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Augusta Emerita

The Roman colony of Augusta Emerita was founded in 25 BC on a native foundation, by Augustus, to resettle emeriti soldiers discharged from the Roman army from the veteran legions of the Cantabrian Wars: Legio V Alaudae, Legio X Gemina, Legio XX Valeria Victrix. The city was the capital of the Roman province of Lusitania, was one of the largest in Hispania with an area of over 20,000 square kilometres, it had two fora. The city was situated at the junction of several important routes, it sat near a crossing of the Guadiana river. Roman roads connected the city west to Felicitas Julia Olisippo, south to Hispalis, northwest to the gold mining area, to Corduba and Toletum. Today the Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida is one of the largest and most extensive archaeological sites in Spain and a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993; the theatre was dedicated by the consul Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. It has seating for around 6000 spectators, it was renovated in the late 1st or early 2nd century AD by the emperor Trajan or Hadrian. and again between 330 and 340 during the reigns of Constantine and his sons, when a walkway around the monument and new decorative elements were added.

With the advent of Christianity as Rome's sole state religion, theatrical performances were declared immoral: the theatre was abandoned and most of its fabric was covered with earth, leaving only its upper tiers of seats. In Spanish tradition, these were known as "The Seven Chairs" in which it is popularly thought that several Moorish kings held court to decide the fate of the city; the amphitheatre staged beast-hunts. It has an elliptical arena, surrounded by tiered seating for around 15,000 spectators, divided according to the requirements of Augustan ideology. Only these lowest tiers survive. Once the games had fallen into disuse, the stone of the upper tiers was quarried for use elsewhere; the circus of Augusta Emerita was built some time around 20 BC, was in use for many years before its dedication some thirty years probably during the reign of Augustus' successor, Tiberius. It was sited outside the city walls, alongside the road that connected Emeritus in Corduba with Toletum; the arena plan was with one end semicircular and the other flattened.

A lengthwise spina formed a central divide within, to provide a continuous trackway for two-horse and four-horse chariot racing. The track was surrounded by ground level cellae, with tiered stands above. At some 400m long and 100m wide, the Circus was the city's largest building, could seat about 30,000 spectators – the city's entire population, more or less. Like most circuses throughout the Roman Empire, Mérida's resembled a scaled-down version of Rome's Circus Maximus; the bridge can be considered the focal point of the city. It connects to one of the main arteries of the colony, the Decumanus Maximus, or east-west main street typical of Roman settlements; the location of the bridge was selected at a ford of the river Guadiana, which offered as a support a central island that divides it into two channels. The original structure did not provide the continuity of the present, as it was composed of two sections of arches joined at the island, by a large Starling; this was replaced by several arcs in the 17th century after a flood in 1603 damaged part of the structure.

In the Roman era the length was extended several times, adding at least five consecutive sections of arches so that the road is not cut during the periodic flooding of the Guadiana. The bridge spans a total of 792 m; the aqueduct was part of the supply system that brought water to Mérida from the Proserpina Dam located 5 km from the city and dates from the early 1st century BC. The arcade is well preserved the section that spans the valley of the river Albarregas, it is known by this name. This aqueduct brought water from underground springs located north of the city; this temple is a municipal building belonging to the city forum. It is one of the few buildings of religious character preserved in a satisfactory state. Despite its name, wrongly assigned on its discovery, the building was dedicated to the Imperial cult, it was built in early in the Augustan era. In the sixteenth century AD it was re-used for the palace of the Count of Corbos. Rectangular, surrounded by columns, it faces the front of the city's Forum.

This front is formed by a set of six columns ending in a gable. It is built of granite. An entrance arch to the provincial forum, it was located in the Cardo Maximus, one of the main streets of the city and connected it to the municipal forum. Made of granite and faced with marble, it measures 13.97 metres high, 5.70 metres wide and 8.67 metres internal diameter. It is believed to have a triumphal character, although it could serve as a prelude to the Provincial Forum, its name is arbitrary. This building was found fortuitously in the early 1960s, is located on the southern slope of Mount San Albín, its proxi

Masud Rana

Masud Rana is a fictional character created in 1966 by writer Qazi Anwar Hussain, who featured him in over 400 novels. Hussain created the adult spy-thriller series Masud Rana, at first modelled after James Bond, but expanded widely. So far 460 books have been published in this series which has gained a lot of popularity in Bangladesh. Written from the 1960s and continuing to present day, books are published every month by Sheba Prokashoni, one of the most popular publishing house of Bangladesh. Although Qazi Anwar Hussain started the series, it is an open secret that nowadays he doesn't write it any more. A group of ghostwriters are employed to produce all the new Masud Rana novels; the Masud Rana books describes the adventures of its eponymous hero Masud Rana, an international Espionage Agent of Bangladeshi origin resembling James Bond in his expertise with weapons and love for women. Although the soul author of the series is Qazi Anwar Hussain, it is known that Hussain liberally extracts segments of plots from popular Western spy thrillers of contemporary period.

Nonetheless, the series became a boon for young people in post-war Bangladesh, who had few entertainment alternatives in an era pre-dating cable TV, the web sites and smart phones. The books caused concern among some middle-class parents because of their occasional racy contents, reading Masud Rana was an activity frowned upon; the series ran to well over four hundred individual titles. Masud Rana has been adapted for one Bengali film and one TV Drama. In July 2018, Biggest production house in Bangladesh Jaaz Multimedia received permission from author Qazi Anwar Hussain to make three movies based on first three novel of the series; the production house hopes to release the films in the next five years. The character was created in 1966 by Bangladeshi novelist Qazi Anwar Hussain in an attempt to write an adult spy thriller for Bangladeshi readers. According to the preface of "Dhongsho-Pahar", Hussain was inspired and encouraged by his close friend Mahbub Amin. Qazi Anwar Hussain took the name for his character from the first name of Hussain's friend, lyricist Masud Karim, Rana Pratap Singh of the Rajput clan who ruled Mewar, a state in north-western India from 1540 to 1597.

Hussain admitted in a 1994 interview that he was influenced by the Ian Fleming character James Bond. A full-length feature film about Rana was made in 1974 titled Masud Rana. Masud Parves, known by his stage name Sohel Rana directed and starred in it; the film is based on the story Bishmaron It is the 11th story in the series and was first published in 1967. Three films based on first three novels from the series are on the cards. In July 2018, Production house Jaaz Multimedia announced, they are going to make the films based on- Dhwangsha Pahar and Swarna Mrigya. "We received permission to make films on the read Masud Rana series from Qazi Anwar Hussain." They stated. These three movies will be released over the course of next five years; the first film, which will be based on Dhongsho-Pahar, will go on shooting floors in January 2019. The first package drama in the history of Bangladesh, Prachir Periye was telecast in 1994 and is based on Pishach Dweep with screenplay by Atiqul Haque Chowdhury and stars Bipasha Hayat.

Masud Rana, former major of the Bangladesh Army commander stationed for HUMINT at BCI HQ, Dhaka. He works under direct command of Major General Rahat Khan of the fictitious Bangladesh Counter Intelligence. According to the series, Rana is founder and director of an international investigating firm named Rana Agency, a front cover for BCI in the form of a private investigation agency. Rana is the chairman of Saul Shipping Corporation, he took the position after the death of Rebecca Saul. Masud Rana was born in Bangladesh to Justice Imtiaz Chowdhury and Jahanara Imtiaz Chowdhury. Rana was orphaned at the age of 13 when his parents were killed in a car accident near Chittagong, Bangladesh. After the death of his parents, Rana went to live with his aunt, Ismat Ara, in Fort William, Highland, he attends Eton College in his college days. According to the early Pakistan-era novels, Rana joined Pakistan Army and graduated from Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, he started his army career in infantry and went on to become a commando and joined Military Intelligence, reaching the rank of Major at a young age.

He was recruited by Rahat Khan to PCI. Major Rana participated in the liberation war of Bangladesh, he fought in the frontline with guerrillas, hiding his real identity and rank. After independence and Sohel built the BCI from the ashes, with Sohel working in the light and Rana remaining in shadows. Masud Rana is a unique individual, he appears to be of sound mind and strong principles and spirit. Rana does not fear death. Rana has a remarkable willingness to take near heavy risks. Rana is solitary, he does not console himself by surrounding himself with others. His athletic pursuits tend to be solitary: running, hiking, swimming and most remarkably, climbing. Rana enjoys pushing himself to the limit, both physically, he is prone to mild depression when not challenged. Rana enjoys drinking and gambling, although the former seems to be a way for him to test his personal limits at times rather than a vice. Rana has been known to gamble more than he can afford to lose, although he always gambles with a plan and a clear understanding of the odds.

Rana has strong interpersonal skills. He can act comfortably in many situations, but does

James L. Guetti

James L. Guetti, Professor of English at Rutgers University, was a philosopher of language and professor, his main interests were the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein. The goals of his teaching were to have his students become better thinkers and more effective writers. Born in Medford, son of James and Gladys Guetti, his family moved to Florida when he was three years old, he spent his early childhood years in Miami and Sweetwater. During his adolescence, his family moved back to this time to Orange. From there, they relocated to Warwick, Rhode Island, where Jim graduated from James T. Lockwood High School in 1955; as the first in his family to attend college, he received several academic and athletic awards at Amherst College. The latter awards were for his prowess in football. In 1959, he was awarded his A. B. degree cum laude. A year he received his M. A. from Cornell University. A Ph. D. from the same institution followed in 1964. He taught English at The Taft School for a year. Subsequently, he transferred to Rutgers University.

Jim Guetti died of cancer at his home in Massachusetts. He was married, with two sons. Rupert Read of the University of East Anglia wrote a personal obituary for James Guetti, in which he expressed the following: "I was privileged to work with Guetti while I was a grad student at Rutgers, to write with him and afterwards, he was a massively stimulating colleague, an extraordinary mentor — and an inspirational teacher." Another former student, New Jersey attorney Anthony Gaeta, said, "He made me more precise in how I communicate, expanded my ability to understand what people are saying when they use words." Rutgers professor Barry Qualls recalled, "Jim was breathtakingly smart and funny, didn't care for other people's sanctities. He had a feisty intelligence that didn't jump on bandwagons." Barry Lipinski, a student of Jim Guetti in the undergraduate and graduate program at Rutgers who became a good friend, said “Jim gave me the highest compliment. He said “You are a word man. Barry said “I read Jim's novel “Action” when it first came out through my Baltimore County Enoch Pratt library system when I was a senior in high school and I was determined to take a course with him at Rutgers after reading it.

Jim could not believe the level of detail I knew about the book and how his novel spurred me to visit Pimlico race track and become a lifelong devotee of thoroughbred racing and start a friendship with a buddy who would teach me the value of reading every word.” Besides being a teaching writer of academic topics, as well as fiction, James Guetti had several other interests. He was well versed in fishing, fly tying and poker. To his advantage, he discovered that certain thoroughbred horses run faster when they first change from running on dirt to running on turf, his brother Michael, a retired Star Ledger sports writer, remembers Jim's adventurousness: "… tramping through the Everglades with just a knife in his back pocket." Mike asserts that his brother "… was the most original thinker I've met. He was as serious about horse flyfishing as he was about literature, he had a way of stringing ideas together to reach a clear sense of things." Scholar Robert S. Ryf examined Guetti's assertion in The Limits of Metaphor regarding ineffability in the works of Melville and Faulkner.

Because words, according to Guetti, are unable to express thoughts about reality, they become a mere communication about nothingness. Ryf claimed that "The argument deserves most serious attention, is ably advanced." Three years after the publication of Guetti's Action, the similar movie The Gambler appeared. There has never been a statement, that the movie was taken from Guetti's book. William Pritchard, the Henry Clay Folger Professor of English at Amherst College, wrote about this novel. According to him, Action is "… exceptional in conveying some of the surprise, the uncertainty, the mixed feeling about what has been done." Professor Roger Sale, of the University of Washington, wrote that Action is "… the best novel I know about gambling, indeed is so much better than most that the others cease to count. Furthermore, it has a grand opening sequence that is, by itself, a first-rate short story, and, to boot, a wonderful indicator for any wary reader of what is in store." In Word-Music, Professor Guetti draws attention to two aspects of modern literature: visual and aural.

With visual reading, the reader looks for a sensible meaning in the narrative. Scenes and other visual images are understood as being in a sequence; the reader's mind thereby creates a story that can be understood as an arrangement of a meaningful series of visual events. Aural reading, on the other hand is receptive; the reader is listening to a story. Elements of the narrative are not sequential. There can be variations on a theme, as in music; the story is more playful than purposeful. Most works of modern fiction combine visual and aural ways of reading, being not one or the other; this analysis of the complicated response of the individual reader is in contrast to the usual concern with plot and other textual topics. The introduction to the Penguin Books edition of Conrad's Heart of Darkness contains editor Paul O'Prey's citation of Guetti's idea regarding central meaning: "Conrad leads us to expect, because of the myth–like nature of the journey discussed earlier, that by going to the centre, to the'Inner Station', to th