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Auckland

Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. The most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of around 1,570,100, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,618,400. Auckland is a diverse and cosmopolitan city, home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki Makaurau, meaning "Tāmaki desired by many", in reference to the desirability of its natural resources and geography. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones. The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean.

Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water. The isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. Māori–European conflict over land in the region led to war in the mid-19th century. Auckland was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but the influx of immigration stayed strong, it has remained the nation's largest city. Today, Auckland's central business district is New Zealand's leading economic hub; the University of Auckland, founded in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. The city's varied cultural institutions—such as the Auckland War Memorial Museum, the Museum of Transport and Technology, Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki—and national historic sites, performing arts, sports activities are significant tourist attractions.

Architectural landmarks include the Harbour Bridge, the Town Hall, the Sky Tower. The city is served by Auckland Airport, which handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is recognised as one of the world's most liveable cities, ranked third in the 2019 Mercer Quality of Living Survey; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids; as a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 20 March 1840 in the Manukau Harbour area where Ngāti Whātua farmed, paramount chief Āpihai Te Kawau signed Te Tiriti o Waitangi the Treaty of Waitangi.

Ngāti Whātua sought British protection from Ngāpuhi as well as a reciprocal relationship with the Crown and the Church. Soon after signing the Treaty, Te Kawau offered land on the Waitematā Harbour to the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, for his new capital, which Hobson named for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India. Auckland was founded on 18 September 1840 and was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865. After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers.

By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864. The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the population was Irish, which contrasted with the majority English settlers in Wellington, Christchurch or New Plymouth.

Most of the Irish (thoug

1962 Hawaii gubernatorial election

The 1962 Hawaii gubernatorial election was Hawaii's second gubernatorial election. The election was held on November 6, 1962, resulted in a victory for the Democratic candidate, former Territorial Delegate John A. Burns over Republican William F. Quinn, the incumbent Governor of Hawaii; the election was a rematch between the candidates of the previous election, with the outcome reversed. Burns received more votes than Quinn in every county in the state. William F. Quinn experienced a contested Republican primary against Lt. Gov. James Kealoha, winning 57.06%-42.94%. Burns faced only nominal opposition in the Democratic primary, receiving 90.19% of the vote

Nepal–Pakistan relations

Nepal–Pakistan relations are the bilateral relations between the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Nepal and Pakistan, both Himalayan states, established diplomatic relations on 29 March 1960; these relations were established between 1962 and 1963, both nations have since sought to expand trade and military cooperation. The connections were severed in 1972 followed by Nepal's recognition of Bangladesh, but were re-established. Nepal established diplomatic relations with India after the latter's independence in 1947, but did not do so with Pakistan. In 1950, Nepal signed a Treaty of Peace and Friendship with India, creating an extensive relationship of economic and defence cooperation. Nepal thus remained aloof from Pakistan, at conflict with India. However, Nepal's resentment of Indian influence perceived to be excessive prompted the Nepalese government to develop relations with the People's Republic of China and Pakistan. Diplomatic relations between Nepal and Pakistan were established on 20 March 1960.

After the establishment of diplomatic relations, the bonds of friendship and cordiality between these two countries, propelled by understanding and cooperation, have strengthened. The state of bilateral relations at present is based on mutual cooperation and friendship. Nepal established a residential Nepalese embassy in Pakistan in 1962 and honorary Nepalese consulate general in Karachi in 1975. Nepal and Pakistan signed a protocol for establishing diplomatic relations in 1962, they exchanged ambassadors and set up embassies in 1963, when Ayub Khan, the President of Pakistan made a special visit to Nepal. Both nations signed agreements to reciprocate the "Most Favored Nation" status of importance for developing trade and cooperation. In 1963, Pakistan agreed to provide Nepal with free trade access and transport facilities through the port of Chittagong in East Pakistan and established an air link; this arrangement reduced Nepal's dependence on India for trading privileges. Although Nepal maintained neutrality during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, it was one of the first to recognise the independence of Bangladesh.

As a retaliation, Islamabad severed ties with Kathmandu two days later. Politically and Pakistan have remained good friends over the decades. Pakistan has extended its support for the democratic process in Nepal, after the successful People's Movement-II. Pakistan welcomed the restoration of Nepal's parliament following the popular movement and hoped that the breakthrough would usher in an era of durable peace and prosperity in Nepal. Pakistan has been reiterating its support for Nepal's sovereignty, territorial integrity and peaceful development; the 19th SAARC summit was a scheduled diplomatic conference, planned to be held in Islamabad, Pakistan on 15–16 November 2016. Following the rising diplomatic tensions after the Uri terrorist attack, India announced its boycott of the summit, alleging Pakistan's involvement in the attack. Nepal, the current chair of SAARC, urged that "a conducive environment be created soon to ensure the participation of all member states in the 19th SAARC summit in line with the spirit of the SAARC charter".

Whilst Prime Minister of Nepal Sher Bahadur Deuba underscored his country's commitment to make SAARC a constructive forum for the region and to support Pakistan for the holding of the next SAARC Summit in Islamabad. Nepal and Pakistan signed a trade agreement on October 19, 1962, in order to boost up the bilateral trade. Despite another extensive 1982 trade agreement, the volume of bilateral trade remains comparatively small at US$4.8 million. Pakistan's total exports to Nepal are worth US$1.631 million, while Nepal's exports to Pakistan tally $3.166 million. Both countries have stepped up efforts to promote bilateral trade in textiles, extraction of oil and tourism. Nepal and Pakistan are signatories to the South Asia Free Trade Agreement and members of the South Asian Economic Union; the Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry and the Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce & Industry have established FNCCI-FPCCI Joint Business Council. Its meetings provides opportunities for the business communities of the two countries to meet and discuss business opportunities in each other's countries.

Pakistan, under the Pakistan Technical Assistance Programme, provides annually scholarships to Nepal in Medicine and Engineering. There are 500 Nepali students undertaking higher studies in the field of medical science, pharmacy, information technology, social science and mass communication in Pakistan. Pakistan provides long and short term training's to the government officials of Nepal. Pakistan has been providing 15 scholarships annually to Nepalese students under Pakistan Technical Assistance Programme in medicine, dentistry and engineering. Besides, some Nepalese students have been studying in the areas of humanities and business administration on self-finance basis. Pakistan has provided short-term and long-term trainings to Nepal Army officers. After the devastating earthquake of April 2015, the Government of Pakistan sent immediate assistance to Nepal, it dispatched rescue and relief teams, water and other relief material. Pakistan took part in the International Conference on Nepal's Reconstruction and pledged support to Nepal.

The Government of Pakistan provided US$1 million to the Government of Nepal as the relief to the victims of flood and landslides in Terai region of Nepal in 2017. In recent years, both countries began developing military cooperation, with Nepal importing arms from Pakistan. Condemned