Augustinians are members of Christian religious orders that follow the Rule of Saint Augustine, written about 400 by Augustine of Hippo. There are two distinct types of Augustinians in Catholic religious orders dating back to the 12th–13th centuries: Several orders of friars who live a mixed religious life of contemplation and apostolic ministry; the largest and most familiar is the Order of Saint Augustine, founded in 1244 and known as the Hermits of Saint Augustine. They are known as the Austin Friars in England. Two other orders, the Order of Augustinian Recollects and the Discalced Augustinians, were once part of the OSA under a single prior general; the Recollects, founded in 1588 as a reform movement in Spain, became autonomous in 1612. The Discalceds became an independent congregation in 1592, were raised to the status of a separate mendicant order in 1610. Various congregations of Canons Regular follow the Rule of Saint Augustine, embrace the evangelical counsels and lead a semi-monastic life, while remaining committed to pastoral care appropriate to their primary vocation as priests.
They form one large community which might serve parishes in the vicinity, are organized into autonomous congregations. There are some Anglican religious orders created in the 19th century that follow Augustine's rule; these are composed only of women in several different communities of Augustinian nuns. In a religious community, "charism" is the particular contribution that each religious order, congregation or family and its individual members embody; the teaching and writing of Augustine, the Augustinian Rule, the lives and experiences of Augustinians over sixteen centuries help define the ethos and special charism of the order. As well as telling his disciples to be "of one mind and heart on the way towards God", Augustine of Hippo taught that "Nothing conquers except truth and the victory of truth is love", the pursuit of truth through learning is key to the Augustinian ethos, balanced by the injunction to behave with love towards one another, it does not unduly single out the exceptional favour the gifted, nor exclude the poor or marginalised.
Love is not earned through human merit, but received and given by God's free gift of grace undeserved yet generously given. These same imperatives of affection and fairness have driven the order in its international missionary outreach; this balanced pursuit of love and learning has energised the various branches of the order into building communities founded on mutual affection and intellectual advancement. The Augustinian ideal is inclusive. Augustine spoke passionately of God's "beauty so ancient and so new", his fascination with beauty extended to music, he taught that "whoever sings prays twice" and music is a key part of the Augustinian ethos. Contemporary Augustinian musical foundations include the famous Augustinerkirche in Vienna, where orchestral masses by Mozart and Schubert are performed every week, as well as the boys' choir at Sankt Florian in Austria, a school conducted by Augustinian canons, a choir now over 1,000 years old. Augustinians have produced a formidable body of scholarly works.
The Canons Regular follow the more ancient form of religious life which developed toward the end of the first millennium and thus predates the founding of the friars. They represent a clerical adaptation of monastic life, as it grew out of an attempt to organize communities of clerics to a more dedicated way of life, as St. Augustine himself had done, it paralleled the lay movement of monasticism or the eremetical life from which the friars were to develop. In their tradition, the canons added the commitment of religious vows to their primary vocation of pastoral care; as the canons became independent of the diocesan structures, they came to form their own monastic communities. The official name of the Order is the Canons Regular of St. Augustine. Like the Order of St. Benedict, it is not one legal body, but a union of various independent congregations. Though they follow the Rule of St. Augustine, they differ from the friars in not committing themselves to corporate poverty, a defining element of the mendicant orders.
Unlike the friars and like monks, the canons are organized as one large community to which they are attached for life with a vow of stability. Their houses are given the title of an abbey, from which the canons tend to various surrounding towns and villages for spiritual services; the religious superior of their major houses is titled an abbot. Smaller communities are headed by provost; the distinctive habit of canons regular is the rochet, worn over a cassock or tunic, indicative of their clerical origins. This has evolved in various ways among different congregations, from wearing the full rochet to the wearing of a white tunic and scapular; the Austrian congregation, as an example, wears a sarozium, a narrow band of white cloth—a vestige of the scapular—which hangs down both front and back over a cassock for their weekday wear. For more solemn occasions, they wear the rochet under a violet mozzetta. Communities of canons served the poor and the sick throughout Europe, through both nursing and education.
They include the canons of the Great St. Bernard Hospice at Great St. Bernard Pass in the Alps on the border of Switzerland, where they have served travelers since the mid-11th century; this community is the one which developed the familiar breed of St. Bernard to assist the canons in their ability to find travelers buried by avalanches; the Congregation of the Great St. Bernard is a member of the Confederation of the Canons Regular of St. Augustine; the Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem
Dodge & Cox is an American mutual fund company, founded in 1930 by Van Duyn Dodge and E. Morris Cox, that provides professional investment management services. Dodge and Cox specializes in value investing and has been described as "best known for its conservatively managed funds with solid track records and modest fees." Having been created during the Great Depression, the firm has "a razor sharp focus on capital preservation". Dodge & Cox practices a team-based management strategy and as of 2017, the firm had US$297 billion in assets under management. Headquartered in San Francisco, the company offers six no-load mutual funds: a domestic stock fund, an international stock fund, a balanced fund, an income fund, a global stock fund, a global bond fund, their balanced fund, comprising 50-70% large company stocks and the remainder in bonds, was established in 1931 and is one of the oldest US mutual funds still in operation as of February 2019. Due to their devotion to the principles of value investing, Dodge & Cox avoided the worst of the dot com bubble during the late 1990s and early 2000 by limiting their exposure to overvalued and then-trendy internet stocks, thereby out-performing the broader market when the bubble collapsed.
According to a 2017 Morningstar, Inc. analysis, the firm's low staff turnover and investing principles have been beneficial over the long-term but have led to "bouts of sluggishness or disappointing results". Official website
Alexander Ivanovich Kazakov is a Russian politician and economist who held a number of senior government posts during the presidency of Boris Yeltsin, including deputy chief of the presidential administration and Deputy Prime Minister. He was among the officials in charge of overseeing the privatization of the Russian economy in the 1990s, being the head of the State Property Committee. Kazakov was an associate of Anatoly Chubais. Under the Soviet Union, Kazakov worked in Gosplan, the economic planning agency of the USSR, until 1992. During his service in the Russian government, Kazakov was deputy chairman of the property commission under Anatoly Chubais in 1993–1994 before becoming part of President Boris Yeltsin's administration as the head of the department working with regional bureaucracies. In January 1996, President Yeltsin appointed Kazakov to the post of chairman of the State Property Committee and one of the Deputy Chairmen of Government of the Russian Federation. In his new position, Kazakov was carrying out the policies favored by Chubais, being expected to continue them rather than make major changes.