August Heinrich Petermann

Augustus Heinrich Petermann was a German cartographer. Petermann was born in Germany; when he was 14 years old he started grammar school in the nearby town of Nordhausen. His mother wanted him to become a clergyman, but his excellence in the drawing of maps and his love for geographic readings made his choice of another career inevitable. Heinrich Berghaus, with support of Alexander von Humboldt had started'Geographische Kunstschule' in 1839 in Potsdam, close to Berlin, following the example of the school for engravers at the Archives Militaires Generales in Paris. During its existence Berghaus's academy offered only three courses, only a few students attended: 1839–1844: August Petermann, Heinrich'Henry' Lange, Otto Göcke, who died one year of tuberculosis 1844–1847: Amandus Sturmhöfel and Theodor Schilling 1845–1850: Hermann Berghaus, his nephewPetermann's father, August Rudolf Petermann, registrar at Bleicherode, could not pay for the further education of his son; when he read the advertisement for Berghaus' school he send his son's maps and other work for evaluation.

One of the maps, drawn when he was 16, shows South America, was published in the journal, to carry his name. Berghaus must have recognized the quality of his work, therewith his potential and soon took him in as a foster-son; as he had a large family to feed, however, he requested an annual subsidy of 60 thaler from the king to support Petermann, which request was granted. During the 3rd course Berghaus treated his nephew Hermann Berghaus the same way. Only Lange paid for the courses, the rest following them at Berghaus's own expense. Petermann started in Potsdam at 7 August 1839; the education with Berghaus could be called scientifically cartographic, comprising mathematical geography, physical geography and political geography. Physical training was more aimed at surveying and engraving. Berghaus's pupils learned only the rudiments of surveying less than he himself had learned: their work in this area can be seen in the plan of Potsdam, they were not topographers and only used topography as published in the large-scale maps of that era as a general basis for their more generalised works.

They were taught more to draft and engrave middle-scale geographic maps of states, continents etc. or their parts, small-scale generalised school maps, applied geography and cartography as shown in their collaboration on the Physikalischer Atlas and the maritime atlas. During their study lithography, though not cutting as fine a portrayal as copper engraving, was on the rise because it was much cheaper. Though some experiments were made by Berghaus, e.g. for geological maps, by mixing copper engraving for the line- and other features and lithography for coloured polygons, there was no technology which could replace the exquisite expression copper engravings could reach. So the students learned this art. Only at the end of his life did Petermann became more enthusiastic for lithography, which had advanced by then. Up to and including the 10th edition of the Stieler Handatlas the Perthes institute, where he worked from 1854 onwards, used copperplate engravings as the basis for its maps; some 460 copperplates of this edition are preserved in the Perthes collections in Gotha.

Berghaus had been riding numerous hobbyhorses without much success, but now he could put them to work with his pupils. He successfully disseminated many of his ideas and concepts. Moreover, his students somehow learned better than he to limit their endeavours in order to bring more of them to full fruition. Though the school itself had but few students, its residency in Potsdam, connected by rail to Berlin, the fame of Berghaus attracted many geographers and explorers. Petermann spoke of his encounters with von Humboldt and has drawn several maps for his Atlas von Asien, on which the rendering of the Asiatic mountain-chains was of a quality corresponding to the current view of the geographic sciences; because of all these contacts the students were confronted with many opinions and views on the state of science and the world that would not have been part of their curriculum. Besides, we may take Poggendorff when he sees Petermann as'private secretary and librarian of H. K. W. Berghaus' in the years 1839–45, so we can assume that Petermann was at least quite up to date on many affairs to do with geography and cartography, for Berghaus had large collections of maps and notes to draw on.

During and after their training, students were obliged to take part in most of the school's enterprises. In the years 1839–1848 the school produced maps for Stieler's school atlas, Berghaus's Physikalischer Atlas, school atlases, the Atlas von Asien, the Prussian atlas, the maritime atlas. August Petermann gained commercial insight during his years in the cartography business in Edinburgh and London from 1845 to 1854, he would have been obliged to work in


Spa GAA is a Gaelic football club based in Tullig, Killarney in County Kerry, Ireland. The club gets its name from the Spa Well, a source of water with health giving properties, situated on the road side in the townland of Tullig three miles from Killarney town centre; the well was popular in the 18th and 19th centuries, when the people of Killarney took the mineral-rich water as a cure for various ailments. Spa GAA Club was founded in 1948, it is a thriving club with over 500 members. The club's colours are gold; the catchment area of the club is Killarney Parish. The club’s facilities are located in Tullig, 1.5 km east of Park Road Roundabout, Killarney. Indoor facilities consist of a 600 sq.m. Sports hall, used for indoor football, basketball and volleyball. An adjoining building of 800 sq.m. has four dressing rooms, plus a gym, first aid room, dance studio and meeting rooms. Several players from Spa have worn county colours at senior level. Among them are Donie O’Sullivan, Michael Gleeson, Paudie O'Mahony, Pat Casey, Tim Regan, Michael McAuliffe, James Cahill, Niall O'Mahony and Michael O'Donoghue.

The Club caters for boys and girls from u8 to u18 and the adult section has teams at Senior, Junior and U21. We have a strong tradition in Scór and are the Holders of 5-in-a-row Scór Sinsear Rince Seit; the club won promotion to Division 1 of the Senior County League in November 2008, are second only to Dr. Crokes in terms of O'Donoghue Cup wins. In 2009 Spa won their second County Intermediate championship and subsequently won the Munster Intermediate championship before losing the all-ireland final to Cookstown in controversial circumstances, they were relegated back to intermediate the following year. They followed that with county final losses at intermediate grade in 2012, 2014 and 2015 to Finuge GAA, Ardfert GAA and St. Mary’s respectively. Kerry Intermediate Football Championship Winners 1974, 2009 Runners-Up 2012, 2014,2015 Munster Intermediate Club Football Championship Winners 2009 All-Ireland Intermediate Club Football Championship Runner-Up 2010 East Kerry Senior Football Championship Winners 1966, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1985, 1987, 1989 Runners-Up 1968, 1970, 1976, 1988 Michael Foley - Kerry minor 2015 Dara Moynihan - Kerry minor 2016 Shane Cronin - Superstar mossy Cronin Michael Gleeson Michael O'Donoghue Paudie O'Mahony Donie O’Sullivan Official Spa GAA Club website

Sport+ (France)

Sport+ was a French pay television channel on cable and satellite owned by Canal+ and is devoted to live sports broadcasting. The channel launched on December 23, 1996 as AB Sports. AB Sports was created by AB Groupe to be the sports channel of its AB Sat satellite package. However, the channel was too expensive for AB Groupe to run and had generated poor viewing figures because of its programming focusing on foreign sports. AB Groupe sold 51% of the capital of AB Sports for 39 million Franc to Pathé launched thematic television channels. Pathé renamed the channel under their own branding, to Pathé Sport in May 1999, with its programming focusing more on the French public, which made the channel gain some notoriety due to that, the live coverage of sport events and the variety of sports they offered; the acquisition of Eurosport France by the TF1 Group at the beginning of 2001 and the subsequent decision of the Canal+ Group to launch a new sports channel in the autumn of 2002, created a more competitive context in the sports rights market which jeopardized the development plan by Pathé Sport.

Pathé sold 60% of the channel's capital in March 2002 to Canal+ Group, the remaining 40% on 26 October of the same year, in exchange for 80% of the capital of Télé Monte Carlo. The operation allowed Canal+ Group to get back a sports channel it had lost since the absorption of Eurosport France, of which it was a shareholder, by TF1 S. A.. The channel again changed its name to Sport+ on October 26, 2002; when beIN Sports launched in the country in 2012 and took over various events Sport+ used to have rights to, the channel started to struggle behind this new competition. It ceased broadcasting on June 27, 2015. In its final year of operations, Sport+ broadcast the German Bundesliga, Italian Serie A, Major League Soccer, Brazilian Serie A, UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying, 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification, Davis Cup, Fed Cup and French ATP 250 tournaments, French Pro D2, Super Rugby, The Rugby Championship, Currie Cup and ITM Cup, LNB Pro A and Liga ACB, GP2 Series, World Rally Championship and Formula E, PGA Tour, European Tour and Ryder Cup, French women's handball championship, National Hockey League, UCI cycli-cross, BMX, track cycling and women's road cycling.

The channel covered the Wimbledon Championships, ATP World Tour Finals and ATP Masters 1000, National Football League, National Basketball Association, UEFA Europa League, English Premiership Rugby, EHF Champions League and LNH Division 1 and UCI road cycling. However, beIN Sports took over those events and is one of the reasons caused for the channel's closure. Official website