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Auger electron spectroscopy

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used in the study of surfaces and, more in the area of materials science. Underlying the spectroscopic technique is the Auger effect, as it has come to be called, based on the analysis of energetic electrons emitted from an excited atom after a series of internal relaxation events; the Auger effect was discovered independently by both Lise Pierre Auger in the 1920s. Though the discovery was made by Meitner and reported in the journal Zeitschrift für Physik in 1922, Auger is credited with the discovery in most of the scientific community; until the early 1950s Auger transitions were considered nuisance effects by spectroscopists, not containing much relevant material information, but studied so as to explain anomalies in X-ray spectroscopy data. Since 1953 however, AES has become a practical and straightforward characterization technique for probing chemical and compositional surface environments and has found applications in metallurgy, gas-phase chemistry, throughout the microelectronics industry.

The Auger effect is an electronic process at the heart of AES resulting from the inter- and intrastate transitions of electrons in an excited atom. When an atom is probed by an external mechanism, such as a photon or a beam of electrons with energies in the range of several eV to 50 keV, a core state electron can be removed leaving behind a hole; as this is an unstable state, the core hole can be filled by an outer shell electron, whereby the electron moving to the lower energy level loses an amount of energy equal to the difference in orbital energies. The transition energy can be coupled to a second outer shell electron, which will be emitted from the atom if the transferred energy is greater than the orbital binding energy. An emitted electron will have a kinetic energy of: E kin = E Core State − E B − E C ′ where E Core State, E B, E C ′ are the core level, first outer shell, second outer shell electron binding energies which are taken to be positive; the apostrophe denotes a slight modification to the binding energy of the outer shell electrons due to the ionized nature of the atom.

Since orbital energies are unique to an atom of a specific element, analysis of the ejected electrons can yield information about the chemical composition of a surface. Figure 1 illustrates two schematic views of the Auger process; the types of state-to-state transitions available to electrons during an Auger event are dependent on several factors, ranging from initial excitation energy to relative interaction rates, yet are dominated by a few characteristic transitions. Because of the interaction between an electron's spin and orbital angular momentum and the concomitant energy level splitting for various shells in an atom, there are a variety of transition pathways for filling a core hole. Energy levels are labeled using a number of different schemes such as the j-j coupling method for heavy elements, the Russell-Saunders L-S method for lighter elements, a combination of both for intermediate elements; the j-j coupling method, linked to X-ray notation, is always used to denote Auger transitions.

Thus for a K L 1 L 2, 3 transition, K represents the core level hole, L 1 the relaxing electron's initial state, L 2, 3 the emitted electron's initial energy state. Figure 1 illustrates this transition with the corresponding spectroscopic notation; the energy level of the core hole will determine which transition types will be favored. For single energy levels, i.e. K, transitions can occur from the L levels, giving rise to strong KLL type peaks in an Auger spectrum. Higher level transitions can occur, but are less probable. For multi-level shells, transitions are available from higher energy orbitals or energy levels within the same shell; the result are transitions of the type LMM and KLL along with faster Coster–Kronig transitions such as LLM. While Coster–Kronig transitions are faster, they are less energetic and thus harder to locate on an Auger spectrum; as the atomic number Z increases, so too does the number of potential Auger transitions. The strongest electron-electron interactions are between levels that are close together, giving rise to characteristic peaks in an Auger spectrum.

KLL and LMM peaks are some of the most identified transitions during surface analysis. Valence band electrons can fill core holes or be emitted during KVV-type transitions. Several models, both phenomenological and analytical, have been developed to describe the energetics of Auger transitions. One of the most tractable descriptions, put forth by Jenkins and Chung, estimates the energy of Auger transition ABC as: E A B C = E A − 0.5 [ E B (

List of stars in Equuleus

This is the list of notable stars in the constellation Equuleus, sorted by decreasing brightness. List of stars by constellation ESA. "The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues". Retrieved 2006-12-26. Kostjuk, N. D.. "HD-DM-GC-HR-HIP-Bayer-Flamsteed Cross Index". Retrieved 2006-12-26. Roman, N. G.. "Identification of a Constellation from a Position". Retrieved 2006-12-26. "SIMBAD Astronomical Database". Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2007-01-02. Gould, B. A. "Uranometria Argentina". Reprinted and updated by Pilcher, F. Archived from the original on 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2010-07-19. "AAVSO Website". American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 9 March 2014

Air combat manoeuvring

Air combat manoeuvring is the tactical art of moving, turning and/or situating one's fighter aircraft in order to attain a position from which an attack can be made on another aircraft. Air combat manoeuvres rely on offensive and defensive basic fighter manoeuvring to gain an advantage over an aerial opponent. Military aviation appeared in World War I when aircraft were used to spot enemy troop concentrations, field gun positions and movements. Early aerial combat consisted of aviators shooting at one another with hand held weapons; the first recorded aircraft to be shot down by another aircraft, which occurred on October 5, 1914, was a German Aviatik. The pilot, Feldwebel Wilhelm Schlichting, was shot with a carbine wielded by observer Louis Quenault, riding in a Voisin Type 3 piloted by French Sergeant Joseph Frantz; the need to stop reconnaissance, being conducted by enemy aircraft led to the development of fighter planes, a class of aircraft designed to destroy other aircraft. Fixed, forward-firing guns were found to be the most effective armament for a majority of World War I era fighter planes, but it was nearly impossible to fire them through the spinning propeller of one's own aircraft without destroying one's own plane.

Roland Garros, working with Morane Saulnier Aéroplanes, was the first to solve this problem by attaching steel deflector wedges to the propeller. He achieved three was shot down by ground fire and landed behind German lines. Anthony Fokker inspected the plane's wreckage and learned to improved the design by connecting the firing mechanism of the gun to the timing of the engine, thus allowing the gun to fire through the propeller without making contact with the propeller; as technology advanced and young aviators began defining the realm of air-to-air combat, such as Max Immelmann, Oswald Boelcke, Lanoe Hawker. One of the greatest of these "ace pilots" of World War I, Manfred von Richthofen, wrote in his book The Red Fighter Pilot, "The great thing in air fighting is that the decisive factor does not lie in trick flying but in the personal ability and energy of the aviator. A flying man may be able to loop and do all the stunts imaginable and yet he may not succeed in shooting down a single enemy."Pilots soon learned to achieve a firing position by manoeuvring themselves behind an enemy aircraft.

This type of combat became known as dogfighting. Oswald Boelcke, a German fighter ace during World War I, was the first to publish the basic rules for aerial combat manoeuvring in 1916, known as the Dicta Boelcke, he advised pilots to attack from the direction of the sun, or to fly at a higher altitude than the opponent. Most of these rules are still as valuable today. Today's air combat is much more complicated than that of older times, as air-to-air missiles and automatic cannons capable of high rates of fire are used on all modern fighter aircraft. New, additional types of manoeuvres have emerged, intending to break radar lock by minimizing the Doppler signature of one's own aircraft, or to exhaust the kinetic energy of an incoming missile. However, close range fighting with infrared guided missiles and aircraft cannons still obeys the same general rules laid down in the skies over Europe in the early 20th century; the master rule is still the same: do not let your opponent get onto your six, while attempting to get on his.

Close-range combat tactics vary according to the type of aircraft being used and the number of aircraft involved. There are five things. In Southeast Asia, over 85 percent of all kills are attributed to the attacker spotting and shooting the defender without being seen. Structural limitations of the attacking and defending fighters must be taken into account, such as thrust-to-weight ratio, wing loading, the "corner speed". Variable limitations must be considered, such as turn radius, turn rate and the specific energy of the aircraft. Position of aircraft must be assessed, including direction, angle off tail, closing speed; the pilot must be aware of his wingman’s position and maintain good communication. A pilot in combat attempts to conserve his aircraft’s energy through timed and executed manoeuvres. By using such manoeuvres, a pilot will make trade offs between the fighter’s potential energy and kinetic energy, to maintain the energy-to-weight ratio of the aircraft, or the "specific energy".

A manoeuvre such as the "low yo-yo" trades altitude for airspeed to close on an enemy and to decrease turn radius. The opposite manoeuvre, a "high yo-yo", trades speed for height storing energy in "the altitude bank", which allows a fast moving attacker to slow his closing speed. An attacker is confronted with three possible ways to pursue an enemy, all of which are vital during chase. "Lag pursuit" happens in a turn when the nose of the attacker's aircraft points behind an enemy's tail. Lag pursuit allows an attacker to increase or maintain range without ove

FirstEnergy Park

FirstEnergy Park is a stadium in Lakewood Township, New Jersey. It is used for baseball and is the home field of the Lakewood BlueClaws single A minor league baseball team, affiliated with the Philadelphia Phillies Major League Baseball team, it is used for outdoor concerts, featuring touring musical artists such as Bob Dylan. It was has 6,588 seats and seats 8,000 with berm seating; the team attendance record is 13,003, set on August 26, 2002. FirstEnergy Park had 81 crowds over 8,000 in its first eight years of play. FirstEnergy Park was featured in Baseball America's 2009 Great Parks calendar, it was the second time. FirstEnergy Park has hosted the South Atlantic League All-Star Game twice, in 2002 and in 2013; the 2002 attendance of 8,571 was a record for the South Atlantic League All-Star Game. The ballpark features two general admission, grass seating areas, one in left field and another in right, 20 luxury suites, two party decks, three picnic areas, a full video scoreboard, with a 23' x 23' video board that can play over 4.4 trillion shades of color in high definition.

Lakewood BlueClaws: FirstEnergy Park FirstEnergy Park Views - Ball Parks of the Minor Leagues Parks: Township of Lakewood, NJ

2001 NECBL season

The 2001 NECBL season was the eighth season of the New England Collegiate Baseball League. The league expanded to ten franchises with the addition of a second New Hampshire franchise, the Concord Quarry Dogs of Concord, New Hampshire; the league's West Warwick, Rhode Island franchise rejoined the league as the Riverpoint Royals. The league's Cranston, Rhode Island franchise, the Rhode Island Gulls, moved to Newport, Rhode Island and became the Newport Gulls; the league's Lowell, Massachusetts franchise, the Mill City All-Americans, was renamed the Lowell All-Americans. In the semifinal playoff rounds, Newport defeated Eastern 2-1, Keene defeated Torrington 2-1. In the championship round, Newport defeated Keene 2-1 to win the NECBL championship. Game 1-Newport 6, Keene 1 Game 2-Keene 7, Newport 3 Game 3-Newport 2, Keene 1 NECBL website

Paine Neighborhood Historic District

The Paine Neighborhood Historic District of Standish, Maine encompasses a small collection of rural properties that were all developed within a short period of time by members of the Paine family. Included are the family cemetery; the area provides a view of early settlement patterns in Maine's interior. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. In about 1780 four Paine brothers left Eastham and settled in the area, now Gorham and Standish, Maine. One of them, settled on the Pequawket Trail, the major historic route from coastal southern Maine to the Fryeburg area, on the northeast side of Watchic Pond. Although his early home no longer stands, four sons all built houses in the 1790s, three of which still stand along Route 113, along with the family cemetery; the family cemetery is located on the north side of Route 113. To its east stands the house of Myrick Paine, a two-story wood frame structure with a hip roof and four chimneys. To its west is that of Richard Paine, a 1-1/2 story Cape style house with an attached single-story wing.

South of the road opposite Richard's house, is the house of Joseph Paine, Jr. It is similar to Richard's. All three houses were built 1795–97, remained in the hands of Paine descendants into the 20th century. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cumberland County, Maine