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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Auditory system

The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. It includes the auditory parts of the sensory system; the outer ear funnels sound vibrations to the eardrum, increasing the sound pressure in the middle frequency range. The middle-ear ossicles further amplify the vibration pressure 20 times; the base of the stapes couples vibrations into the cochlea via the oval window, which vibrates the perilymph liquid and causes the round window to bulb out as the oval window bulges in. Vestibular and tympanic ducts are filled with perilymph, the smaller cochlear duct between them is filled with endolymph, a fluid with a different ion concentration and voltage. Vestibular duct perilymph vibrations bend organ of Corti outer cells causing prestin to be released in cell tips; this causes the cells to be chemically elongated and shrunk, hair bundles to shift which, in turn, electrically affects the basilar membrane’s movement. These motors amplify the traveling wave amplitudes over 40-fold; the outer hair cells are minimally innervated by spiral ganglion in slow reciprocal communicative bundles.

There are three to four times as many OHCs as IHCs. The basilar membrane is a barrier along the edge of which the IHCs and OHCs sit. Basilar membrane width and stiffness vary to control the frequencies best sensed by the IHC. At the cochlear base the BM is at its narrowest and most stiff, while at the cochlear apex it is at its widest and least stiff; the tectorial membrane helps facilitate cochlear amplification by stimulating OHC and IHC. TM width and stiffness parallels BM's and aids in frequency differentiation; the superior olivary complex, in pons, is the first convergence of the left and right cochlear pulses. SOC has 14 described nuclei. MSO determines the angle. LSO normalizes sound levels between the ears. LSO innervates the IHC. VNTB innervate OHC. MNTB inhibit LSO via glycine. LNTB are glycine-immune, used for fast signalling. DPO are tonotopical. DLPO are tonotopical. VLPO act in a different area. PVO, CPO, RPO, VMPO, ALPO and SPON are inhibiting nuclei; the trapezoid body is. The CN breaks into dorsal regions.

The VCN has three nuclei. Bushy cells transmit their shape averages timing jitters. Stellate cells encode sound spectra by spatial neural firing rates based on auditory input strength. Octopus cells have close to the best temporal precision while firing, they decode the auditory timing code; the DCN has 2 nuclei. DCN receives info from VCN. Fusiform cells integrate information to determine spectral cues to locations. Cochlear nerve fibers each respond over a wide range of levels. Simplified, nerve fibers’ signals are transported by bushy cells to the binaural areas in the olivary complex, while signal peaks and valleys are noted by stellate cells, signal timing is extracted by octopus cells; the lateral lemniscus has three nuclei: dorsal nuclei respond best to bilateral input and have complexity tuned responses. Ventral nuclei of lateral lemniscus help the inferior colliculus decode amplitude modulated sounds by giving both phasic and tonic responses. IC receives inputs not shown, including visual areas, spinal cord, thalamus.

The above are what implicate IC in ocular reflexes. Beyond multi-sensory integration IC responds to specific amplitude modulation frequencies, allowing for the detection of pitch. IC determines time differences in binaural hearing; the medial geniculate nucleus divides into ventral and medial. The auditory cortex brings sound into awareness/perception. AC identifies sounds and identifies the sound’s origin location. AC is a topographical frequency map with bundles reacting to different harmonies and pitch. Right-hand-side AC is more sensitive to tonality, left-hand-side AC is more sensitive to minute sequential differences in sound. Rostromedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices are involved in activation during tonal space and storing short-term memories, respectively; the Heschl’s gyrus/transverse temporal gyrus includes Wernicke’s area and functi

Joe Pullman

Joseph John Pullman was a Welsh international rugby union forward who played club rugby for Neath and the Glamorgan Constabulary. He won a single cap for Wales in the 1910 Five Nations Championship against France. Pullman played the majority of his rugby for Neath and was elected first team captain for the 1914/15 season. In March 1908 he joined the Glamorgan Constabulary, where he became a sergeant, turned out for the Glamorgan Constabulary rugby union team. On 1 January 1910, Pullman was selected for his one and only international appearance for Wales in the Five Nations Championship encounter with France. Pullman joined an experienced Wales team as a forward, with he and Bridgend's Ben Gronow as the only two new caps; the game was the first Five Nations Championship match, the first time France had entered the tournament. Captained by Billy Trew, Wales dominated. Despite the victory Pullman was not reselected for the next game of the tournament and never represented Wales again. Wales France 1910 Smith, David.

Fields of Praise: The Official History of The Welsh Rugby Union. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-0766-3

Bahamian Bounty

Bahamian Bounty was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He was named European Champion Two-Year-Old Colt at the 1996 Cartier Racing Awards. In his championship season, Bahamian Bounty won three of his five races including two Group One races, the Prix Morny in France and the Middle Park Stakes in England, he was retired after two unsuccessful starts in 1997 and stood as a stallion at the National Stud at Newmarket, Suffolk. Bahamian Bounty was bred in the United Kingdom by Clarents Racing Ltd, his sire, Cadeaux Genereux won several major sprint races including the Nunthorpe Stakes and the July Cup. At stud he sired over 1,000 winners including Touch of Bijou d'Inde and Toylsome. Bahamian Bounty’s dam, Clarentia was a sprinter who won three races, all over the minimum distance of five furlongs. Bahamian Bounty was sold as a yearling for 45,000 gns to the Lucayan Stud, the name used for the horse racing interests of Edward St. George. St. George was a British businessman who lived in the Bahamas and gave the "Bahamian" prefix to the names of many of his racehorses including Bahamian Pirate and Bahamian Knight.

Bahamian Bounty was sent into training with David Loder at Newmarket. In October 1996 he was bought by Sheikh Mohammed for his Godolphin organisation for a reported fee of £1 million. At the end of the season he was moved to the stable of Saeed bin Suroor, spending the winter in Dubai before returning to Britain in spring 1997, he was ridden in five of his seven starts by Frankie Dettori. Bahamian Bounty made his racecourse debut in July in a six-furlong maiden race at Newmarket, he raced prominently and led a furlong from the finish before being beaten a neck by Grapeshot. Twelve days he was dropped down in trip for a five-furlong maiden race at Yarmouth, for which he started at the unusual odds of 1/11; as the betting suggested, he proved far too good for his four opponents, going clear in the final quarter mile and winning by two and a half lengths in a "canter". In August, Bahamian Bounty was moved directly to Group One level for the Prix Morny at Deauville. Although only five horses took part, they included the odds-on favourite Zamindar, the July Stakes winner Rich Ground and the year's outstanding filly Pas de Reponse.

Bahamian Bounty and Zamindar disputed the lead from the start and raced together throughout the closing stages, with the English-trained colt prevailing by a short neck. After the race Loder called him "a lovely horse with a tremendous temperament" and the bookmakers offered him at 16/1 for the following year's 2000 Guineas, although his pedigree suggested that he would be most to make an impact as a sprinter; the six-furlong Middle Park Stakes at Newmarket in October saw Bahamian Bounty sent off the 7/4 favourite ahead of ten rivals including Easycall, Rich Ground and Deep Finesse. Dettori held the colt up in the early stages but had problems finding space for a challenge in the final quarter mile; when a gap appeared Bahamian Bounty "flashed" through to settle the race "in a matter of strides". He had to be driven out to beat Muchea by a head. After the race Dettori praised the colt's "terrific turn of foot."On his final start of the season, Bahamian Bounty attempted to become the first Middle Park winner to add the seven-furlong Dewhurst Stakes since Diesis in 1982.

As in the Middle Park Stakes, Bahamian Bounty had trouble finding a clear run after being held up. On this occasion, however, he could not reach the leaders and finished fourth to In Command, beaten less than two lengths. Bahamian Bounty spent the winter in Dubai before returning to England with the rest of the Godolphin team in late April. Running for his new stable, Bahamian Bounty failed to reproduce his best form in two starts as a three-year-old. At Longchamp he was made 11/10 joint favourite for the Poule d'Essai des Poulains, but after leading in the middle part of the race he faded badly to finish last of the six runners behind Daylami. Two months he returned to a sprint distance in the July Cup at Newmarket where he finished fourth of the nine runners behind the 50/1 outsider Compton Place. In November 1996, Bahamian Bounty was named European Champion Two-Year-Old Colt at the Cartier Racing Awards, although the situation was somewhat confused, with the Grand Criterium winner Revoque being given the title of Champion Two-Year-Old.

Bahamian Bounty was rated behind Revoque in the official International Classification. After retiring to the National Stud, Bahamian Bounty proved to be a successful stallion, siring the winners of more than five hundred races; as might have been predicted from his pedigree and racing career, he proved effective as a sire of two-year-old and sprinters, his best winners being the full brothers Pastoral Pursuits and Goodricke. He was "shuttled" to stand at the Eliza Park Stud in Australia. In 2011 he stood at a fee of £10,000. Bahamian Bounty was retired from stud duties in 2015 and died in March 2020 at the age of 26

Event Mobile Tyres

Event Mobile Tyres is an online tyre retailer in the United Kingdom. They were the first mobile online tyre retailer to use chip and pin mobile devices in the UK, they are members of the National Tyre Distributors Association. Event Mobile Tyres have a Head Office / Depot in Manchester, a Northern Control Centre in Warrington and a Southern Control Centre in Henley on Thames. Between these 3 locations they operate more than 30 vans that are located strategically around the country; the vans are assigned to one of the control centres, based on their location, are stocked daily via a number of key stocking points. All the vans are self-sufficient mobile tyre fitting centres equipped with a compressor, tyre fitting machine, electronic wheel balancer, several vehicle jacks and all the tools of the trade required to do the job. In July 1927 the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company established a tyre manufacturing factory in Bushbury, England, it was founded on the Bushbury Works site belonging to Macfarlane & Robinson Limited, manufacturers of enamel hardware.

Goodyear purchased the Bushbury Works Site and associated railway sidings for 75,000 GBP freehold from Macfarlane & Robinson Limited on 11 July 1927. Tyre manufacturing at the site began by December 1927. George Sproson, an employee at Goodyear’s Wolverhampton factory, left Goodyear in 1930, he purchased a tyre started Hayson Tyre Service Limited, re-moulding tyres. In August 1970, National Tyre Service Limited known as National Tyre, purchased Hayson Tyres from George Sproson as part of their buy-out of regional independent tyre companies to form a national network of tyre fitting centres. In the same year, George Sproson’s son-in-law, Chris Shankland, who at the time was working with Michelin as a National Accounts Manager, began Town and Country Tyre Services with Sproson’s assistance; the company was registered as Town and Country Tyres Limited, became a successful tyre fitting company with both Chris Shankland and his son, Mark Shankland, as company directors. Town and Country Tyres were acquired by Kwik-Fit Holdings in February 1994.

After the acquisition Mark Shankland became Operations Director at Kwik-Fit Mobile, the company’s mobile tyre fitting division. There he met Gary Moloney Control Director at Kwik-Fit Mobile. Using their mobile tyre fitting knowledge and experience, the two of them began Event Mobile Tyres Ltd in 2003. Event Mobile Tyres filed for administration on April 11th 2018. Event Mobile Tyres have been honoured with several awards including the Honest John "Outstanding Achievement Award", awarded to the UK's most endorsed company in the motor trade. Official website

Beatrice S. Levy

Beatrice Sophia Steinfeld Levy was an American printmaker and painter and instructor.< She was born in Chicago to a German-Jewish emigrant father and a mother from Kentucky and grew up on Chicago's Near South Side. She studied at the Chicago Art Institute after graduating from high school in 1910 with an initial focus on illustration. While there, she was among a small number of students including Stanislaus Szukalski who defended the modernist works on display at the notorious Armory Show at the Art Institute in 1913. Encouraged by her instructors she continued her art education after graduating in 2010 with honorable mention, studying portraiture with Ralph Clarkson in Chicago, painting with Charles Hawthorne in Provincetown and fine print methods with Vojtěch Preissig in New York's Art Students League in 1915. By she was a prolific painter and printmaker, producing striking images with saturated color and abbreviated, semi-realist imagery. One of the earliest members of the Chicago Society of Etchers, her exacting, three-plate color intaglios were first exhibited by the Society in 1914.

The same year, one of her prints received an honorable mention at Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco. She held her first solo exhibition in 1916 at Goupil & Cie Gallery in New York, featured her entire collection of color aquatints, she had a studio in Chicago's 57th Street Art Colony. In the 1920s she helped form an "art for art's sake" group called the Cor Ardens along with Szukalski, Carl Hoeckner, Ramon Shiva, Gerrit Sinclair. Traveling with friends all over the United States and Mexico, she was by well-known for "forceful painting in oils, but for her ability to express in the exquisite art of the copper plate … an individual style through a simple and dignified treatment of her subject matter." During the Great Depression, Levy supervised the Easel Painting Division and Art Gallery of the Illinois Art Project of the WPA. She supervised the Easel Painting Division for the Federal Arts Project a decade later. For two years during World War II, Levy worked as a meteorological map draftsman and her subsequent work developed along more modern lines.

She traveled extensively in the US, North Africa and summered La Jolla, California for several years before making it her home in 1950. She served on the board of the San Diego Museum of Art and taught at the La Jolla Museum School of Arts and Crafts. At the time, she began a close relationship with the modernist artist Dorothy Stratton King, a La Jolla resident with whom she shared a passion for rich color and strong form. Levy experimented in her final decade in linear and abstract printmaking and enamels. Levy never married. After a long and distinguished career, she died in La Jolla in 1974, her papers are held by the Archives of American Art at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. Chicago Society of Artists and board member Chicago Society of Etchers, vice president and board member Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago, board member Arts Club of Chicago, vice president and member Works Progress Administration Art Project Gallery, supervisor Easel Painting Division for the Federal Art Project, supervisor San Diego Museum of Art, board member 1916 Goupil & Cie Gallery, New York 1923 Milwaukee Art Institute, Wisconsin 1924 Philadelphia Print Club, Pennsylvania 1924 Art Club, Washington, DC 1924 Godspeed's Gallery, Massachusetts 1924 Grand Rapids Art Gallery, Grand Rapids, Michigan 1926 Library of Congress, Washington, DC 1929 Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, PA 1931 Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois 1932 Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 1933-34 Century of Progress, Chicago Art Institute, Illinois 1934 John H Vanderpoel Gallery, Illinois 1948 Grinnel College, Iowa 1955 La Jolla Art Center, San Diego, California 1957 Jonson Gallery, University New Mexico 1960 Long Beach Museum, California Pan Pacific Exposition, San Francisco, honorable mention, 1915 Robert Rice Jenkins Prize for Painting, Art Institute of Chicago, 1923 Chicago Society of Artists Exhibition, gold medal, 1928 International Exhibition of Prints, Art Institute of Chicago, etcher's prize, 1930 American Artists, Art Institute of Chicago, honorable mention, 1930 Illinois State Exhibition, purchase prize Coronado Artists Association, first prize, 1952, 1956, 1957 Del Mar County Fair Art Show, first prize, 1953 San Diego Fine Arts Guild, honorable mention, 1955 and 1957 La Jolla Art Center, print award, 1957 Smithsonian Institution Bibliotéque National, Paris Art Institute of Chicago Library of Congress Chicago Municipal College Los Angeles County Museum of Art Long Beach Museum of Art University of New Mexico La Jolla Museum of Art Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego Davenport Municipal Art Gallery University of New Mexico Vanderpoel College Beatrice Levy at Conrad R. Graeber Fine Art

Fred Olsen

Fredrich Olsen was a British-born American chemist remembered as the inventor of ball propellant and as a donor to the art antiquities collections of Yale University, the University of Illinois, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Olsen was born 28 February 1891 in Newcastle upon England. Following education in Canada, he began his professional career in 1917 as chief chemist for the Aetna Explosives Company of Gary, Indiana; when Aetna went out of business following World War I, Olsen worked at Picatinny Arsenal from 1919 to 1929 devising a remanufacturing process to preserve deteriorating military inventories of smokeless powder in artillery ammunition manufactured during World War I. He was employed by the Western Cartridge Company of East Alton, where he patented the Ball Powder® manufacturing process in 1933. Western Cartridge Company became an Olin Corporation subsidiary in 1944, Olsen was appointed Olin's vice president for Research and Development in 1952. Olsen and his wife, the former Florence Quittenton, were collectors of Coptic art, Pre-Columbian art, African Art, Modern Art and early Chinese art.

He was the original purchaser of Jackson Pollock's "Blue Poles." Being friends with Pollock, Isamu Noguchi, Mark Rothko and other artists, Olsen bought many of their works. Following his retirement from Olin Corporation in 1956, they purchased a winter home in Antigua from which they explored the ancient Arawak realm, they traveled the rivers of Suriname and Venezuela in dugout canoes. They found Arawak artifacts on 22 of 27 Caribbean islands they visited, he commissioned a house designed by Tony Smith in Guilford, Connecticut on a pink granite outcrop above Long Island Sound, completed in 1953. Olsen found the house as Smith envisaged it, in some ways unlivable, but liked it enough to make it his principal home. Within a year Olsen made modifications which devastated Smith who built only one more house devoting himself to sculpture, his main claim to fame. In 1998 the artistic couple Jeff Preiss and Rebecca Quaytman stumbled on the house, for sale. Threatened with destruction by a developer, a campaign by Marjorie Olsen, the collector's daughter-in-law, enabled Preiss and Quaytman to purchase the house.

Terence Riley, the chief architecture and design curator at The Modern, ranked the house "among the best examples of post-World War II American domestic architecture". Renovations were made to restore the sculptural clarity of Smith's vision, it is less than a mile away from another Smith house built for Jr.. Olsen received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 1985. Olsen died in Guilford, Connecticut on 2 November 1986.