August Hlond was a Polish cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, Archbishop of Poznań and Gniezno in 1926 and Primate of Poland. He was appointed as the Archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw in 1946, he was the only member of the College of Cardinals to be arrested and taken into custody by the Gestapo during World War II, for the final years of his life was a critic of the Soviet-backed Communist regime in Poland. His cause of canonization commenced in 1992 and he was granted the title of Servant of God. Second son of a railway worker, he was born in the Upper Silesian village Brzęczkowice ruled by Germany, now part of Mysłowice, on 5 July 1881. At twelve-years-of-age, Hlond went to Turin, Italy to study for the priesthood in the Salesian Congregation, he studied a doctorate of philosophy in Rome, returned to Poland to complete Theology, was ordained in Cracow in 1905. In 1909 Hlond was sent to Vienna to be headmaster at a boy's secondary school, he remained in the city for 13 years, working with spiritual and charitable organisations for Poles, becoming Provincial of the Salesians for Austria and Germany in 1919.
Following the break up of Austria-Hungary after World War I, Pope Pius XI appointed Hlond as Apostolic Administrator for Polish Upper Silesia in 1922, Hlond became the first Bishop of the Diocese of Katowice in 1925. Hlond was consecrated as Bishop of Katowice on January 3rd, 1926, he succeeded Cardinal Dalbor, as Primate of Poland soon after and in 1927, was appointed as Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria della Pace by Pope Pius XI. Through the tumultuous 1930s, Hlond condemned "escapism" and called on the Church should challenge the evil realities of the times, speaking 12 languages, became an influential member of the College of Cardinals on the international stage. In 1932, together with Ignacy Posadzy founded Society of Christ Fathers; the invasion of predominantly Catholic Poland by Nazi Germany in 1939 ignited the Second World War. The Nazi plan for Poland entailed the destruction of the Polish nation, which required attacking the Polish Church in those areas annexed to Germany. In the territories annexed to Greater Germany, the Nazis set about systematically dismantling the Catholic Church - arresting its leaders, exiling its clergymen, closing its churches and convents.
Many clergymen were murdered. Elsewhere in occupied Poland, the suppression was less severe, though still harsh; the Papal Nuncio to Poland, Fillipo Cortesi had abandoned Warsaw along with the diplomatic corps, after the invasion. Other channels existed including Cardinal Hlond. On 18 September 1939, at the request of the Polish Government, Hlond left Poland, with part of the Army, in order to reach Rome and report on the actions of the Nazis in Poland, inform the world via Vatican radio and press. Hlond submitted an official account of the persecutions of the Polish Church to the Vatican, reporting seizures of church property and abuse of clergy and nuns in the annexed regions: Many priests are imprisoned, suffering humiliations, maltreatment. A certain number were deported to Germany... Others have been detained in concentration camps... It is not rare to see a priest in the midst of labour gangs working in the fields... Some of them have been shut up for the night in pigsties, barbarously beaten and subjected to other tortures...
The Canon Casimir Stepczynski... was forced in company with a Jew to carry away the human excrement... the curate who wished to take the place of the venerable priest was brutally beaten with a rifle butt In his final observations for Pope Pius XII, Hlond wrote: Hitlerism aims at the systematic and total destruction of the Catholic Church in the rich and fertile territories of Poland which have been incorporated into the Reich... It is known for certain that 35 priests have been shot, but the real number of victims... undoubtedly amounts to more than a hundred... In many districts the life of the Church has been crushed, the clergy have been all expelled. Catholic worship hardly exists any more... Monasteries and convents have been methodically suppressed... all have been pillaged by the invaders. In 1939 Hlond spent several months in Rome for the conclave of 1939. In January 1940, Vatican Radio broadcast Hlond's reports of German persecution of Jews and the Catholic clergy in Poland; these reports were included in the report of the Polish government to the Nuremberg Trials after the war.
In March 1940, Hlond went on a pilgrimage in France. Following the Fall of France, he remained in the country, staying at the Benedictine Abbey at Hautecombe, in Savoy, where remained, unable to leave, until Himmler ordered the Gestapo to arrest him in February 1944; the Gestapo held him at their headquarters in Paris for two months, with the Soviet armies now driving the Nazis back from Russia, attempted to have him declare public support for the German war against the Soviet Union, in order to secure his release. The Gestapo offered to make Hlond Regent of Poland, according to The Tablet, "The withdrawal of all German troops from Poland was necessary, the Cardinal implacably insisted, before he could discuss any matter whatsoever with a German officer." Hlond remained in the custody of the Gestapo, first at a convent at Bar-le-Duc, until the Allied advance forced the Germans to shift him to Wiedenbrtick, in Westphalia, where he remained for seven months, until released by American troops in 19
Reginald Francis Joseph Fairlie LLD was a Scottish architect. He served on the Ancient Monuments Board for Scotland. Born at Kincaple, Fife, he was the son of J. Ogilvy Fairlie of Jane Mary Fairlie, he was educated at the Oratory School in Birmingham. He was apprenticed to Robert Lorimer in 1901, much of his style echoes that of Lorimer. Ian Gordon Lindsay trained under him. A faithful Roman Catholic, Fairlie designed many war memorials and restorations of castles. From a long list of commissions, only a handful fall outside the borders of Scotland, he set up office at 14 Randolph Place in 1908. He served in Royal Engineers in World War I, his older brother John Ogilvy Fairlie was killed in action on 25 September 1915. With the death of his father on 28 September 1916, Reginald fell heir to the family estate of Myres. In the early 1920s he designed a series of war memorials working with the sculptor Alexander Carrick. After the war he joined forces with the architects Reid and Forbes and worked on some award winning housing schemes including Northfield in Edinburgh.
He set up his own office at 7 Ainslie Place in 1925 but remained linked with Reid and Forbes until 1926. Curiously, James Smith Forbes of Reid and Forbes lodged with Fairlie after the end of their business partnership, his neighbour at 7 Ainslie Place was Francis Cadell the artist, they became friends and remained so after Cadell moved house. He was close friends with the sculptor Hew Lorimer, whom he met during his connection with Robert Lorimer as Hew was his second son, he pulled Hew into some of his projects, including the prestigious National Library project, where Hew provided the figurative sculpture on the frontage. He generously passed the commission for the restoration of Iona Abbey to his friend and employee Ian Gordon Lindsay in 1938. Fairlie lived the life of a bachelor, with a personal servant, serving him faithfully until death in 1938, he leased Inchrye Abbey from 1931 to 1939 for shooting parties and falconry. Work ceased on most projects during World War II, including his major commission for the National Library.
The work on the library did not resume until 1950. In 1946 Fairlie was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposers were Sir David Russell, Sir James C Irvine, Sir Ernest Wedderburn, Robert James Douglas Graham. Fairlie died in St. Raphael’s Nursing Home in the Grange, but was buried with his parents in the Eastern Cemetery in St Andrews, his grave stone was carved by his friend Hew Lorimer. It lies towards the south-east corner. Fairlie rose to the position of chairman of the Directorate of Ancient Monuments. In 1933 he became elected a full member of the Royal Scottish Academy. In 1937 he received a doctorate from the University of St Andrews for his work on St Salvator’s Chapel there, he was a member of the Royal Fine Art Commission and the Forestry Commission. His works include: Our Lady of the Assumption and St Meddan, listed as Category A. 1909-1911. St James Church, St Andrews, 1910 Sousing scheme in Moffat, 1921 Housing scheme in Northfield, Edinburgh, 1921 Restoration of Hutton Castle, 1926 Side chapels of St Mary, Our Lady of Victories Church, Dundee, 1926 Cloister at Kelso Abbey, 1933 Scottish Classroom, one of the Nationality Rooms at the Cathedral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh, 1938 National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1938–56 Memorials he designed include: Kinclaven War Memorial, 1919 Moffat War Memorial, 1919 Peebles War Memorial, 1919 Auchtermuchty War Memorial, 1920 Blairgowrie War Memorial, 1920 Monzievaird and Strachan War Memorial, 1920 Tomb of Canon Lyle, St Joseph's RC Church, Peebles, 1920 Patrick Nuttgens, "Reginald Fairlie, 1883–1952: a Scottish architect", Oliver and Boyd, 1959 online biography at scottisharchitects.org
The Queen Elizabeth Stakes is an Australian Turf Club Group 1 Weight for Age Thoroughbred horse run over a distance of 2,000 metres at Randwick Racecourse, Australia, in the autumn during the ATC Championships series. Prize money in 2013 was A$500,000 and was increased to A$4,000,000 in 2014 to become the richest race of the Sydney Autumn Carnival and as of 2018 the second richest WFA race in Australia; the origins of this race are associated with colonial Sydney and the growth of thoroughbred racing in the colony during the 1840s and 1850s. The Australian Jockey Club initiated an autumn race meet which coincided with the Easter holiday period and created several races which exist today. One of these races was the Queen's Plate in honour of Queen Victoria, first run in 1851 over a distance of about 3 miles. Through the early 20th century the race continued to hold its prestige, but with the decline in long distance racing, the AJC focused on the Sydney Cup as the premier long distance event of the AJC Autumn Carnival.
By the mid 1950s the race had its distance shortened. Distance was changed several times until today's distance of 2000 metres in 1986; the ATC focused on the Queen Elizabeth Stakes as it became the A$4,000,000 signature event of a new Sydney autumn racing series called'The Championships' attracting international entries. 1851–1872 - Queen's Plate 1873–1927 - AJC Plate 1928 - AJC Kings Cup 1929–1933 - AJC Plate 1934 - AJC Kings Cup 1935–1954 - AJC Plate 1954 onwards - Queen Elizabeth StakesIn February 1954, Queen Elizabeth II visited Australia and the Australian Jockey Club named a new race in her honour. She was present at Randwick on 6 February 1954 and witnessed 33/1 long shot Blue Ocean win the race with a track record of 2 minutes 27 3⁄4 seconds for the 1 1⁄2 miles race. On the last day of the 1954 AJC Autumn Carnival was the last named race for the AJC Plate as Lancaster won the Weight for Age 2 mile race; the next year, on the last day of 1955 AJC Autumn Carnival held on 16 April 1955, the fourth race on the card was the Queen Elizabeth Randwick Stakes over a distance of 1 3⁄4 miles.
1851–1913 – 3 miles 1914 - 1 1⁄2 miles 1915–1922 – 3 miles 1923–1927 - 2 1⁄4 miles 1928 - 1 1⁄2 miles 1929–1933 - 2 1⁄4 miles 1934 - 1 1⁄2 miles 1935–1941 - 2 1⁄4 miles 1944–1946 - 1 3⁄4 miles 1947–1953 - 2 1⁄4 miles 1954 - 1 1⁄2 miles 1954 – 2 miles 1955–1969 - 1 3⁄4 miles 1970–1971 - 1 1⁄2 miles 1972 - 1 3⁄4 miles 1973–1978 – 2400 metres 1979–1983 – 2000 metres 1984–1985 – 2400 metres 1986 onwards - 2000 metres Only Carbine, Trafalgar and Tulloch have won the race 3 times. Winx as heavy favourite won the race for a third successive time on 13 April 2019; the 19th century horse trainer Etienne L. de Mestre won the race 9 times, in 1862, 1868, 1870, 1871, 1873, 1874, 1876, 1878 and 1879. List of Australian Group races Group races Queen Elizabeth Stakes