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Augustalis

An augustalis or augustale was a gold coin minted in the Kingdom of Sicily beginning in 1231. It was issued by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, was minted until his death in 1250. In addition, a half augustalis was issued, it was identical in design, but smaller and half the weight. The augustalis bore a Latin inscription and was circulated in Italy, it was patterned after the Roman aureus. It was struck at Messina with accompanying billon deniers; the style of the augustalis has been described as proto-Renaissance. The augustalis was 20 1/2 carats fine; the legal value was a quarter of a Sicilian gold ounce. The obverse contains a classical profile bust of the emperor wearing a laureate wreath with the legend CESAR AVG IMP ROM; the name augustalis means "of the august one", referring to the coin's provenance from the emperor himself, but linking it with the Roman Emperor, styled Augustus. An augustalis at the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna A half augustalis at the American Numismatic Society Kowalski, H..

"Die Augustalen Kaiser Friedrichs II.". Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau. 55: 77–150. Doi:10.5169/seals-174259. - comprehensive study

Volvo World Match Play Championship

The Volvo World Match Play Championship was an annual match play men's professional golf tournament, staged from 1964 to 2014. From 2009 to 2012 the event was played at the Finca Cortesín Golf Club in Casares near Málaga, having been played at Wentworth Club near London. In 2013, the event was held at the Thracian Cliffs Beach Resort in Kavarna, Bulgaria; the event was traditionally played in the autumn in October, but moved to a May date in 2011 and was an official money event on the European Tour from 2004 to 2014. Previous sponsors have included Piccadilly, Toyota, Cisco and HSBC. In 2014, the event was played in October at London Golf Club in England; the tournament was founded by sports agent Mark McCormack as a showcase for the players. The inaugural event in 1964 was won by Arnold Palmer, McCormack's first client; the calibre of the winners has been high, with the majority of the tournaments being won by players who have been ranked in the top two in the Official World Golf Ranking or its predecessor Mark McCormack's world golf rankings.

The event consisted of 36-hole matches played in a single day. The event had an eight-man field from 1964 to 1976, it expanded to 16 players for 1977 and 1978. In 1979, the field was 12 players, with four seeded players being given a bye in the first round, it was sometimes felt that this was unfair, as an unseeded player needed to string together eight successful rounds in four days to win, twice as many as in a stroke play tournament, whereas a seeded player only needed six successful rounds to win. For its first 40 years the tournament was an unofficial one regarded by golf fans in Britain and many other countries outside the United States, popular with players, coexisting with the European Tour, at whose home course it was played, but not taken into account on an official tour money list; the introduction in 1999 of the 64-man WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship, which selected its field on the basis of the World Rankings, was a blow to the prestige of the older event, whose exhibition aspects, with a small invited field, were emphasised by contrast.

In 2003, the tournament was given a major overhaul. Increased sponsorship was secured from the largest British based bank, HSBC, the winner's prize was increased to £1 million, easily the largest in world golf. In 2004, the championship became an official money European Tour event - not, the actual prize money, as the first prize was far higher than for the other events on the tour, but scaled-down amounts intended to be more proportionate; the field was increased to 16 players, all of whom needed to play eight rounds of golf to win, to eliminate the advantage given to seeds. A qualifying system, based on performances in the four majors, replaced the invitations of the past. World ranking points were allocated to the event for the first time since 1999. In recent years, Americans have tended to decline their invitations. In 2005, no Americans took part at all, with stalwart Ernie Els injured and Vijay Singh and Sergio García absent, the field was one of the weakest seen at the event, with just one player from the world top ten.

The 2006 event had a stronger field with six of the world's top ten players headed by the world's top two ranked players Tiger Woods and Jim Furyk. But in January 2007 HSBC activated a break clause in its ten-year contract and withdrew from sponsorship after the 2007 event. After HSBC withdrew its sponsorship in 2007, the tournament was given another major overhaul. After a break in 2008, the tournament returned in 2009 with Volvo as the new title sponsor; the event moved from Wentworth to the Finca Cortesín Golf Club near Málaga in Spain. The format switched to an opening round robin, with 16 players divided into four groups and the winners advancing to the 36-hole semi-finals; the qualifying criteria were changed to include certain players based on their nationality. The total prize money for 2009 was €3,250,000, with €750,000 of that going to the winner. After another break in 2010, the tournament returned in May 2011, several months earlier than the traditional date in autumn; the field was expanded to 24 players, playing in a round robin format.

The top two players from each group would progress to the knockout stage. Unlike previous years, all matches; the total prize money for 2011 was €3,400,000, with €800,000 of that going to the winner. In 2013, the event was held in Bulgaria. Volvo has requested that the championship be moved to geographical areas of interest for the company and therefore the event will be rotated around Europe. European Tour event Unofficial money event The following players have won the World Match Play Championship more than once: * Woosnam is the only person to have won in three different decades For the 2014 championship, the qualification criteria were as follows: Defending champion The winner of the 2013 European Tour Race to Dubai The winner of the 2014 Volvo Golf Champions The winner of the 2014 Volvo China Open The winner of the 2014 Scottish Open The leading three available players, not otherwise exempt above, from the Official World Golf Ranking as of the conclusion of the 2014 Open Championship The leading three available players, not otherwise exempt above, from the Race to Dubai as of the conclusion of the 2014 Open Championship The current holders of the four major championships One tournament invite Categories will be filled with the next hi

Aeroflot Flight 217

Aeroflot Flight 217 was a non-scheduled international passenger flight from Orly Airport in Paris to Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow, with a stopover at Shosseynaya Airport in Leningrad. On 13 October 1972, the Ilyushin Il-62 airliner operating the flight crashed on approach to Sheremetyevo, with the loss of all 164 passengers and crew of 10; the fatalities include 118 Russians, 38 Chileans, 6 Algerians, one East German, one Australian. At the time, it was the world's deadliest aviation disaster, until it was surpassed by the Kano air disaster in 1973; as of 2019, the accident remains the second-deadliest one involving an Il-62, after LOT Flight 5055, the second-deadliest on Russian soil, after Aeroflot Flight 3352. Shortly before the expected landing, the plane was flying at the altitude of 1200 m and received the ATC instructions to descend to 400 m; the crew confirmed and started to descend, but there was no action to return to the horizontal flight. The plane passed the 400 m mark with 20 m/s vertical velocity, no expected report to ATC and engines still running at low thrust.

It crashed shortly afterwards, with landing gear up, spoilers retracted and horizontal speed about 620 km/h. The cause of the crash could not be determined. Investigators did believe the most probable cause was the'psycho-physiological incapacitation of the crew for reasons unknown'. Somewhere at the 500 – 600 m. elevation, 30 – 25 seconds before impact, the pilots either have been incapacitated or lost control of the plane. Aeroflot accidents and incidents Aeroflot accidents and incidents in the 1970s "Aeroflot accident at Moscow". Flight International. 102: 517. 19 October 1972. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 62 CCCP-86671 Moskva-Sheremetyevo Airport". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 26 August 2012. "Picture of the plane - Photo de l'avion". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2015