Theatre of ancient Greece
The ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c.700 BC. Tragedy and the play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Athens exported the festival to its numerous colonies and allies in order to promote a cultural identity. The word τραγῳδία, from which the tragedy is derived, is a compound of two Greek words, τράγος or goat and ᾠδή meaning song, from ἀείδειν, to sing. This etymology indicates a link with the practices of the ancient Dionysian cults and it is impossible, however, to know with certainty how these fertility rituals became the basis for tragedy and comedy. The classical Greeks valued the power of word, and it was their main method of communication. Bahn and Bahn write, To Greeks the spoken word was a living thing, socrates himself believed that once something was written down, it lost its ability for change and growth. For these reasons, among others, oral storytelling flourished in Greece. Greek tragedy as we know it was created in Athens around the time of 532 BC, being a winner of the first theatrical contest held in Athens, he was the exarchon, or leader, of the dithyrambs performed in and around Attica, especially at the rural Dionysia.
By Thespis time, the dithyramb had evolved far away from its cult roots, under the influence of heroic epic, Doric choral lyric and the innovations of the poet Arion, it had become a narrative, ballad-like genre. Thus, Thespiss true contribution to drama is unclear at best, the dramatic performances were important to the Athenians – this is made clear by the creation of a tragedy competition and festival in the City Dionysia. This was organized possibly to foster loyalty among the tribes of Attica, the festival was created roughly around 508 BC. While no drama texts exist from the sixth century BC, we do know the names of three competitors besides Thespis, Choerilus and Phrynichus, each is credited with different innovations in the field. He won his first competition between 511 BC and 508 BC and he produced tragedies on themes and subjects exploited in the golden age such as the Danaids, Phoenician Women and Alcestis. He was the first poet we know of to use a historical subject – his Fall of Miletus, produced in 493-2 and he is thought to be the first to use female characters.
This century is regarded as the Golden Age of Greek drama. The centre-piece of the annual Dionysia, which took place once in winter, each submitted three tragedies, plus a satyr play. Beginning in a first competition in 486 BC each playwright submitted a comedy, aristotle claimed that Aeschylus added the second actor, and that Sophocles introduced the third
A music venue is any location used for a concert or musical performance. A music venue range in size and location, from an outdoor bandshell or bandstand or a hall to an indoor sports stadium. Typically, different types of venues host different genres of music, music venues may be either privately or publicly funded, and may charge for admission. An example of a publicly funded music venue is a park bandstand, a nightclub is a privately funded venue, venues like these often charge an entry fee to generate a profit. Music venues do not necessarily host live acts, disc jockeys at a discothèque or nightclub play recorded music through a PA system. Depending on the type of venue, the hours and length of performance may differ. Other attractions, such as art or social activities, may be available. For example, at a bar or pub, the band may be playing live songs while drinks are being served. Some classes of venues may play live music in the background, music venues can be categorised in a number of ways.
Typically, the genre of music played at the venue, whether it is temporary, the majority of music venues are permanent, there are temporary music venues. An example of a venue would be one constructed for a music festival. Music venues may be the result of private or public enterprises, some venues only promote acts of one particular genre and example of this are opera houses. Music venues can be categorised by size and capacity, a nightclub will often have a much smaller capacity than that of a stadium. Music venues are either outdoor or indoor, examples of outdoor venues include bandstands and bandshells, such outdoor venues provide minimal shelter for performing musicians and are usually located in parks. A temporary music festival is typically an outdoor venue, examples of indoor venues include public houses, coffee bars and stadia. Venues can play music, recorded music, or a combination of the two, depending on the event or time of day. A characteristic of every live music venue is that one or more stages are present.
Venues may be unticketed, casual entry available on the door, or advance tickets only, a dress code may or may not apply
The concept of the fourth wall of the theatre stage space that faces the audience is essentially the same. It can be considered as a construct which divides the actors. But since the curtain comes down just behind the proscenium arch, it has a physical reality when the curtain is down. A proscenium stage is different from a thrust stage or an arena stage. Skene is the Greek word for the tent, and building, at the back of the stage from which actors entered, in the Hellenistic period it became an increasingly large and elaborate stone structure, often with three storeys. In Greek theatre, which unlike Roman included painted scenery, the proskenion might carry scenery, in the Greek and Roman theatre, no proscenium arch existed, in the modern sense, and the acting space was always fully in the view of the audience. Modern halls designed mainly for orchestral music often adopt similar arrangements, the oldest surviving indoor theatre of the modern era, the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza, is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the first example of a proscenium theatre.
The Teatro Olimpico was a reconstruction of a Roman theatre. It has a plain proscaenium at the front of the stage, dropping to the level, now usually containing stalls seating. However, the Teatro Olimpicos exact replication of the open and accessible Roman stage was the rather than the rule in sixteenth-century theatre design. Engravings suggest that the arch was already in use as early as 1560 at a production in Siena. The earliest true proscenium arch to survive in a permanent theatre is the Teatro Farnese in Parma, Parma has a clearly defined arco scenico—more like a picture frame than an arch, but serving the same purpose—outlining the stage and separating the audience from the action on-stage. While the proscenium arch became an important feature of the traditional European theatre, often becoming very large and elaborate, what the Romans would have called the proscaenium is, in modern theatres with orchestra pits, normally painted black in order that it does not draw attention. In this early modern recreation of a Roman theatre confusion seems to have introduced to the use of the revived term in Italian.
There is no evidence at all for this assumption, the Italian word for a scaenae frons is proscenio, a major change from Latin. It would be possible to retain the classical frons scaenae. The Italian arco scenico has been translated as proscenium arch, the result is that in this theatre the architectural spaces for the audience and the action. Are distinct in treatment yet united by their juxtaposition, no proscenium arch separates them, a proscenium arch creates a window around the scenery and performers. A proscenium theatre layout simplifies the hiding and obscuring of objects from the audiences view, anything that is not meant to be seen is simply placed outside the window created by the proscenium arch, either in the wings or in the flyspace above the stage
Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event at the ancient Greek Olympic festival was the race that comprised one length of the stade at Olympia, where the word stadium originated. In modern times, a stadium is officially a stadium when at least 50% of the capacity is an actual building. If the majority of the capacity is formed by grasshills, the venue is not officially considered a stadium. Most of the stadiums with a capacity of at least 10,000 are used for football, or soccer. A large amount of sports venues are used for concerts. Stadium is the Latin form of the Greek word stadion, a measure of length equalling the length of 600 human feet, as feet are of variable length the exact length of a stadion depends on the exact length adopted for 1 foot at a given place and time. Although in modern terms 1 stadion =600 ft, in a historical context it may actually signify a length up to 15% larger or smaller. The equivalent Roman measure, the stadium, had a similar length — about 185 m -, the English use of stadium comes from the tiered infrastructure surrounding a Roman track of such length.
Most dictionaries provide for both stadiums and stadia as valid English plurals, although etymological purists sometimes apply stadia only to measures of length in excess of 1 stadium. The oldest known stadium is the one in Olympia, in the western Peloponnese, initially the Games consisted of a single event, a sprint along the length of the stadium. The stadion, a measure of length, may be related to the Stadium and Roman stadiums have been found in numerous ancient cities, perhaps the most famous being the Stadium of Domitian, in Rome. The excavated and refurbished ancient Panathenaic stadium hosted a version of the Olympic Games in 1870,1875,1896 and 1906. The excavation and refurbishment of the stadium was part of the legacy of the Greek national benefactor Evangelos Zappas, the first stadiums to be built in the modern era were basic facilities, designed for the single purpose of fitting as many spectators in as possible. One such early stadium was the Lansdowne Road Stadium, the brainchild of Henry Dunlop, banned from locating sporting events at Trinity College, Dunlop built the stadium in 1872.
Some 300 cartloads of soil from a trench beneath the railway were used to raise the ground, other early stadiums from this period in the UK include the Stamford Bridge stadium and Anfield stadium. In the U. S. However, many of these caught fire. All of the 19th-century wooden parks were replaced, some only a few years. Goodison Park was the first purpose-built football stadium in the world, walton-based building firm Kelly brothers were instructed to erect two uncovered stands that could each accommodate 4,000 spectators
A movie theater or movie theatre is a venue, usually a building, that contains an auditorium for viewing films, for entertainment. Most, but not all, movie theaters are commercial operations catering to the general public, Some movie theaters, are operated by non-profit organizations or societies which charge members a membership fee to view films. The film is projected with a projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium while the dialogue, sounds. Since the 1970s, subwoofers have used for low-pitched sounds. In the 2010s, most movie theaters are equipped for digital cinema projection, removing the need to create, a great variety of films are shown at cinemas, ranging from animated films for children, blockbusters for general audiences and documentaries for patrons who are interested in non-fiction topics. The smallest movie theaters have a viewing room with a single screen. In the 2010s, most movie theaters have multiple screens, the largest theater complexes, which are called multiplexes—a design developed in the U. S. in the 1960s—have up to 25 screens.
The audience members sit on padded seats which in most theaters are set up on a sloped floor. Movie theaters typically sell soft drinks and candy and some theaters sell hot fast food, in some jurisdictions, movie theaters are licensed to sell alcoholic drinks. A movie theater may be referred to as a theatre, movie house, film house. In the US, theater has long been the preferred spelling, while in the UK, the latter terms, as well as their derivative adjectives cinematic and kinematic, ultimately derive from Greek κινῆμα, κινήματος —movement, motion. In the countries where those terms are used, the theatre is usually reserved for live performance venues. Colloquial expressions, mostly applied to motion pictures and motion picture theaters collectively, include the silver screen, specific to North American term is the movies, while specific terms in the UK are the pictures, the flicks and for the facility itself the flea pit. A screening room is a theater, often a private one. Open air place in ancient times for viewing spectacles and plays, the term theater comes from the Old French word theatre, from the 12th century and.
The use of the theatre to mean a building where plays are shown dates from the 1570s in the English language. The earliest precursors to movies were magic lantern shows, magic lanterns used a glass lens, a shutter and a powerful lamp to project images from glass slides onto a white wall or screen. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s, limelight in the 1820s, the magic lantern could project rudimentary moving images, which was achieved by the use of various types of mechanical slides
Performing arts center
This sort of space has a long history extending to the Roman Colosseum and Greek amphitheatres. The modern version of this came into being only in the 1960s, an example of this type of PAC is the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D. C. which contains nine distinctive performance spaces. Examples of this practice is the Celebrity Series of Boston renting venues in Bostons Boch Center, pACs became a draw for touring shows and eventually included visual art in their facilities. Today, these centers are valuable resources that provide education, exchange of creative discourse, opportunities for cultural expression. List of concert halls List of contemporary amphitheatres List of opera houses
All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club
The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, known as the All-England Club, based at Church Road, London, England, is a private members club. It is best known as the venue for the Wimbledon Championships, initially an amateur event that occupied club members and their friends for a few days each summer, the championships have become far more prominent than the club itself. However, it operates as a members tennis club, with many courts in use all year round. To become a full or temporary member, an applicant must obtain letters of support from four existing full members, the name is added to the Candidates List. Honorary Members are elected from time to time by the clubs Committee, membership carries with it the right to purchase two tickets for each day of the Wimbledon Championships. The patron of the club is Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, and the President is The Duke of Kent. The Club was founded by six gentlemen at the offices of The Field on 23 July 1868 at the height of a croquet craze as the All England Croquet Club and its original ground was situated off Worple Road, Wimbledon.
Croquet was very popular there until the then-infant sport of lawn tennis was introduced in 1875, the first tennis Gentlemens Championship in Singles was held in July 1877, when the Club changed its name to The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club. That year at Wimbledon service was underarm, the champion, Spencer Gore, opined that Lawn tennis will never rank among our great games. In 1878 the height of the net was altered to 4 feet 9 inches at the posts and 3 feet at the centre, in 1882, croquet was dropped from the name, as tennis had become the main activity of the Club. But in 1899 it was restored to the Clubs name for reasons. In 1884, the Club added Ladies Singles and Gentlemens Doubles, for the 1908 Summer Olympics, the venue hosted the Grass Courts tennis events. The early Club colours were found to be almost identical to those of the Royal Marines, so they were changed in 1909 to the present Club colours of dark green, the current Centre Court dates from that year. It has been improved and extended on several occasions, most recently a sliding roof was added in time for the 2009 Championships.
In 1924 the old No.1 Court opened on the west side of Centre Court, at 5,20 p. m. on October 11,1940, five 500 pound German bombs struck the grounds, demolishing 1,200 seats in Centre Court. The old No.1 Court was replaced with the current No.1 Court in 1997, shortly afterwards, the Millennium Building, which houses facilities for players, press and members, was built on the site of the old No.1 Court. The Church Road site initially extended only as far north as Centre Court, in 1967 the All England Club purchased 11 acres to the north. This was leased to the New Zealand Sports and Social Club and it is most commonly known as Henman Hill because of the popularity of former British tennis player, Tim Henman
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are often referred to as royalty or royals and it is customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is referred to as the House of. As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world who rule or reign over 43 countries in all, in some cases, royal family membership may extend to great grandchildren and more distant descendants of a monarch. In certain monarchies where voluntary abdication is the norm, such as the Netherlands, there is often a distinction between persons of the blood royal and those that marry into the royal family. In certain instances, such as in Canada, the family is defined by who holds the styles Majesty. Under most systems, only persons in the first category are dynasts and this is not always observed, some monarchies have operated by the principle of jure uxoris.
In addition, certain relatives of the monarch possess special privileges and are subject to certain statutes, the precise functions of a royal family vary depending on whether the polity in question is an absolute monarchy, a constitutional monarchy, or somewhere in between. The specific composition of royal families varies from country to country, as do the titles and royal, the composition of the royal family may be regulated by statute enacted by the legislature, the sovereigns prerogative and common law tradition, or a private house law. Public statutes, constitutional provisions, or conventions may regulate the marriages, the members of a royal family may or may not have a surname or dynastic name. Some countries have abolished royalty altogether, as in post-revolutionary France, whilst mediatization occurred in other countries such as France and Russia, only the certain houses within the former Holy Roman Empire are collectively called the Mediatized Houses
This is especially necessary in stadiums where the subject matter is typically best observed from above, rather than in-line or from below. Because the increased angle of stadium seating, seats are installed on a stepped floor surface which functions as a staircase in the aisles. This is as opposed to the usage of a flat, often slightly sloped. There has been criticism of stadium seating because, due to the stepped layout. The trains on some roller coasters are configured in tiers, converting sloped-floor theaters to stadium seating often requires raising the ceiling and adding risers, so owners of movie theaters often judge conversion as not cost effective
Luxury boxes and club seating constitute the most exclusive class of seating in arenas and stadiums, and generate much higher revenues than regular seating. A Luxury box is a special seating section located within stadiums and other sporting. They are typically located in the midsection of a stadium grandstand, some have glass panels that can be opened, in order for the spectators to feel closer to and more immersed in the action of the event. The inside of a luxury box typically includes a bar, televisions, a seating area. The boxes are usually catered, with guests enjoying corporate hospitality, with champagne, canapés, the lease to a box usually comes with allocated parking spaces at the venue and access is usually provided with separate entrances, away from the general public gates. Luxury boxes are a significant source of revenue for most professional sports teams, while originally widespread among North American major pro sports, this trend is gaining popularity in Europe. For instance, Emirates Stadiums revenue from premium seating and corporate boxes alone is nearly as high as the revenue from Arsenal F. C.
s previous stadium at Highbury. Most luxury boxes are leased by contract on a yearly basis and these methods usually grant access to the box by the leaseholder or owner for every event held at the venue. A few venues rent them on a per-event basis, prices vary from US$5,000 up to the millions of dollars depending on the venue and events held there. Luxury boxes that are rented on an event basis can range from US$500 for low-key events to up to at least US$250,000 for high-end events such as sporting final matches. Also, the location of the box and how many people the box can hold usually makes up the price, standing room tickets may be purchased at an additional fee but are usually less money than an actual suite ticket. If a normal box ticket with a seat costs US$500 per ticket standing room tickets might be around US$250–US$300 per ticket. These tickets will allow people in a box, but they wont have seats. Average private box rental prices for events based on location, matchup. Typical luxury boxes for most events fall within the following ranges, The stadium with the most luxury boxes is the Estadio Monumental U in Lima.
The first stadium to contain a luxury box was the Astrodome in Houston, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway constructed their first luxury boxes in 1973 as part of the existing motel complex on the grounds. One unique set of boxes is located on the campus of Boston College. The schools main indoor arena, Conte Forum, is attached to its football venue
Noise control or noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noise pollution or to reduce the impact of that noise, whether outdoors or indoors. The main areas of noise mitigation or abatement are, transportation noise control, architectural design, urban planning through zoning codes, roadway noise and aircraft noise are the most pervasive sources of environmental noise. Many of these techniques rely upon materials science applications of constructing sound baffles or using sound-absorbing liners for interior spaces, sound masking is the active addition of noise to reduce the annoyance of certain sounds, the opposite of soundproofing. Sound insulation, prevent the transmission of noise by the introduction of a mass barrier, common materials have high-density properties such as brick, thick glass, metal etc. Sound absorption, a material which acts as a ‘noise sponge’ by converting the sound energy into heat within the material. Common sound absorption materials include decoupled lead-based tiles, open cell foams and fiberglass Vibration damping, the damping mechanism works by extracting the vibration energy from the thin sheet and dissipating it as heat.
A common material is sound deadened steel, Vibration isolation, prevents transmission of vibration energy from a source to a receiver by introducing a flexible element or a physical break. Common vibration isolators are springs, rubber mounts, cork etc, highway noise is today less affected by motor type, since the effects in higher speed are aerodynamic and tire noise related. The most fertile areas for roadway noise mitigation are in planning decisions, roadway design, noise barrier design, speed control, surface pavement selection. Speed control is effective since the lowest sound emissions arise from vehicles moving smoothly at 30 to 60 kilometres per hour, above that range, sound emissions double with each five miles per hour of speed. At the lowest speeds and acceleration noise dominates, selection of road surface pavement can make a difference of a factor of two in sound levels, for the speed regime above 30 kilometres per hour. Surface friction and roadway safety are important considerations as well for pavement decisions, when designing new urban freeways or arterials, there are numerous design decisions regarding alignment and roadway geometrics.
Use of a model to calculate sound levels has become standard practice since the early 1970s. In this way exposure of sensitive receptors to elevated sound levels can be minimized, an analogous process exists for urban mass transit systems and other rail transportation decisions. Noise barriers can be applicable for existing or planned surface transportation projects and they are probably the single most effective weapon in retrofitting an existing roadway, and commonly can reduce adjacent land use sound levels by up to ten decibels. A computer model is required to design the barrier since terrain, for example, a roadway in cut or strong prevailing winds can produce a setting where atmospheric sound propagation is unfavorable to any noise barrier. As in the case of noise, little progress has been made in quelling aircraft noise at the source, other than elimination of loud engine designs from the 1960s. Because of its velocity and volume, jet engine exhaust noise defies reduction by any simple means