SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Auckland Islands

The Auckland Islands are an archipelago of New Zealand, lying 465 kilometres south of the South Island. The main Auckland Island, occupying 510 km2, is surrounded by smaller Adams Island, Enderby Island, Disappointment Island, Ewing Island, Rose Island, Dundas Island, Green Island, with a combined area of 626 km2; the islands have no permanent human inhabitants. The islands are listed with the New Zealand Outlying Islands; the islands are an immediate part of New Zealand, but not part of any region or district, but instead Area Outside Territorial Authority, like all the other outlying islands except the Solander Islands. Ecologically, the Auckland Islands form part of the Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion. Along with other New Zealand Sub-Antarctic Islands, they were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998; the Auckland Islands lie 360 kilometres south of Stewart Island, 465 kilometres from the South Island port of Bluff, between the latitudes 50° 30' and 50° 55' S and longitudes 165° 50' and 166° 20' E.

They include Auckland Island, Adams Island, Enderby Island, Disappointment Island, Ewing Island, Rose Island, Dundas Island and Green Island, with a combined area of 626 square kilometres. The islands are close to each other, separated by narrow channels, the coastline is rugged, with numerous deep inlets. Auckland Island, the main island, has an approximate land area of 510 km2, a length of 42 km, it is notable for its steep rugged terrain, which rises to over 600 m. Prominent peaks include Cavern Peak, Mount Raynal, Mount D'Urville, Mount Easton, the Tower of Babel; the southern end of the island broadens to a width of 26 km. Here, the narrow channel of Carnley Harbour separates the main island from the triangular Adams Island, more mountainous, reaching a height of 705 m at Mount Dick; the channel is the remains of the crater of an extinct volcano, Adams Island and the southern part of the main island form the crater rim. The main island features many incised inlets, notably Port Ross at the northern end.

The group includes numerous other smaller islands, notably Disappointment Island and Enderby Island, each covering less than 5 km2. Most of the islands have a volcanic origin, with the archipelago dominated by two 12-million-year-old Miocene volcanoes, subsequently eroded and dissected; these rest on older volcanic rocks 15–25 million years old with some older granites and fossil-bearing sedimentary rocks from around 100 million years ago. Port Ross features a subpolar oceanic climate. Like many other Subpolar oceanic climates, Port Ross, along with the Auckland Islands in general, are characterised by the near-constant overcast weather and never being too hot or too cold. Carnley Harbour features a subpolar oceanic climate, though it exaggerates the features shown in Port Ross, as it is much wetter and a lot more affected by ocean-moderation; the Auckland Islands have a constant cool and mild weather year-round, with neither winter being excessively cold nor summer excessively hot. The climate is most similar to that seen in the Faroe Islands and Aleutian Islands.

Evidence exists. Traces of Polynesian settlement dating to the 13th century, have been found by archaeologists on Enderby Island; this is the most southerly settlement by Polynesians yet known. The whaler Ocean discovered the islands in 1806. Captain Abraham Bristow named them "Lord Auckland's" on 18 August 1806 in honour of his father's friend William Eden, 1st Baron Auckland. Bristow worked for the businessman Samuel Enderby, the namesake of Enderby Island; the following year Bristow returned on Sarah to claim the archipelago for Britain. The explorers Dumont D'Urville in 1839, James Clark Ross visited in 1839 and in 1840 respectively. Whalers and sealers set up temporary bases, the islands becoming one of the principal sealing stations in the Pacific in the years after their discovery. By 1812, so many seals had been killed that the islands lost their commercial importance and sealers redirected their efforts towards Campbell and Macquarie Islands. Visits to the islands declined, although recovering seal populations allowed a modest revival in sealing in the mid-1820s.

The sealing era lasted from 1807 till 1894, during which time 82 vessels are recorded as visiting for sealing purposes. Some 11 of these ships were wrecked off-shore. Relics of the sealing period include the remains of huts and graves. Now uninhabited, the islands saw unsuccessful settlements in the mid-19th century. In 1842 a small party of Māori and their Moriori slaves from the Chatham Islands migrated to the archipelago, surviving for some 20 years on sealing and flax growing. Samuel Enderby's grandson, Charles Enderby, proposed a community based on agriculture and whaling in 1846; this settlement, established at Port Ross in 1849 and named Hardwicke, lasted only two and a half years. The Auckland Islands were part of the Colony of New Zealand under the Letters Patent of April 1842 which fixed the southern boundary of New Zealand at 53° south, but they were excluded by the Act of 1846 which defined the southern boundary at 47° 10' south.

Leonne Stentler

Leonne Suzanne Stentler is a Dutch former footballer. She played as a defender. Stentler played for ADO Den Haag in the Eredivisie before moving to AFC Ajax in 2012, to play in the first season of the BeNe League. In March 2009 Rotterdam-born Stentler made her senior international debut, against South Africa at the Cyprus Cup. Stentler was called up to be part of the national team for the UEFA Women's Euro 2013. In total, Stentler earned 16 caps between 2009 and 2013. ADO Den HaagWinner Eredivisie: 2011–12 KNVB Women's Cup: 2011–12 Leonne Stentler at WorldFootball.net Leonne Stentler at Soccerway Leonne Stentler – UEFA competition record Leonne Stentler at Fussballtransfers.com Leonne Stentler at Soccerdonna.de Leonne Stentler at Vrouwenvoetbal Nederland

Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake was an English sea captain, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580, was the first to complete the voyage as captain while leading the expedition throughout the entire circumnavigation. With his incursion into the Pacific Ocean, he claimed what is now California for the English and inaugurated an era of conflict with the Spanish on the western coast of the Americas, an area, unexplored by western shipping. Elizabeth I awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581; as a Vice Admiral, he was second-in-command of the English fleet in the battle against the Spanish Armada in 1588. He died of dysentery after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. Drake's exploits made him a hero to the English, but his privateering led the Spanish to brand him a pirate, known to them as El Draque. King Philip II offered a reward for his capture or death of 20,000 ducats, about £6 million in modern currency.

Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, England. Although his birth date is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force, his birth date is estimated from contemporary sources such as: "Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith". This would date his birth to 1544. A date of c. 1540 is suggested from two portraits: one a miniature painted by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581 when he was 42, so born circa 1539, while the other, painted in 1594 when he was said to be 53, would give a birth year of around 1541. He was the oldest of the twelve sons of Edmund Drake, a Protestant farmer, his wife Mary Mylwaye; the first son was alleged to have been named after his godfather Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford. Because of religious persecution during the Prayer Book Rebellion in 1549, the Drake family fled from Devon to Kent. There Drake's father obtained an appointment to minister the men in the King's Navy, he was made vicar of Upnor Church on the Medway.

Drake's father apprenticed him to his neighbour, the master of a barque used for coastal trade transporting merchandise to France. The ship's master was so satisfied with the young Drake's conduct that, being unmarried and childless at his death, he bequeathed the barque to Drake. Francis Drake married Mary Newman at St. Budeaux church, Plymouth, in July 1569, she died 12 years in 1581. In 1585, Drake married Elizabeth Sydenham—born circa 1562, the only child of Sir George Sydenham, of Combe Sydenham, the High Sheriff of Somerset. After Drake's death, the widow Elizabeth married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham. At the age of eighteen he was purser of a ship. At twenty he made a voyage to the coast of Guinea. In 1563, aged 23, made his first voyage to the Americas, sailing with his second cousin, Sir John Hawkins, on one of a fleet of ships owned by his relatives, the Hawkins family of Plymouth, he made three voyages with this fleet, attacking Portuguese towns and ships on the coast of West Africa.

They sailed to the Americas and sold the captured cargoes of slaves to Spanish plantations. John Hawkins is considered to have been the first English slave-trader. Hawkins made three such expeditions, the first in 1563, second in 1564 and the third expedition ending in the ill-fated 1568 incident at San Juan de Ulúa. In 1568, Drake was on his third expedition with the Hawkins fleet when, whilst negotiating to resupply and repair at a Spanish port in Mexico, the fleet was attacked by Spanish warships, with all but two of the English ships lost, he escaped along with John Hawkins. Drake's hostility towards the Spanish is said to have started with this incident. Following the defeat at San Juan de Ulúa, Drake vowed revenge. In 1570, his reputation enabled him to proceed to the West Indies with two vessels under his command, he renewed his visit the next year for the sole purpose of obtaining information. In 1572, he embarked on his first major independent enterprise, he planned an attack on the Isthmus of Panama, known to the Spanish as Tierra Firme and the English as the Spanish Main.

This was the point at which the silver and gold treasure of Peru had to be landed and sent overland to the Caribbean Sea, where galleons from Spain would pick it up at the town of Nombre de Dios. Drake left Plymouth on 24 May 1572, with a crew of 73 men in two small vessels, the Pascha and the Swan, to capture Nombre de Dios, his first raid was late in July 1572. Drake and his men captured its treasure; when his men noticed that Drake was bleeding profusely from a wound, they insisted on withdrawing to save his life and left the treasure. Drake stayed in the area for a year, raiding Spanish shipping and attempting to capture a treasure shipment; the most celebrated of Drake's adventures along the Spanish Main was his capture of the Spanish Silver Train at Nombre de Dios in March 1573. He raided the waters around Darien with a crew including many French privateers including Guillaume Le Testu, a French buccaneer, African slaves who had escaped the Spanish. Drake tracked the Silver Train to the nearby port of Nombre de Dios.

After their attack on the richly laden mule train and his party found that they had captured around 20 tons of silver and gold. They buried much of the treasure, as it was too much for their party to carry, made off with a fortune in gold.. Wounded, Le