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August Weismann

For the 19th-century New York politician, see Augustus Weismann. Prof August Friedrich Leopold Weismann FRS HFRSE LLD was a German evolutionary biologist. Ernst Mayr ranked him as the second most notable evolutionary theorist of the 19th century, after Charles Darwin. Weismann became the Director of the Zoological Institute and the first Professor of Zoology at Freiburg, his main contribution involved germ plasm theory, at one time known as Weismannism, according to which inheritance only takes place by means of the germ cells—the gametes such as egg cells and sperm cells. Other cells of the body—somatic cells—do not function as agents of heredity; the effect is one-way: germ cells produce somatic cells and are not affected by anything the somatic cells learn or therefore any ability an individual acquires during its life. Genetic information can not pass from soma on to the next generation. Biologists refer to this concept as the Weismann barrier; this idea, if true, rules out the inheritance of acquired characteristics as proposed by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.

However, a careful reading of Weismann's work over the span of his entire career shows that he had more nuanced views, like Darwin, that a variable environment was necessary to cause variation in the hereditary material. The idea of the Weismann barrier is central to the modern synthesis of the early 20th century, though scholars do not express it today in the same terms. In Weismann's opinion the random process of mutation, which must occur in the gametes is the only source of change for natural selection to work on. Weismann became one of the first biologists to deny Lamarckism entirely. Weismann's ideas preceded the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's work, though Weismann was cagey about accepting Mendelism, younger workers soon made the connection. Weismann is much admired today. Ernst Mayr judged him to be the most important evolutionary thinker between Darwin and the evolutionary synthesis around 1930–1940, "one of the great biologists of all time". Weismann was born a son of high school teacher Johann Konrad Weismann, a graduate of ancient languages and theology, his wife Elise, née Lübbren, the daughter of the county councillor and mayor of Stade, on 17 January 1834 in Frankfurt am Main.

He had a typical 19th century bourgeois education, receiving music lessons from the age of four, drafting and painting lessons from Jakob Becker at the Frankfurter Städelsche Institut from the age of 14. His piano teacher was a devoted butterfly collector and introduced him to the collecting of imagos and caterpillars, but studying natural sciences was out of the question due to the cost involved and limited job prospects. A friend of the family, chemist Friedrich Wöhler, recommended studying medicine. A foundation from the inheritance of Weismann's mother allowed him to take up studies in Göttingen. Following his graduation in 1856, he wrote his dissertation on the synthesis of hippuric acid in the human body. After university, Weismann took on a post as assistant at the Städtische Klinik in Rostock. Weismann submitted two manuscripts, one about hippuric acid in herbivores, one about the salt content of the Baltic Sea, won two prizes; the paper about the salt content dissuaded him from becoming a chemist, since he felt himself lacking in apothecarial accuracy.

After a study visit to see Vienna's museums and clinics, he graduated as a physician and settled in Frankfurt with a medical practice in 1868. During the war between Austria and Italy in 1859, he became Chief Medical Officer in the military. During a leave from duty, he walked through the County of Tyrol. After a sabbatical in Paris, he worked with Rudolf Leuckart at the University of Gießen, he returned to Frankfurt as personal physician to the banished Archduke Stephen of Austria at Schaumburg Castle from 1861 to 1863. From 1863, he was privatdozent in comparative zoology, he retired in 1912. In 1867 he married Mary Dorothea Gruber, their son, Julius Weismann, was a composer. At the beginning of Weismann's preoccupation with evolutionary theory was his grappling with Christian creationism as a possible alternative. In his work Über die Berechtigung der Darwin'schen Theorie he compared creationism and evolutionary theory, concluded that many biological facts can be seamlessly accommodated within evolutionary theory, but remain puzzling if considered the result of acts of creation.

After this work, Weismann accepted evolution as a fact on a par with the fundamental assumptions of astronomy. Weismann's position towards the mechanism of inheritance and its role for evolution changed during his life. Three periods can be distinguished. Weismann's work on the demarcation between germ-line and soma can scarcely be appreciated without considering the work of German biologists during the second half of the 19th century; this was the time. Eduard Strasburger, Walther Flemming, Heinrich von Waldeyer and the Belgian Edouard Van Beneden laid the basis for the cytology and cytogenetics of the 20th century. Strasburger, the outstanding botanical physiologist of that century, coined the terms nucleoplasm and cytoplasm, he said "new cell nuclei can only arise from the division of other cell nuclei". Van Beneden discovered how chromosomes combined at meiosis, du

National Airlines Flight 27

On November 3, 1973, a National Airlines DC-10-10 aircraft was operating as a scheduled passenger flight between Miami and San Francisco with intermediate stops at New Orleans and Las Vegas. At about 4:40 p.m. while the aircraft was cruising at 39,000 feet 65 miles southwest of Albuquerque, the No. 3 engine fan assembly disintegrated in an uncontained failure. Its fragments penetrated the fuselage, the Nos. 1 and 2 engine nacelles, the right wing area. The resultant damage caused decompression of the aircraft cabin and the loss of certain electrical and hydraulic systems. One passenger, G. F. Gardner of Beaumont, was forced into the opening made by a failed cabin window, after it too was struck by engine fragments, he was temporarily retained in that position by his seatbelt. "Efforts to pull the passenger back into the airplane by another passenger were unsuccessful, the occupant of seat 17H was forced through the cabin window."The flight crew initiated an emergency descent, the aircraft was landed safely at Albuquerque International Sunport 19 minutes after the engine failed.

115 passengers and 12 crew members exited the aircraft by using. Of those, 24 people were treated for smoke inhalation, ear problems, minor abrasions; the plane was repaired and was flown by Pan Am. The New Mexico State Police and local organizations searched extensively for the missing passenger, sucked out of the window. A computer analysis was made of the possible falling trajectories, which narrowed the search pattern. However, the search effort was unsuccessful, the body of the passenger was not recovered until two years when a construction crew working on the tracks for the Very Large Array radio telescope came upon his skeletal remains, which took another year for the medical investigator in Albuquerque to identify; the National Transportation Safety Board determined the probable cause of this accident was the disintegration of the No. 3 engine fan assembly as a result of an interaction between the fan blade tips and the fan case. According to the NTSB, "the precise reason or reasons for the acceleration and the onset of the destructive vibration could not be determined conclusively," but enough was learned to prevent the occurrence of similar events.

The speed of the engine at the time of the accident caused a resonance wave to occur in the fan assembly when the tips of the fan blades began to make contact with the surrounding shroud. The engine was designed to have a rearward blade retaining force of 18,000 pounds to prevent the blades from moving forward in their mountings slots and subsequently departing the fan disk; the rearward force was not enough. As a result of this accident, GE re-designed the engine so that the blade retaining capability was increased to 60,000 pounds, that change was incorporated into all engines in service. In addition to this, it was found that between the 8th of August and the 12th of September 1973, there had been 15 problems reported about the third engine; the engine had been taken off the aircraft for repairs, between the time it was replaced and the accident, a further 26 faults had been reported by the pilots. It was found that the bolts that had held the front covering in place, which had failed in the accident, were outside the tolerances laid down.

An engineering dispatch was sent out to inspect these engines, six more discrepancies were found in National Airlines fleet alone. Therefore, this dispatch was made compulsory for all early DC-10s in order to prevent the issue occurring again; the NTSB expressed concern about the cockpit crew conducting an unauthorized experiment on the auto-throttle system. They had been wondering where the system took its engine power readings from and to see if it was the N1 tachometer readout "the flight engineer pulled the three N1 tachometer " and adjusted the autothrottle setting; the cockpit voice recorder proved that the engines altered their power setting when requested, proving to the crew that the system was powered from another source. The crew manually reset the throttles to the normal cruising power before the flight engineer had closed the tachometer circuit breakers, it was considered whether the crew had accidentally over-speeded the engine when setting power without the tachometers, but there was insufficient evidence to deliver a certain verdict.

Nonetheless. This type of experimentation, without the benefit of training or specific guidelines, should never be performed during passenger flight operations." United Airlines Flight 232, a 1989 accident involving a DC-10 which suffered an uncontained engine failure, resulting in 111 fatalities. Aloha Airlines Flight 243, a 1988 incident that involved an explosive decompression of the fuselage with one fatality. British Airways Flight 5390, a 1990 incident where a crew member was ejected from a window in flight. Southwest Airlines Flight 3472 and 1380, two incidents in 2016 and 2018 on two similar Boeing 737-700, both with the same engine model, where the number one engine exploded in an uncontained engine failure. Delta Air Lines Flight 1288, another uncontained engine failure where the engine exploded during take off that killed two. Air France Flight 66, a 2017 incident where an engine exploded during cruise with no injuries. Qantas Flight 32, a 2010 incident where the #2 engine suffered an uncontained failure with no injuries.

Aviation Safety Network Accident summary

Get Hard

Get Hard is a 2015 American comedy film directed by Etan Cohen and written by Cohen, Jay Martel and Ian Roberts. The film stars Will Ferrell, Kevin Hart, Tip'T. I.' Harris, Alison Brie, Craig T. Nelson; the film was released on March 27, 2015 to negative reviews but was a financial success, grossing over $111 million worldwide. James King is an wealthy hedge fund manager at Barrow Funds, run by Martin Barrow, he is engaged to Martin's daughter Alissa. James has come to know Darnell Lewis, who manages a small car wash service in the garage used by James. Darnell and his wife Rita are trying to put their daughter Makayla in a better school, away from the bad neighborhood they live in. During an engagement party for James and Alissa, the FBI arrive and arrest James for fraud and embezzlement. James' lawyer, Peter Penny, urges him to go for a guilty plea and a short sentence, but James refuses and insists that he will be exonerated. Instead, James is found guilty and sentenced to ten years in San Quentin State Prison, with the judge giving him 30 days to get his affairs in order.

Though forbidden from crossing county lines, James wants to flee the country with Alissa, but she dumps him. James encounters Darnell and, assuming he has been incarcerated before because he is black, begs him for help and agrees to pay him $30,000 to toughen him up for prison. Darnell, who has little idea of how to act tough, trains James by pepper-spraying him, trying to get him to develop a "mad dog" face, creating scenarios in which James must defend himself, but all of these efforts fail miserably. During the training, James says he is getting help. Barrow, the actual crook, thinks James is onto him and orders a hitman named Gayle to monitor him. With no sign that James is toughening up, Darnell figures that James should be prepared in other ways for prison and takes him to a gay hookup spot for James to learn how to perform oral sex in prison. James can't go through with it and tells Darnell that he will keep going and do whatever it takes to "get hard". James starts to work out harder and faster, makes shivs, learns "keistering".

Darnell simulates a prison raid with help from James' domestic staff. In the chaos, James gets a shiv stuck in his head, so Darnell takes James to his home for Rita to treat it, he has dinner and listens to Darnell make up a story of how he went to prison, just a retelling of Boyz n the Hood. James and Darnell resolve for James to join a local gang called the Crenshaw Kings to gain protection in prison. However, Darnell's cousin Russell, the gang leader, rebuffs James and redirects him to the Alliance of Whites gang. James is unable to be a convincing racist, leading the gang to think he is a cop, but Darnell rescues him by bursting in with a flamethrower. Darnell and James deduce that Martin is the crook, they find the embezzlement records on Martin's computer. Gayle finds them and takes back the computer, while informing James that Darnell has never been in prison. Dejected, James returns to the Crenshaw Kings on his own, they order him to kill someone as their initiation. Darnell arrives in time to convince James to expose Martin.

The two sneak onto Martin's yacht to retrieve the computer, only to come across his men. James unleashes a series of capoeira moves on them before Martin and Alissa arrive, both confessing to the fraud and embezzlement, a scheme that included Peter, they try to convince James to run away with them, but he turns them down and heads to a life raft with Darnell. When Gayle shoots the life raft, James aims it at Gayle. U. S. Marshals appear, summoned by the ankle monitor that James triggered, having worn it past the county line. Barrow's computer provides the evidence needed to clear James. Martin, Gayle and the henchmen are arrested and James is cleared of all charges. However, he gets arrested for his unlicensed gun. Darnell's training helps James through his six-month prison sentence - something that Martin is unprepared for as he is attacked by inmates when his San Quentin sentence with Peter begins. James spends his sentence helping the FBI retrieve all the assets that Martin stole, while guiding Darnell's investments so that he and Rita are able to open their own carwash.

As Darnell drives James home after his release, James announces his intent to celebrate his freedom with a Wall Street Journal and a forty, which he now considers a perfect Sunday. Will Ferrell as James King, a hedge fund manager, framed for embezzlement Kevin Hart as Darnell Lewis, a car wash attendant who helps James prepare for prison Craig T. Nelson as Martin Barrow, the head of Barrow Funds and father of Alissa who frames James for embezzlement Alison Brie as Alissa Barrow, the gold-digging fiancé of James and daughter of Martin Barrow Edwina Findley as Rita Lewis, Darnell's wife Tip'T. I.' Harris as Russell, Darnell's cousin, the leader of the Crenshaw Kings Ariana Neal as Makayla Lewis and Rita's daughter Erick Chavarria as Cecelio, James' gardener Katia Gomez as Rosa, James' maid Greg Germann as Peter Penny, a lawyer associated with James and Martin Paul Ben-Victor as Gayle, Martin's hired help John Mayer as himself, he performs at James and Alissa's engagement party and appears on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon where he talks about James and sings a sample about his ballad about him Jon Eyez as Big Mike Nito Larioza as Jaoa Dan Bakkedahl as Leo Ron Funches as Jojo, a member of the Crenshaw Kings Elliot Grey as Judge, an unnamed jud

Maker education

Maker education associated with STEM learning, is an approach to problem-based and project-based learning that relies upon hands-on collaborative, learning experiences as a method for solving authentic problems. People who participate in making call themselves "makers" of the maker movement and develop their projects in makerspaces, or development studios which emphasize prototyping and the repurposing of found objects in service of creating new inventions or innovations. Culturally, both inside and outside of schools, are associated with collaboration and the free flow of ideas. In schools, maker education stresses the importance of learner-driven experience, interdisciplinary learning, peer-to-peer teaching and the notion of "failing forward", or the idea that mistake-based learning is crucial to the learning process and eventual success of a project. Maker education is an offshoot of the maker movement, which Time magazine described as "the umbrella term for independent innovators and tinkerers.

A convergence of computer hackers and traditional artisans, the niche is established enough to have its own magazine, Make, as well as hands-on Maker Faires that are catnip for DIYers who used to toil in solitude". Dale Dougherty, founder of the Maker Faire and Make magazine, stated in his 2011 TED Talk that "We are all makers. We are born makers. We don't just live, but we make." In the same TED Talk, Dougherty called for making to be embraced in education, as students are the new generation of makers. Another central contributor to the maker movement, Chris Anderson, once the editor-in-chief of Wired magazine and is now the CEO of 3D Robotics, wrote a manifesto of the maker movement in 2012, called "Makers", his third book, Makers: The New Industrial Revolution, emphasizes the role that making has to play in the renaissance of American manufacturing. Mark Hatch the CEO of TechShop published "The Maker Movement Manifesto". In addition to these contributions, seminal texts include, Invent To Learn: Making and Engineering in the Classroom by Sylvia Libow Martinez, The Art of Tinkering, by Karen Wilkinson and Mike Petrich, founders of The Tinkering Studio at the Exploratorium.

In the United States, hands-on learning through making has roots in the nineteenth century, as a result of the influence of educators such as Calvin M. Woodward, who established the Manual Training School of Washington University on June 6, 1879. Unlike vocational education that would take hold in 1917 through the Smith-Hughes Act that had the aim of reducing the United States reliance on foreign trade, the impetus for the Manual Training School was to provide students with training in making and craftsmanship that had "no immediate vocational goal". Today's maker education highlights students' potential to "change the world" and "let their imaginations run wild" while emphasizing building students' entrepreneurship skills and ability to earn money by selling their inventions; that Arts and Crafts movement of the late nineteenth century is sometimes referenced in relationship with the maker movement. The Arts and Crafts movement, which originated in Britain before taking hold in Europe and North America, was anti-industrial, critical of machinery and factory production, advocating instead for a return to traditional craftsmanship.

Since 2005, maker education has gained momentum in schools across the United States and around the world. Proponents of the maker movement cite the potential for making to bring more women to STEM fields and close the gender gap. Other potential benefits and goals for making include creating greater educational equity among students in public schools, the possibility for making to be a driver in educational and societal change. Other educators and innovators have developed offshoot curriculum and technologies related to the intersection of critical thinking and making, called critical making. In school models, such as the Lighthouse Community Charter, a charter school in Oakland, Aaron Van der Woorf, the robotics teacher leads the students in Maker Ed. At the Park School, in collaboration with Harvard's Project Zero, students hold a mini maker faire in school that acts as a fundraiser for the school; some districts have adopted maker education district-wide, such as the district of Elizabeth Forward, just south of Pittsburgh, which partnered with Carnegie Mellon to provide professional development for teachers through working with students on Maker Ed.

Principals in Albemarle County schools cite Superintendent Pam Moran as instrumental in bringing maker education to their school district. School Maker Faires feature a display of maker education themed projects, number over 100 per year; the U. S. contains the majority of the annual School Maker Faires, but they occur across all continents, although they are organized by U. S. organizations such as the Nanshan School Maker Faire in China organized by SteamHead. School events are sometimes not open to public admission, but the official Maker Faire website lists all past and upcoming shows and oftentimes schools encourage the general public to spectate and interact with student exhibitions. In addition to bringing maker education to schools, scholars like Paulo Blikstein of Stanford University and Dennis Krannich of the University Bremen, in Germany, state that, "Digital fabrication and'making,' and the positive social movement around them, could be an unprecedented opportunity for educators to advance a progressive educational agenda in which project-based, interest-driven, student-centered learning are at the center stage of students' educational experiences."

Penketh High School Became the first school in the United Kingdom to embedded maker e

Mickey Vernon

James Barton "Mickey" Vernon was an American Major League Baseball first baseman who played for the Washington Senators, Cleveland Indians, Boston Red Sox, Milwaukee Braves, Pittsburgh Pirates. He was the first manager in the history of the expansion edition of the Senators, serving from 1961 through May 21, 1963, was a coach for four MLB teams between 1960 and 1982, he retired as a player in 1960 with 2,495 hits, holds the major league record for career double plays at first base. He has the American League record for career games, putouts and total chances; the lanky Vernon was listed as 6 feet 2 inches tall and 170 pounds. Mickey Vernon was born in Marcus Hook and attended Villanova University, before making his major league debut on July 8, 1939, he was the father of Gay Vernon. During World War II, he served in the United States Navy, missing the 1945 seasons, he served with major league players Larry Doby and Billy Goodman on Ulithi in the South Pacific in 1945. Vernon played for 14 full major league seasons in his 20-year career.

He wound up batting over.335 twice, over.300 five times, over.290 nine times. He was a two-time American League batting champion. In 1946, his.353 batting mark eclipsed Ted Williams'.342 by 11 points. In 1953, Vernon's.337 average denied Cleveland's Al Rosen the Triple Crown by just one one-thousandth of a point. The following year, 1954, Vernon had a career high 20 home runs, 97 RBIs, a career high 14 triples, he led the AL in doubles with a total of 33. He had 294 total bases, second in the AL, behind Minnie Miñoso. Over time, Vernon became one of the best-liked ballplayers through his unique personality and charismatic, but quiet, style. On September 1, 1960, after a season spent as the Pittsburgh Pirates' first-base coach, Vernon was placed on the active list when MLB rosters expanded to 40 men, he appeared in nine regular-season games as a pinch hitter for Pittsburgh, notching an RBI single and an intentional walk in his nine plate appearances to become one of only 29 players in baseball history to have appeared in a major league game in four decades.

By his final game played, on September 27, 1960, he was, at 42, the oldest player in the National League by a year, one of the most popular figures in the game. He appeared in 2,409 MLB games without playing in the postseason, third most in history behind Ernie Banks and Luke Appling. Notably, on September 25, 1960, during Vernon's time on the active list, the Pirates clinched the NL pennant, he earned. Vernon posted a career.286 batting average with 1,311 RBIs in 2,409 games. The left-hander averaged 88 RBIs a year, had 11 seasons with 80 or more, 3 with 90 or more, he a. 359 on-base percentage. His career slugging percentage was.428, with a career high of.518 in 1953. He compiled 2,495 hits, with 120 triples, in 8,731 at bats, he had 3,741 career total bases, with his career high coming in 1953. Vernon's career as a coach and manager began during his 1960 stint on the staff of his longtime friend, Pirates' skipper Danny Murtaugh; the following year, in 1961, he returned to Washington when he was named manager of the expansion Senators in their first year of existence.

Inheriting the name and home field of the 1901–60 Washington franchise, now the Minnesota Twins, the expansion Senators were hastily constructed with an undercapitalized ownership, an MLB roster of castoff players, an almost-nonexistent farm system. In Vernon's two full seasons at the helm, 1961 and 1962, the Senators lost a combined 201 games, they were 14–26 and last in the ten-team American League when Vernon was fired on May 21, 1963. He finished with a career record of 135 -- a. 373 winning percentage. Vernon remained in the game into the 1980s as a major league coach for the Pirates, St. Louis Cardinals, Montreal Expos and Yankees, he managed at the Triple-A and Double-A levels of the minor leagues, served as a roving batting instructor for the Los Angeles Dodgers, Kansas City Royals and Yankees before retiring from baseball. Vernon died from a stroke at age 90, on September 24, 2008, he had resided in Pennsylvania. MLB Record: Double plays at first base American League All-Star American League batting champion American League leader in doubles American League leader in extra base hits American League leader in fielding average American League top 10 in MVP voting American League top 10 in triples In August 2008, he was named as one of the ten former players who began their careers before 1943 to be considered by the Veterans Committee for induction into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 2009.

Playing in four different decades, Vernon ended his career with 2,237 games at first base, second to only Jake Beckley in major league history. He led the American League in fielding percentage four times, the majors twice, he bec

2014–15 Irani Cup

The 2014-15 Irani Cup called 2014-15 Irani Trophy, will be the 53rd season of the Irani Cup, a first-class cricket competition in India. It will be a one-off match to be played from 17 March to 21 March 2015 between the 2014–15 Ranji champions Karnataka and the Rest of India team. Chinnaswamy Stadium, the home ground of Karnataka, will host the match. 1 Reddy replaced KL Rahul, ruled out of the Irani Cup with an injury. Rest of India won the toss and elected to field Fall of wickets: 1-26, 2-66, 3-90, 4-107, 5-220, 6-220, 7-226, 8-242, 9-244, 10-244 Fall of wickets: 1-0, 2-23, 3-72, 4-90, 5-102, 6-182, 7-218, 8-219, 9-242, 10-264 Fall of wickets: 1-54, 2-105, 3-121, 4-182, 5-288, 6-289, 7-354, 8-390, 9-408, 10-422 Tournament home on ESPNcricinfo