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Audi

Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, produces and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen Group and has its roots at Ingolstadt, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide; the origins of the company are complex, going back to the early 20th century and the initial enterprises founded by engineer August Horch. The modern era of Audi began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired by Volkswagen from Daimler-Benz. After relaunching the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969, thus creating the present day form of the company; the company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of August Horch. "Horch", meaning "listen" in German, becomes "audi" in Latin. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audi's predecessor company, Auto Union. Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Being Ahead through Technology".

However, Audi USA had used the slogan "Truth in Engineering" from 2007 to 2016, have not used the slogan since 2016. Audi, along with fellow German marques BMW and Mercedes-Benz, is among the best-selling luxury automobile brands in the world. Automobile company Wanderer was established in 1885 becoming a branch of Audi AG. Another company, NSU, which later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimler's four-wheeler. On 14 November, 1899, August Horch established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne. In 1902, he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On 10 May, 1904, he founded the August Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, a joint-stock company in Zwickau. After troubles with Horch chief financial officer, August Horch left Motorwagenwerke and founded in Zwickau on 16 July, 1909, his second company, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH, his former partners sued him for trademark infringement. The German Reichsgericht in Leipzig determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company.

Since August Horch was prohibited from using "Horch" as a trade name in his new car business, he called a meeting with close business friends and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company. During this meeting, Franz's son was studying Latin in a corner of the room. Several times he looked like he was on the verge of saying something but would just swallow his words and continue working, until he blurted out, "Father – audiatur et altera pars... wouldn't it be a good idea to call it audi instead of horch?" "Horch!" in German means "Hark!" or "hear", "Audi" in the singular imperative form of "audire" – "to listen" – in Latin. The idea was enthusiastically accepted by everyone attending the meeting. On 25 April 1910 the Audi Automobilwerke GmbH Zwickau was entered in the company's register of Zwickau registration court; the first Audi automobile, the Audi Type A 10/22 hp Sport-Phaeton, was produced in the same year, followed by the successor Type B 10/28PS in the same year.

Audi started with a 2,612 cc inline-four engine model Type A, followed by a 3,564 cc model, as well as 4,680 cc and 5,720 cc models. These cars were successful in sporting events; the first six-cylinder model Type M, 4,655 cc appeared in 1924. August Horch left the Audiwerke in 1920 for a high position at the ministry of transport, but he was still involved with Audi as a member of the board of trustees. In September 1921, Audi became the first German car manufacturer to present a production car, the Audi Type K, with left-handed drive. Left-hand drive spread and established dominance during the 1920s because it provided a better view of oncoming traffic, making overtaking safer when driving on the right. In August 1928, Jørgen Rasmussen, the owner of Dampf-Kraft-Wagen, acquired the majority of shares in Audiwerke AG. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the U. S. automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the manufacturing equipment for 8-cylinder engines. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau and Audi Dresden models that were launched in 1929.

At the same time, 6-cylinder and 4-cylinder models were manufactured. Audi cars of that era were luxurious cars equipped with special bodywork. In 1932, Audi merged with Horch, DKW, Wanderer, to form Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, it was during this period that the company offered the Audi Front that became the first European car to combine a six-cylinder engine with front-wheel drive. It used a powertrain shared with the Wanderer, but turned 180-degrees, so that the drive shaft faced the front. Before World War II, Auto Union used the four interlinked rings that make up the Audi badge today, representing these four brands. However, this badge was used only on Auto Union racing cars in that period while the member companies used their own names and emblems; the technological development became more and more concentrated and some Audi models were propelled by Horch or Wanderer built engines. Reflecting the economic pressures of the time, Auto Union concentrated on smaller cars through the 1930s, so that by 1938 the company's DKW brand accounted for 17.9% of the German car market, while Audi held only 0.1%.

After the final few Audis were delivered in 1939 the "Audi" name disappeared from the new car market for more

Moons of Jupiter

There are 79 known moons of Jupiter. The most massive of the moons are the four Galilean moons, which were independently discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and Simon Marius and were the first objects found to orbit a body, neither Earth nor the Sun. From the end of the 19th century, dozens of much smaller Jovian moons have been discovered and have received the names of lovers or daughters of the Roman god Jupiter or his Greek equivalent Zeus; the Galilean moons are by far the largest and most massive objects to orbit Jupiter, with the remaining 75 known moons and the rings together comprising just 0.003% of the total orbiting mass. Of Jupiter's moons, eight are regular satellites with prograde and nearly circular orbits that are not inclined with respect to Jupiter's equatorial plane; the Galilean satellites are nearly spherical in shape due to their planetary mass, so would be considered at least dwarf planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun. The other four regular satellites are closer to Jupiter.

The remainder of Jupiter's moons are irregular satellites whose prograde and retrograde orbits are much farther from Jupiter and have high inclinations and eccentricities. These moons were captured by Jupiter from solar orbits. Twenty-two of the irregular satellites have not yet been named; the physical and orbital characteristics of the moons vary widely. The four Galileans are all over 3,100 kilometres in diameter. All other Jovian moons are less than 250 kilometres in diameter, with most exceeding 5 kilometres, their orbital shapes range from nearly circular to eccentric and inclined, many revolve in the direction opposite to Jupiter's spin. Orbital periods range to some three thousand times more. Jupiter's regular satellites are believed to have formed from a circumplanetary disk, a ring of accreting gas and solid debris analogous to a protoplanetary disk, they may be the remnants of a score of Galilean-mass satellites that formed early in Jupiter's history. Simulations suggest that, while the disk had a high mass at any given moment, over time a substantial fraction of the mass of Jupiter captured from the solar nebula was passed through it.

However, only 2% of the proto-disk mass of Jupiter is required to explain the existing satellites. Thus there may have been several generations of Galilean-mass satellites in Jupiter's early history; each generation of moons might have spiraled into Jupiter, because of drag from the disk, with new moons forming from the new debris captured from the solar nebula. By the time the present generation formed, the disk had thinned so that it no longer interfered with the moons' orbits; the current Galilean moons were still affected, falling into and being protected by an orbital resonance with each other, which still exists for Io, Ganymede. Ganymede's larger mass means that it would have migrated inward at a faster rate than Io; the outer, irregular moons are thought to have originated from captured asteroids, whereas the protolunar disk was still massive enough to absorb much of their momentum and thus capture them into orbit. Many are believed to have broken up by mechanical stresses during capture, or afterward by collisions with other small bodies, producing the moons we see today.

Chinese historian Xi Zezong claimed that the earliest record of a Jovian moon was a note by Chinese astronomer Gan De of an observation around 364 BC regarding a "reddish star". However, the first certain observations of Jupiter's satellites were those of Galileo Galilei in 1609. By January 1610, he had sighted the four massive Galilean moons with his 20× magnification telescope, he published his results in March 1610. Simon Marius had independently discovered the moons one day after Galileo, although he did not publish his book on the subject until 1614. So, the names Marius assigned are used today: Ganymede. No additional satellites were discovered until E. E. Barnard observed Amalthea in 1892. With the aid of telescopic photography, further discoveries followed over the course of the 20th century. Himalia was discovered in 1904, Elara in 1905, Pasiphae in 1908, Sinope in 1914, Lysithea and Carme in 1938, Ananke in 1951, Leda in 1974. By the time that the Voyager space probes reached Jupiter, around 1979, 13 moons had been discovered, not including Themisto, observed in 1975, but was lost until 2000 due to insufficient initial observation data.

The Voyager spacecraft discovered an additional three inner moons in 1979: Metis. No additional moons were discovered for two decades, but between October 1999 and February 2003, researchers found another 34 moons using sensitive ground-based detectors; these are tiny moons, in long, eccentric retrograde orbits, averaging 3 km in diameter, with the largest being just 9 km across. All of these moons are thought to have been captured asteroidal or comet bodies fragmented into several pieces. By 2015, a total of 15 additional moons were discovered. Two more were discovered in 2016 by the team led by Scott S. Sheppard at the Carnegie Institution for Science, bringing the total to 69. On 17 July 2018, the International Astronomical Union confirmed that Sheppard's team had discovered ten more moons around Jupiter, bring

2012 APRA Silver Scroll Awards

The 2012 APRA Silver Scroll Awards were held on Thursday 13 September 2012 at the Auckland Town Hall, celebrating excellence in New Zealand songwriting. The Silver Scroll Award was presented to New York-based pop artist Stephanie Brown, reggae band Herbs was inducted into the New Zealand Music Hall of Fame; the Silver Scroll Award celebrates outstanding achievement in songwriting of original New Zealand pop music. The evening's music performances were produced by Shihad frontman Jon Toogood; each of the nominated songs were covered in a new style by another artist. In July 2012 a top 20 long list was announced. Annah Mac "Girl In Stilettos"Bic Runga "Everything is Beautiful and New" Cairo Knife Fight "The Origin of Slaves" Five Mile Town "Fatal Flaw" Get Well Soon "Hold On" Grand Rapids "Never Be Without You" Great North "Lead Me To The Light"Home Brew "Datura" Jess Chambers "Hopeful Dreamer" Jesse Sheehan "By Your Side" L. A. Mitchell "When it's All Too Much" Lindon Puffin "Outta Reach" Lips "Everything To Me" Lisa Crawley "Blind Eyes" Lydia Cole "Hibernate"Opossom "Getaway Tonight"Ruby Frost "Water to Ice"Six60 "Forever"The Adults "Anniversary Day" The Eastern "State Houses by the River" Reggae band Herbs were inducted into the New Zealand Music Hall of Fame by Che Fu.

The inducted band members were Dilworth Karaka, Toni Fonoti, Phil Toms, Spencer Fusimalohi, John Berkley, Fred Faleauto and Charles Tumahai, Maurice Watene, Tama Lundon, Jack Allen, Carl Perkins, Willie Hona, Thom Nepia, Tama Renata, Gordon Joll, Grant Pukeroa and Kristen Hapi. Reggae band Kora covered Herbs' song "Rust In Dust", Dave Dobbyn performed their collaboration "Slice of Heaven". Four other awards were presented at the Silver Scroll Awards: APRA Maioha Award, SOUNZ Contemporary Award and two awards acknowledging songs with the most radio and television play in New Zealand and overseas. Outside of the Silver Scroll Awards, APRA presented four genre awards in 2012; the APRA Best Pacific Song was presented at the Pacific Music Awards, the APRA Best Country Music Song was presented at the New Zealand Country Music Awards and the APRA Children’s Song of the Year and What Now Video of the Year were presented at StarFest