mayo, meaning roundhouse river. Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga named the river Rio de las Llagas when he passed through the area in the early 1800s, during the 1820s, Jedediah Smith led an expedition to the American River with the goal of finding a safe route across the Sierra Nevada. In Smiths honor the Spanish settlers and Native Americans named the river Rio de los Americanos, during this time, Alta California was part of New Spain, however in 1822, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and took control of California.
In the 1830s fur trappers of the Hudsons Bay Company visited the area to trap beaver and otter, during one of these expeditions, smallpox or malaria were accidentally introduced to the local Native Americans, who had no natural immunity to Old World diseases. Some accounts suggest as much as 70 percent of the population was wiped out. The surviving natives became hostile to European settlers and traders for quite some time, in 1839, German immigrant John Sutter established the New Helvetia settlement on the American River, near the present-day location of central Sacramento. In 1848, following the Mexican-American War, California was ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, just weeks later, James Marshall, an employee of Sutter, discovered gold on the South Fork, starting the California Gold Rush. Although miners looking for gold worked all three forks of the American River, the South Fork held the richest deposits, however, as the easily accessible placer gold was played out, large companies used hydraulic mining to access gold buried deeper in the soil.
Unfortunately, this large and extensive mining practice washed away entire mountainsides and heavily polluted all the waterways, during the Great Flood of 1862 the American River flooded massively, putting much of Sacramento under water for three months. Newly elected Governor Leland Stanford had to travel to his inauguration by rowboat, shortly after, a significant contributor to the flood damage was the debris washed down by hydraulic mining, which had choked the river channel and reduced its capacity to drain floodwaters. In response, the city of Sacramento undertook a project to raise its streets. Many of original sidewalks and the first floors of buildings remain as subterranean spaces underneath todays streets and this status provides state and national recognition to protect the rivers outstanding scenic and wildlife, historic and recreational values. The American River is fed by its North and South forks, which are located in El Dorado County, Placer County, the rivers three forks originate in the Tahoe and Eldorado National Forests.
The North and Middle Forks join near Auburn, and continue downstream as the North Fork, the North and South Forks join in Folsom Lake. All three forks are known for their verdant canyons, forested ridges, massive rock formations, backcountry winter adventuring among snowy peaks, there are various fish species that live within the American River such as Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout
Gold panning, or simply panning, is a form of placer mining and traditional mining that extracts gold from a placer deposit using a pan. The process is one of the simplest ways to extract gold, and is popular with geology enthusiasts especially because of its cheap cost and the relatively simple and easy process. The first recorded instances of mining are from ancient Rome. Gold panning is a simple process, once a suitable placer deposit is located, some alluvial deposit are scooped into a pan, where it is gently agitated in water and the gold sinks to the bottom of the pan. These dense materials usually consist primarily of a black, magnetite sand with stones or metal dust that may be found in the deposit that is used for source material. Pans remain in use in places there is limited capital or infrastructure. In many situations, gold panning usually turns up only minor gold dust that is collected as a souvenir in small clear tubes by hobbyists. Nuggets and considerable amounts of dust are found, but panning mining is not generally lucrative.
Panning for gold can be used to locate the parent gold veins which are the source of most placer deposits, some are intended for use with mercury, include screens, sharp corners for breaking ice, are non-round, or are even designed for use with or without water. Edward Otho Cresap Ord, II, a former Army officer and co-owner of several mines, pans are measured by their diameter in inches or centimeters. Common sizes of gold pans today range between 10–17 inches, with 14 inches being the most used size, the sides are generally angled between 30° to 45°. Pans are manufactured in metal and high-impact plastic. Russia iron or heavy gauge steel pans are traditional, steel pans are heavier and stronger than plastic pans. Some are made of alloys for structural stability. Plastic gold pans resist rust and corrosion, and most are designed with moulded riffles along one side of the pan, the batea is a particular variant of gold pan. Traditionally made of a piece of wood, it may be made of metal. Bateas are used in areas where there is water available for use than with traditional gold pans, such as Mexico and South America.
Bateas are larger than other gold pans, being closer to half a meter in diameter, the yuri-ita, Japanese for rocking plate is a traditional wooden gold pan used in Japan
Muir Woods National Monument
Muir Woods National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service on Mount Tamalpais near the Pacific coast, in southwestern Marin County, California. It is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, and is 12 miles north of San Francisco and it protects 554 acres, of which 240 acres are old growth coast redwood forests, one of a few such stands remaining in the San Francisco Bay Area. The Muir Woods National Monument is an old-growth coastal redwood forest, due to its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, the forest is regularly shrouded in a coastal marine layer fog, contributing to a wet environment that encourages vigorous plant growth. The fog is vital for the growth of the redwoods as they use moisture from the fog during droughty seasons, the monument is cool and moist year round with average daytime temperatures between 40 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Rainfall is heavy during the winter and summers are almost completely dry with the exception of fog drip caused by the fog passing through the trees.
Annual precipitation in the ranges from 39.4 inches in the lower valley to 47.2 inches higher up in the mountain slopes. The redwoods grow on brown humus-rich loam which may be gravelly and this soil has been assigned to the Centissima series, which is always found on sloping ground. It is well drained, moderately deep, and slightly to moderately acidic and it has developed from a mélange in the Franciscan Formation. More open areas of the park have shallow gravelly loam of the Barnabe series, one hundred and fifty million years ago ancestors of redwood and sequoia trees grew throughout the United States. Today, the Sequoia sempervirens can be only in a narrow, cool coastal belt from Monterey, California. Before the logging industry came to California, there were an estimated 2 million acres of old growth forest containing redwoods growing in a strip along the coast. By the early 20th century, most of these forests had been cut down, just north of the San Francisco Bay, one valley named Redwood Canyon remained uncut, mainly due to its relative inaccessibility.
He and his wife, Elizabeth Thacher Kent, purchased 611 acres of land from the Tamalpais Land and Water Company for $45,000 with the goal of protecting the redwoods and the mountain above them. In 1907, a company in nearby Sausalito planned to dam Redwood Creek. When Kent objected to the plan, the company threatened to use eminent domain. Kent sidestepped the water companys plot by donating 295 acres of the redwood forest to the federal government, on January 9,1908, President Theodore Roosevelt declared the land a National Monument, the first to be created from land donated by a private individual. President Roosevelt agreed, writing back, MY DEAR MR, responding to some photographs of Muir Woods that Mr. Kent had sent him, Those are awfully good photos. Kent and Muir had become friends over shared views of wilderness preservation, in December 1928, the Kent Memorial was erected at the Kent Tree in Fern Canyon
Lassen Volcanic National Park
Lassen Volcanic National Park is a United States National Park in northeastern California. The dominant feature of the park is Lassen Peak, the largest plug dome volcano in the world, Lassen Volcanic National Park started as two separate national monuments designated by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1907, Cinder Cone National Monument and Lassen Peak National Monument. The source of heat for volcanism in the Lassen area is subduction off the Northern California coast of the Gorda Plate diving below the North American Plate, the area surrounding Lassen Peak is still active with boiling mud pots, stinking fumaroles, and churning hot springs. Lassen Volcanic National Park is one of the few areas in the world where all four types of volcano can be found, the park is accessible via State Routes SR89 and SR44. SR89 passes north-south through the park, beginning at SR36 to the south, SR89 passes immediately adjacent the base of Lassen Peak. A large lodge with concession facilities was located near the south-west entrance, a new, full-service visitor center was constructed in the same location, and opened to the public in 2008.
Near the old location was located Lassen Ski Area. Native Americans have inhabited the area long before white settlers first saw Lassen. The natives knew that the peak was full of fire and water, White immigrants in the mid-19th century used Lassen Peak as a landmark on their trek to the fertile Sacramento Valley. One of the guides to these immigrants was a Danish blacksmith named Peter Lassen, Lassen Peak was named after him. Nobles Emigrant Trail was cut through the area and passed Cinder Cone. Inconsistent newspaper accounts reported by witnesses from 1850 to 1851 described seeing fire thrown to a terrible height, as late as 1859, a witness reported seeing fire in the sky from a distance, attributing it to an eruption. Early geologists and volcanologists who studied the Cinder Cone concluded the last eruption occurred between 1675 and 1700, after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, the United States Geological Survey began reassessing the potential risk of other active volcanic areas in the Cascade Range.
Further study of Cinder Cone estimated the last eruption occurred between 1630 and 1670, recent tree-ring analysis has placed the date at 1666. The Lassen area was first protected by being designated as the Lassen Peak Forest Preserve, Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone were declared as U. S. National Monuments in May 1907 by President Theodore Roosevelt. Starting in May 1914 and lasting until 1921, a series of minor to major eruptions occurred on Lassen and these events created a new crater, and released lava and a great deal of ash. Fortunately, because of warnings, no one was killed, because of the eruptive activity, which continued through 1917, and the areas stark volcanic beauty, Lassen Peak, Cinder Cone and the area surrounding were declared a National Park on August 9,1916. The 29-mile Main Park Road was constructed between 1925 and 1931, just 10 years after Lassen Peak erupted, near Lassen Peak the road reaches 8,512 feet, making it the highest road in the Cascade Mountains
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Oroville is the county seat of Butte County, United States. The population was 15,506 at the 2010 census, up from 13,004 in the 2000 census, Oroville is considered the gateway to Lake Oroville and Feather River recreational areas. The city of Oroville has recently annexed two locations in South Oroville, areas A and B, which have a population of 2,725 people. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the population of the city to be 17,996 as of January 1,2016, the Berry Creek Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California is headquartered here. Oroville is located off of State Route 70, and is in proximity to State Route 99. Chico, California is located about 25 minutes north of the city, Oroville is situated at the base of the foothills on the banks of the Feather River where it flows out of the Sierra Nevada onto the flat floor of the Sacramento Valley. It was established as the head of navigation on the Feather River to supply miners during the California Gold Rush. The town was originally called Ophir City, but the name was changed to Oroville when the first post office opened in 1854, the City Of Oroville was incorporated on January 3,1906.
Gold was found at Bidwell Bar, one of the first gold mining sites in California, Oroville would serve as an important stop for the famous California Zephyr during its 20-year run. In 1983, this became a part of the Union Pacific Railroad as their Feather River Canyon Subdivision, a major highway, State Route 70, roughly parallels the railroad line winding through the canyon. The Chinese Temple is another monument to Orovilles storied past, Chinese laborers from the pioneer era established the Temple as a place of worship for followers of Chinese Popular Religion and the three major Chinese religions, Taoism and Confucianism. The Chinese Temple and Garden, as it is now called, has a collection of artifacts. The olive-canning industry was founded in Oroville by Freda Ehmann, the mother of ripe olives and she built a large cannery in Oroville, and by 1900 was the president of the worlds largest canned olive factory. Ehmann was a believer in womens suffrage and a friend of Susan B, anthony Ishi, Orovilles most famous resident, was the last of the Yahi Indians and is considered the last Stone Age Indian to come out of the wilderness and into western civilization.
When he appeared out of the hills in East Oroville in 1911, the Visitors Center at Lake Oroville has a thorough exhibit and documentary film on Ishi and his life in society. Archaeological finds place the border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Oroville area. On August 7,1881, beloved elderly pioneer Jack Crum was stomped to death by local bully Tom Noacks in Chico, California. The young Noacks was feared by the locals of Butte County, not only because of his size and strength, but because he was mentally unbalanced and enjoyed punching oxen in the head