An audio engineer helps to produce a recording or a live performance and adjusting sound sources using equalization and audio effects, mixing and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "...technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer... the nuts and bolts." It's a creative hobby and profession where musical instruments and technology are used to produce sound for film, television and video games. Audio engineers set up, sound check and do live sound mixing using a mixing console and a sound reinforcement system for music concerts, sports games and corporate events. Alternatively, audio engineer can refer to a scientist or professional engineer who holds an engineering degree and who designs and builds audio or musical technology working under terms such as acoustical engineering, electronic/electrical engineering or signal processing. Research and development audio engineers invent new technologies and techniques, to enhance the process and art of audio engineering.
They might design acoustical simulations of rooms, shape algorithms for audio signal processing, specify the requirements for public address systems, carry out research on audible sound for video game console manufacturers, other advanced fields of audio engineering. They might be referred to as acoustic engineers. Audio engineers working in research and development may come from backgrounds such as acoustics, computer science, broadcast engineering, acoustical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics. Audio engineering courses at university or college fall into two rough categories: training in the creative use of audio as a sound engineer, training in science or engineering topics, which allows students to apply these concepts while pursuing a career developing audio technologies. Audio training courses provide knowledge of technologies and their application to recording studios and sound reinforcement systems, but do not have sufficient mathematical and scientific content to allow someone to obtain employment in research and development in the audio and acoustic industry.
Audio engineers in research and development possess a bachelor's degree, master's degree or higher qualification in acoustics, computer science or another engineering discipline. They might work in acoustic consultancy. Alternatively they might work in audio companies, or other industries that need audio expertise, or carry out research in a university; some positions, such as faculty require a Doctor of Philosophy. In Germany a Toningenieur is an audio engineer who designs and repairs audio systems; the listed subdisciplines are based on PACS coding used by the Acoustical Society of America with some revision. Audio engineers develop audio signal processing algorithms to allow the electronic manipulation of audio signals; these can be processed at the heart of much audio production such as reverberation, Auto-Tune or perceptual coding. Alternatively, the algorithms might perform echo cancellation, or identify and categorize audio content through music information retrieval or acoustic fingerprint.
Architectural acoustics is the engineering of achieving a good sound within a room. For audio engineers, architectural acoustics can be about achieving good speech intelligibility in a stadium or enhancing the quality of music in a theatre. Architectural Acoustic design is done by acoustic consultants. Electroacoustics is concerned with the design of headphones, loudspeakers, sound reproduction systems and recording technologies. Examples of electroacoustic design include portable electronic devices, sound systems in architectural acoustics, surround sound and wave field synthesis in movie theater and vehicle audio. Musical acoustics is concerned with describing the science of music. In audio engineering, this includes the design of electronic instruments such as synthesizers. Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of. At the heart of audio engineering are listeners who are the final arbitrator as to whether an audio design is successful, such as whether a binaural recording sounds immersive.
The production, computer processing and perception of speech is an important part of audio engineering. Ensuring speech is transmitted intelligibly and with high quality. A variety of terms are used to describe audio engineers who install or operate sound recording, sound reinforcement, or sound broadcasting equipment, including large and small format consoles. Terms such as "audio technician," "sound technician," "audio engineer," "audio technologist," "recording engineer," "sound mixer," "mixing engineer" and "sound engineer" can be ambiguous; such terms can refer to a person working in music production.
Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin was the 52nd Dā'ī al-Mutlaq of Dawoodi Bohras, a subgroup within the Mustaali, Ismaili Shia branch of Islam. He was appointed as the 52nd Dā'ī al-Mutlaq at the age of 52 in 1967, he was the longest living Dā'ī al-Mutlaq of the Dawoodi Bohra community. Compared to those of his predecessor, Syedna Burhanuddin's policies were aimed at Islamization of his sect. Syedna Burhanuddin was presented the highest national civic honors by the leaders of Egypt and Jordan, he was the first Dā' ī al-Mutlaq to visit America. Syedna Burhanuddin was born to Syedna Taher Saifuddin and Aaisaheba Husaina Aaisaheba in Surat in the Indian state of Gujarat, he was educated by Syedna Taher Saifuddin. At the age of twelve, he survived a car accident in Colombo, Sri Lanka, where his vehicle got hung on one wheel; the following are a list of Rasāʾil Ramaḍāniyya composed by Mohammed Burhanuddin. Each Risalah is given a title according to Abjad numerals equivalent to the Hijri year of its publication: Syedna Burhanuddin issued a dress code, calling for male Bohras to grow a beard and wear a white topi and kurta, for women to wear a colorful two piece abaya, known formally as a Rida.
This Islamization countered a trend toward assimilation into the larger culture of their ancestors, prevalent under his predecessor, Syedna Taher Saifuddin and the previous Du'at before them. The history of this culture can be traced back to the medieval Fatimid dynasty in Egypt. In October 1999, Syedna Burhanuddin was elected Chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University, a position that his father held, he is credited with expanding the two century old Arabic university Al Jamea tus Saifiyah. In 1983, a new campus of "Al Jamea tus Saifiyah" was built by him in Karachi, he built the "Burhaniyah Business Counseling Center" in Mumbai to provide modern business solutions. He built the Raudat Tahera, a mausoleum of his father Syedna Taher Saifuddin in Mumbai, India, it is one of a kind, having the entire Quran inscribed on its inner white walls in letters decorated with of gold leaves and with precious stones. It was inaugurated in 1975 by the erstwhile President of India Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed. In 1998, he constructed the Mahad al-Zahra institute for recitation of the Quran.
Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin is credited with the establishment of community kitchens to provide meals everyday to the Dawoodi Bohra families, thus providing free time for women to pursue economic, educational or religious activities. The community kitchens don't discriminate between the privileged and the underprivileged sections, both getting the same "good quality and hygienically-prepared" food, while the community members have the provision of paying for their own family, for sponsoring those who cannot afford it. Syedna Mohammad Burhanuddin is credited with conceptualizing and establishing Saifee Hospital in Mumbai; the hospital is a state-of-the-art, multi-specialty, 250-bed hospital dedicated to providing modern medical care. It was inaugurated in 2005 by the erstwhile prime minister of India. "Order of the Star of Jordan", the highest civic honor of Jordan by the King of Jordan. "Order of the Nile", the highest civilian honor of Egypt. "Honorary Doctorates", by Al-Azhar University, Aligarh Muslim University and University of Karachi, Pakistan.
On 6 March 2011, Burhani Foundation, India made largest distribution of bird feeders to celebrate Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin 100th birthday. It was recorded in Guinness World Records. Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award of India, in 2015. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin was named one of The 500 Most Influential Muslims in the years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 & 2013. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin died of cardiac attack at his home Saifee Mahal in Mumbai on 17 January 2014; the Bohra community announced a 40-day mourning period in respect of the departed leader. He was buried at Raudat Tahera Mausoleum in Bhendi Bazar, Mumbai beside his father Syedna Taher Saifuddin, his second son and his successor Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin led the Salat al-Janazah of his father at the Saifee Mosque. Half mast of Flag and state honor was given by Indian Government during his funeral; the day after his death, a crowd of supporters assembled outside his residence to pay their respects. A commemoration service held one year after Syedna Burhanuddin's death drew an estimated three hundred thousand bohras to Mumbai.
Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, died in January 2014. As per the tenets of the sect each predecessor is required to nominate his successor during his lifetime, his death sparked a succession crisis where two rival claimants emerged for the title of 53rd Dā'ī al-Mutlaq: his son, Mufaddal Saifuddin, his half-brother, Khuzaima Qutbuddin, Mazoon of the Dawoodi Bohra. The challenge created a divide in the community with the vast majority aligning with Mufaddal Saifuddin whilst a small number aligned with Khuzaima Qutbuddin. Mufaddal Saifuddin assumed control of infrastructure, he is accepted as the Bohras' leader by government and other public bodies. The UK Charity Commission has stated in writing, that "our view is that His Holiness Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin is the current incumbent of the office of Dai al-Mutlaq."His Holiness Syedna Mohammad Burhanuddin belongs to family of Moulai Fakhruddin and Moulai Hakimuddin. Abdulhussein, Mustafa. Al-Dai al-Fatimi, Syiedna Mohammed Burhanuddin. ISBN 0-9536256-0-5.
OUP Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World: Muhammad Burhan
The "Republic" of Winston, present-day Winston County, was one of several places in the Confederate States of America where disaffection during the American Civil War was strong. In Winston County, this opposition became violent and had long-lasting political consequences—deep enough to generate a legend after the war that the county had seceded from Alabama. Winston County is located in the hilly terrain of North Alabama. At the time of the Civil War Winston County included the areas that became Cullman and Blount counties, its shallow soil is unsuitable for plantation-style agriculture, thus the county was never home to many slaves. The 1860 US Census lists only 3,450 white residents in the underpopulated county, just 122 slaves. Winston's residents were poor farmers. Winston County's representative at the January 1861 Alabama Secession Convention was Charles Christopher Sheats, a 21-year-old school teacher, he refused to sign Alabama's ordinance of secession after it had been passed by a vote of 61 to 39.
Sheats became so vocal in his opposition that he was arrested. On his release, he became a leader of a pro-neutrality group, he would become an open supporter of the Union and spent most of the war in prison. Many Winston County residents refused induction into the Confederate Army, some spoke of organizing troops to support the Union; the worried state authorities moved to enforce obedience through conscription and loyalty oaths, which only made matters worse. A meeting was held at Looney's Tavern; these stated that the people of Winston County had no desire to take part in the war and intended to support neither side. One resolution declared that if a state could secede from the Union a county could secede from the state. Richard Payne, a pro-Confederate, laughed with delight. "Winston County secedes!" he shouted. "Hoorah for the Free State of Winston!" From Payne's remark was born the legend of the "Republic of Winston". In April 1862, the Union Army invaded north Alabama. Many of the pro-Union Winstonians enlisted in the Union Army's new 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment, commanded by an officer from New York, George E. Spencer.
While the Union 1st Alabama Cavalry would play a heroic part in the war, it did so outside of Alabama. Winston County itself was suffering from its own internal war. Confederate Home Guards in the county were poorly disciplined and used their uniforms as excuses to settle old grudges; the Union men responded by forming their own irregular bands, by the end of the war Winston County had been devastated by its own people. After the war, Winston County became a bastion of the Republican Party in Alabama, in sharp contrast to the overwhelming support for the Democrats in the rest of the state. Winston's unique history has become the basis of a small tourist industry, which includes an outdoor drama loosely based on the events. A passenger boat named. "Dual Destiny", a memorial statue of a young soldier dressed half as a Union troop and half as Confederate, is photographed. Miss Caroline Fisher, Scout's first grade teacher in To Kill a Mockingbird, is from Winston County, Alabama. Nickajack, a similar region in North Alabama and East Tennessee State of Scott, a similar secession resisting area in North Tennessee Tap Roots, a fictionalized film of Winston County's Civil War history Searcy County, Arkansas, a similar county in Arkansas Jones County, which resisted secession Southern Unionist Downing, David C.
A South Divided: Portraits of Dissent in the Confederacy. Nashville: Cumberland House, 2007. ISBN 978-1-58182-587-9 Dodd, Donald B. and Amy Bartlett-Dodd. The Free State of Winston. Charleston, S. C.: Arcadia Publishing, 2000. Dodd, Donald B. and Wynelle S. Dodd. Winston: An Antebellum and Civil War History of a Hill County of North Alabama. Vol. 4 of Annals of Northwest Alabama, comp. Carl Elliot. Birmingham: Oxmoor Press, 1972. Winston County Heritage Book Committee; the Heritage of Winston County, Alabama. Clanton, Ala.: Heritage Publishing Consultants, 1998. Umphrey, Don. Southerners in Blue: They Defied the Confederacy. Quarry Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0971495814 The Incident at Looney's Tavern information at the Alabama Department of Archives and History Free State of Winston