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Auguste Piccard

Auguste Antoine Piccard was a Swiss physicist and explorer, known for his record-breaking helium-filled balloon flights, with which he studied the Earth's upper atmosphere. Auguste was known for his invention of the first bathyscaphe, FNRS-2, with which he made a number of unmanned dives in 1948 to explore the ocean's depths. Piccard's twin brother Jean Felix Piccard is a notable figure in the annals of science and exploration, as are a number of their relatives, including Jacques Piccard, Bertrand Piccard, Jeannette Piccard and Don Piccard. Piccard and his twin brother Jean Felix Piccard were born in Basel, Switzerland on 28 January 1884. Showing an intense interest in science as a child, he attended the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, became a professor of physics in Brussels at the Free University of Brussels in 1922, the same year his son Jacques Piccard was born, he was a member of the Solvay Congress of 1922, 1924, 1927, 1930 and 1933. In 1930, an interest in ballooning, a curiosity about the upper atmosphere led him to design a spherical, pressurized aluminum gondola that would allow ascent to great altitude without requiring a pressure suit.

Supported by the Belgian Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique Piccard constructed his gondola. An important motivation for his research in the upper atmosphere were measurements of cosmic radiation, which were supposed to give experimental evidence for the theories of Albert Einstein, whom Piccard knew from the Solvay conferences and, a fellow alumnus of ETH. On 27 May 1931, Auguste Piccard and Paul Kipfer took off from Augsburg and reached a record altitude of 15,781 m. During this flight, they became the first human beings to enter the stratosphere, were able to gather substantial data on the upper atmosphere, as well as measure cosmic rays. Piccard and Kipfer are considered the first people to visually observe the curvature of the earth. On 18 August 1932, launched from Dübendorf, Switzerland and Max Cosyns made a second record-breaking ascent to 16,201 m, he made a total of twenty-seven balloon flights, setting a final record of 23,000 m. In the mid-1930s, Piccard's interests shifted when he realized that a modification of his high-altitude balloon cockpit would allow descent into the deep ocean.

By 1937, he had designed the bathyscaphe, a small steel gondola built to withstand great external pressure. Construction began, but was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II. Resuming work in 1945, he completed the bubble-shaped cockpit that maintained normal air pressure for a person inside the capsule as the water pressure outside increased to over 46 MPa. Above the heavy steel capsule, a large flotation tank was attached and filled with a low density liquid for buoyancy. Liquids are incompressible and can provide buoyancy that does not change as the pressure increases, and so, the huge tank was filled not as a fuel, but as flotation. To make the now floating craft sink, tons of iron were attached to the float with a release mechanism to allow resurfacing; this craft was named FNRS-2 and made a number of unmanned dives in 1948 before being given to the French Navy in 1950. There, it was redesigned, in 1954, it took a man safely down 4,176 m. Piccard and his son, built a second bathyscaphe and together they dove to a record-breaking depth of 3,150 m in 1953.

He died on 24 March 1962 of a heart attack at his home in Lausanne, Switzerland, he was 78 years old. Jules Piccard Auguste Piccard Jacques Piccard Bertrand Piccard Jean Felix Piccard Jeannette Piccard Don Piccard Auguste Piccard was the inspiration for Professor Cuthbert Calculus in The Adventures of Tintin by Belgian cartoonist Hergé. Piccard held a teaching appointment in Brussels where Hergé spotted his unmistakable figure in the street; this connection was confirmed by Hergé in an interview with Numa Sadoul. "Calculus is a reduced scale Piccard, as the real chap was tall. He had an interminable neck that sprouted from a collar, much too large... I made Calculus a mini-Piccard, otherwise I would have had to enlarge the frames of the cartoon strip."Gene Roddenberry named Captain Jean-Luc Picard in Star Trek after one or both of the twin brothers Auguste and Jean Felix Piccard, derived Jean-Luc Picard from their names. Will Gregory's opera, Piccard in Space, premiered at the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London on 31 March 2011.

The libretto, by Hattie Naylor, focuses on Auguste Piccard's first balloon ascent with his assistant Paul Kipfer, on the theories of Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton, who both appear as characters in the drama. In 2016, the exploits of Piccard and his son Jacques were featured in a US television commercial for Hennessy cognac. List of firsts in aviation Footage of Auguste Piccard and his 1932 balloon ascent Don Piccard - 50 Years of Ballooning Memories The Piccard Gondola Exhibit Newspaper clippings about Auguste Piccard in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW

Caruso Affiliated

Caruso Caruso Affiliated Holdings, LLC, is one of the largest held real estate companies in the United States. It was founded by Rick J. Caruso in 1987, it includes a portfolio of retail and mixed-use properties in Southern California, including Los Angeles, Calabasas, Pacific Palisades, Marina Del Rey and Thousand Oaks. Caruso was founded in 1987 by the company's Chief Executive Officer; the company provides real estate development services in southern California. Its portfolio includes shopping and residential developments; the company develops parks, promenades and plazas integrated with a retail environment. Caruso develops and manages properties such as The Grove at Farmers Market in Los Angeles, the Americana at Brand in Glendale, CA, The Commons at Calabasas, Palisades Village, The Promenade at Westlake, the Waterside Marina Del Rey. In November 2012, Caruso opened a new luxury, mixed-use residential and commercial property called 8500 Burton Way. Caruso’s other developments include: Encino Marketplace Village at Moorpark The Lakes at Thousand Oaks Its assets draw tens of millions of visitors each year.

Caruso properties have won awards for design and development, including the 1997 Golden Nugget Grand Award for the Promenade at Westlake, in the Best Commercial Project for Retail category. Caruso website

Kentucky Route 228

Kentucky Route 228 is a 23.8-mile-long state highway in the U. S. state of Kentucky. The highway connects rural areas of Meade County with Brandenburg. KY 228 begins within Meade County, it travels in curves to the north-northwest. It passes Barr Cemetery before curving to the north-northeast; the highway crosses the creek with the same name. It passes Owens Cemetery. KY 228 curves to the east-southeast, travels through Cedar Flat, intersects the southern terminus of KY 1047. At this intersection, KY 228 turns right, to the southeast, it curves to the south-southwest and begins paralleling the Ohio River. It begins passing Greer and Bennett cemeteries, it travels through Battletown. In Cold Springs, it intersects the northern terminus of KY 1844; the highway crosses over Big Gully. It curves to the east-northeast and enters Brandenburg, it intersects KY 313. It enters the main part of the city; the highway curves to the south-southwest and meets its eastern terminus, an intersection with KY 448. The entire route is in Meade County.

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1988 CARIFTA Games

The 17th CARIFTA Games was held in Kingston, Jamaica on April 2–4, 1988. For the 1988 CARIFTA Games only the medalists can be found on the "World Junior Athletics History" website. An unofficial count yields the number of about 117 medalists from about 16 countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Guyana, Martinique, Netherlands Antilles, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Tobago; the Austin Sealy Trophy for the most outstanding athlete of the games was awarded to Michelle Freeman from Jamaica. She won 2 gold medals in the junior category. In addition, she was part of at least one of the medal-winning relay teams. Medal winners are published by category: Boys under 20, Girls under 20, Boys under 17, Girls under 17; the medalists can be found on the "World Junior Athletics History" website. * Host nation World Junior Athletics History

Sthanu Ravi Varma

Sthanu Ravi Varma known as the Kulasekhara, was the Chera/Perumal ruler of Kerala in southern India from 844 to mid-880s AD. Sthanu Ravi is identified with playwright king Kulasekhara Varma, with Bhakti saint Kulasekhara Alvar; the Chera/Perumal relations with the Chola dynasty were inaugurated during the reign of Sthanu Ravi. The direct authority of the Chera/Perumal king was restricted to the country around capital Makotai in central Kerala, his kingship was only ritual and remained nominal compared with the power that local chieftains exercised politically and militarily. Nambudiri-Brahmins possessed huge authority in religious and social subjects. Koyil Adhikarikal during the time of Sthanu Ravi was his son-in-law Kota Ravi Vijayaraga. Sthanu Ravi had a son born to him in or about 870 AD, he was succeeded by his son-in-law Kota Ravi Vijayaraga. It was on the basis of certain definitive statements in Laghu Bhaskariya Vyakha, an astronomical treatise composed at Kodungallur in 870 AD, Kulasekhara was identified with Sthanu Ravi.

Sthanu Ravi was a partner in the Chola king Rajakesari Varma's campaign in Kongu country. It is known that the two rulers jointly conferred military honours on a chief of Tanjore called Vikki Annan a Ganga prince. Vikki Annan, son of Prithvipati, is mentioned in a Ganga inscription of the mid-9th century AD; the title "Kadamba" suggests a relationship with the Kadamba lineage. King Rajakesari Varma can be identified either with Srikantha Chola. Ayyan Adikal, the chieftain of Quilon under Sthanu Ravi, issued the famous Quilon Syrian Christian copper plates in c. 849 AD. The inscription records that Ayyan Adikal granted land and serfs to a Christian church at Quilon, built by Mar Sapir Iso, entrusted its maintenance to trade guilds anjuvannam and manigramam; the grant was made in the presence of Chera/Perumal prince Vijayaraga. Daughter of Kulasekhara, with the title Kizhan Adikal Ravi Neeli, was married to Vijayaraga. Sanskrit poet Vasubhatta refers to his second patron king as "Kulasekhara" in his Yudhisthira Vijaya.

An anonymous work called Padmapada Acharya Charita says that the protagonist, the disciple of philosopher-theologian Sankara flourished in time of king "Kulasekhara". Sthanu Ravi was a partner in the Chola king Rajakesari Varma's campaign in Kongu country. King Rajakesari Varma can be identified either with Srikantha Chola. Identification of Rajakesari Varma with Aditya Chola – this puts Sthanu Ravi's final regnal year in 885 AD – this view was found acceptable by Daud Ali – Elamkulam assumes that Sthanu Ravi ruled up to 885 AD to be able to become the junior partner in Aditya Chola's wars in Kongu Nadu. Identification of Rajakesari Varma with Srikantha Chola – this puts the joint action in 844-45 AD and Sthanu Ravi's final regnal year in 883 AD – this view was found acceptable by M. G. S. Narayanan. End of Sthanu Ravi's reign in not so bounded as its beginning, he is known to have gone up to 870 AD even beyond. Perumal Kota Ravi Vijayaraga is known to come to throne at Kodungallur in 883 AD.

The possibility of another Perumal between 870 and 883 AD cannot be ruled out. There are references to a Chera/Perumal royal called Rama Deva, who marched out to fight the enemies on getting information from the spies, it is possible that Rama, the prince, did not survive the battle. Another possibility identifies Rama Deva with Rama Rajasekhara, the predecessor of Sthanu Ravi, or with "Raga Deva" himself. Rama Deva is described as a member of the Solar Dynasty in Laghu Bhaskariya Vyakhya. Astronomer Sankara Narayana was a member of the royal court of Kulasekhara at Kodungallur, he is best known as the author of Laghu Bhaskariya Vyakha, a detailed commentary of on the works of mathematician Bhaskara I. An observatory functioned at Kodungallur under the charge of Sankara Narayana. There are references to an instrument called "Rashi Chakra" marked by a "Yanthra Valaya" in Laghu Bhaskariya Vyakha; this instrument might be the same as the Gola Yanthra/Chakra Yanthra mentioned by famous polymath Aryabhata.

The Chakra Yanthra was developed further and called Phalaka Yanthra by Bhaskara I. It was on the basis of certain statements in Laghu Bhaskariya Vyakha, the date coronation of Kulasekhara was fixed at 844 AD; the author mentions that the full name of his king as "Ravi Varma Kulasekhara". The opening verse gives an indirect invocation to "Sthanu", god Siva and/or the ruling king. "Angartvambara nanda devamanubhir yate dinanam gane" Anga = 6, Rtu = 6, Ambara = 0, Nanda = 9, Veda = 4, Manu = 14 Order - 6609414 Reverse Order - 1449066Kali Date - 3967 years and 86 days = 25 Mithuna, Kollam Era 41 = 870 AD"Evam Sakabdah punariha candra randhramuni sankhyaya asambhiravagatah" Candra = 1, Randhra = 9, Muni = 7 Order - 197 Reverse Order - 791 = 870 ADMeeting of Guru and Sauri in Capa = 25th regnal year of the king = 870 AD Rajendra Chola Raja Raja Chola


Anaikarai is a village panchayat under Thiruvidaimarudur Taluk in Tanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India. Anaikarai connects with two major bridges. Nearly 1 km long on both sides, it is an island in the basin of Cauvery river. The Lower Anaicut built by Sir Arthur Cotton in 19th century AD across Coleroon, the major tributary of Cauvery, is said to be a replicated structure of Kallanai. Nearly 2000 families live in Anaikarai with the main occupation of fishing, it is well known and place for river fishes Sri Villiandavar temple is located in the west side of Anaikarai. It was built by chola empire; the present Sri Villiandavar koil was renovated in early 2000 during Ms. Jayalalitha's regime; this temple is located in the mid of Cauvery river & cauvery flows in "U" direction surrounding the temple. The temple houses many statues of Elephants & horses; the Temple's Maha Kumbabhishekham is to be conducted by end of 2015 or early 2016. The Great Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram is located just 10 km from Anaikarai.

Anaikkarai remains an important connecting point between kumbakonam. However one of the two bridges connecting Anaikarai with Kumbakonam is barred for heavy vehicles due to weakening after the heavy rains of 2009. New bridge costing 135 Cr is being planned and it has taken long period to finish the construction; the Bridge has been repaired and opened to public for transport from 25 January 2012. In the river there are number of crocodiles which post threat to those who depend upon the river for a living. Shortest route to Anaikarai from Chennai is via Pondicherry, Vadalur, Meensuruti & Jayankondam Cross Road