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Augusto Boal

Augusto Boal was a Brazilian theatre practitioner, drama theorist, political activist. He was the founder of Theatre of the Oppressed, a theatrical form used in radical left popular education movements. Boal served one term as a Vereador in Rio de Janeiro from 1993 to 1997, where he developed legislative theatre. Augusto Boal studied at Columbia University in New York with the critic John Gassner. Gassner introduced Boal to the techniques of both Bertolt Brecht and Konstantin Stanislavski, encouraged Boal to form links with theatre groups like the Black Experimental Theatre. In 1955 Boal staged productions of two of his own plays The Horse and the Saint and The House Across the Street. In 1956, shortly after graduating, Boal was asked to work with the Arena Theatre in São Paulo, southeast Brazil. Boal was in charge of directing plays along with other dramaturgs such as José Renato, the founder of the Arena Theatre, it was here that he began to experiment with new forms of theatre never before seen in Brazil, such as Stanislavski's'system' for actors, with which he became familiar during his time at Columbia and when involved with the Actors Studio in New York.

Boal adapted these methods to social conditions in Brazil, taking a leftist approach on issues concerning nationalism, which were much in vogue at that time period since the country had just undergone a long period of military dictatorship. While working at the Arena Theatre in São Paulo, Boal directed a number of classical dramas, which he transformed to make them more pertinent to Brazilian society and its economy. Among these plays was John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, known in Brazil as Ratos e Homens; this was Boal's first performance as a director at the Arena Theatre of São Paulo. Critics acclaimed this piece and Boal won the Prêmio de Revelação de Direção from the Association of Art Critics of São Paulo, in 1956. In the early sixties, the ratings at the Arena Theatre of São Paulo started to drop causing the theatre to go bankrupt; the company decided to start investing in national theatre as a move that could save it from bankruptcy. The new investment proved opening up the path for a national theatre scene.

Boal suggested the creation of a Seminar in Dramaturgy at the Arena Theatre, implemented and soon became a national platform for many young playwrights. Many successful productions were born from this Seminar and now form part of the Arena Theatre of São Paulo's nationalist phase repertoire. One of these productions was Chapetuba Futebol Clube, written by Oduvaldo Vianna Filho in 1959 and directed by Augusto Boal. A new military regime started in Brazil in 1964 with a coup d'état supported by the Brazilian elite, the industrialists, the military, as well as by the United States, Boal's teachings were controversial, as a cultural activist he was seen as a threat by the Brazilian military regime. In 1971, Boal was kidnapped off the street, arrested and exiled to Argentina, where he stayed for five years. During those five years, Boal published two books: Torquemada and his much acclaimed Theatre of the Oppressed. Torquemada is about the Brazilian military regime's systematic use of torture in prison.

Boal takes the name of the leading figure of the Spanish Inquisition, Tomas de Torquemada, as an example of historical forms of systematic torture. In Theatre of the Oppressed Boal develops a theatrical method based on Pedagogy of the Oppressed, a book by the Brazilian educator and writer Paulo Freire. Boal's method seeks to transform audiences into active participants in the theatrical experience. Boal argues that traditional theatre is oppressive since spectators do not get a chance to express themselves and that a collaboration between both parties, in contrast, allows spectators to perform actions that are liberating; the method, as Boal liked to explain, seeks to transform spectators into "spect-actors." When the political climate in Brazil forced Boal into exile in 1971, he went to Peru and Argentina, where he completed and published his seminal theoretical work The Theatre of the Oppressed and consolidated his consientização theatre work based on the idea of Brazilian educationalist Paulo Freire.

Freire's methods were a revolt against the elitist "top-down" approach to education and he advocated critical-awareness-based education models. Boal's work in Peru with the ALFIN project, a movement which sought to use a range of languages including "artistic languages" to eradicate illiteracy, developed his ideas and methodology away from the agit-prop of his Brazilian Arena Theatre days and sought to engage theatre as a pedagogical tool. Crucial to this time was Boal's attempts to break down the divisions between actor, it is around this time that invented the term "spect-actor", a term that he saw as establishing the frameworks within which he wished to work. He saw that the passivity of the spectator could be broken down by the following steps by which the spectator becomes the spect-actor: Knowing the body Making the body expressive Using theatre as a language Using theatre as discourseAfter living in Argentina, Boal travelled to other countries in South America such as Peru and Ecuador, where he worked with people in small and poor communities that dealt with conflicts such as civil wars and lack of government attention.

Boal was of the opinion that only the o

The Corsican Brothers (1961 film)

The Corsican Brothers is a 1961 French-Italian historical action film directed by Anton Giulio Majano and starring Geoffrey Horne, Valérie Lagrange and Gérard Barray. It is known as Lions of Corsica; the film is an adaptation of the 1844 story The Corsican Brothers by Alexandre Dumas. The film was shot in Eastmancolor. Geoffrey Horne as Paolo Franchi / Leone Franchi Valérie Lagrange as Edith Gérard Barray as Giovanni Sagona Mario Feliciani as Dr. Dupont Emma Danieli as Gabrielle De Roux Jean Servais as Gerolamo Sagona Amedeo Nazzari as Orlandi Nerio Bernardi as Prof. Perrier Alberto Farnese as Gaspare Raoul Grassilli as Raul Sagona Franco Graziosi as Domenico Germano Longo as Claudio Franchi Sandro Moretti as Claudio Lucilla Morlacchi Paola Patrizi as Mariella Aldo Pini as Morny Laura Solari as Luisa Dupont Nando Tamberlani as Count Franchi Luigi Vannucchi as Luigi Sagona Lia Zoppelli as Aunt Mary The Corsican Brothers on IMDb

Assumption of Mary Cathedral, Hiroshima

The Assumption of Mary Cathedral called Memorial Cathedral of World Peace is a religious building, affiliated with the Catholic Church, located in the city of Hiroshima in the Asian country of Japan. The church was designed by Togo Murano, it follows the Roman or Latin rite and serves as the principal church of the Diocese of Hiroshima, created in 1959 with the bull Qui arcano of Pope John XXIII. Pope John Paul II visited the church on his tour of Japan in February 1981, it was built in tribute to the victims of war and the nuclear bomb, dropped on the city. Father Enomiya Lassalle, exposed to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, began construction in 1950 and opened in 1954. Roman Catholicism in Japan Assumption of Mary

2013–14 Red Star Belgrade season

This article shows player statistics and all results & fixtures that the club have played during the 2013–14 season. In season 2013–14 Red Star will be competing in Serbian SuperLiga, Serbian Cup and UEFA Europa League. Source: Supplier: PumaSponsor: Gazprom Telekom Srbija G-Energy Source: As of 1 September 2013Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Abiola Dauda Ifeanyi Onyilo Nejc Pečnik Omega Roberts Miguel Araujo Abiola Dauda Boban Bajković Filip Kasalica Marko Vešović Vukan Savićević Total spending: Undisclosed Total income: Undisclosed Undisclosed Undisclosed Undisclosed Red Star will participate in the 8th Serbian Cup starting in First Round; the 2013–14 season is Red Star's 8th season in Serbian SuperLiga. Includes all competitive matches; the list is sorted by shirt number. As of 28 May 2014 Includes all competitive matches; the list is sorted by shirt number. As of 8 December 2013 Last updated: 28 May 2014Source: Competitive match reports.

Competitive matches only Matches started as captain onlyCountry: FIFA nationality. Games: Number of games started as captain

Reichsgau Sudetenland

The Reichsgau Sudetenland was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1939 to 1945. It comprised the northern part of the Sudetenland territory, annexed from Czechoslovakia according to the 1938 Munich Agreement; the Reichsgau was headed by the former Sudeten German Party leader, now Nazi Party functionary Konrad Henlein in the rank of a Reichsstatthalter. The administrative capital was Reichenberg. In the course of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, on 30 September 1938 the Heads of Government of the United Kingdom, France and Germany signed the Munich Agreement, which enforced the cession of the Sudetenland to Germany. Czechoslovak representatives were not invited. On 1 October, invading Wehrmacht forces occupied the territory; the new Czechoslovak-German borders were fixed in a treaty on 21 November 1938. In consequence, the Czechoslovak Republic lost about one third of its population, its most important industrial area, its extended border fortifications; the German Army established a civil administration under occupational law.

On 1 October 1938, Konrad Henlein was appointed Reichskommissar of Sudetenland. The Sudeten German Party was merged into the Nazi Party, all other political parties were banned; the Czech population had to accept German citizenship or were expelled and forcibly relocated to the Czechoslovak rump state, which itself from March 1939 was occupied by Germany and incorporated as "Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia". The Reichsgau was established with effect from 15 April; the administrative structure was fixed on May 1. Smaller areas in the east, such as the Hlučín Region, were ceded to the Prussian Province of Silesia, while the western and southern Sudetenland territories were attached to the Bavarian Gau Bayreuth as well as to the Austrian Reichsgaue Oberdonau and Niederdonau. After Germany's defeat in World War II, the Czechoslovak state was re-established and the Sudeten German population was expelled; the Theresienstadt concentration camp was located in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, near the border to the Reichsgau Sudetenland.

It was designed to concentrate the Jewish population from the Protectorate and move them to extermination camps and held Western European and German Jews. While not an extermination camp itself the harsh and unhygienic conditions still resulted in the death of 33,000 of the 140,000 Jews brought to the camp while a further 88,000 were sent to extermination camps and only 19,000 survived. Konrad Henlein: 15 April 1939 to 8 May 1945 The Reichsgau Sudetenland was divided into three Regierungsbezirke; these were subdivided into 58 districts corresponding to the former Czechoslovak okresy: President: 1939–1945: Hans Krebs Aussig Reichenberg Aussig Bilin Böhmisch Leipa Braunau Brüx Dauba Deutsch Gabel Dux Friedland Gablonz an der Neiße Hohenelbe Komotau Leitmeritz Reichenberg Rumburg Schluckenau Teplitz-Schönau Tetschen-Bodenbach Trautenau Warnsdorf President: 1939–1940: Wilhelm Sebekovsky 1940–1945: Karl Müller Eger Karlsbad Asch Bischofteinitz Eger Elbogen Falkenau an der Eger Graslitz Kaaden Karlsbad Luditz Marienbad Mies Neudek Podersam Preßnitz Saaz Sankt Joachimsthal Tachau Tepl President: 1939–1943: Friedrich Zippelius 1943–1945: Karl Ferdinand Edler von der Planitz Troppau Bärn Freiwaldau Freudenthal Grulich Hohenstadt Jägerndorf Landskron Mährisch Schönberg Mährisch Trübau Neu Titschein Römerstadt Sternberg Troppau Wagstadt Zwittau Gauliga Sudetenland, the highest association football league in the Gauliga from 1938 to 1945 The Holocaust in the Sudetenland Illustrated list of Gauleiter

Brooklyn Atlantics

The Atlantic Base Ball Club of Brooklyn was baseball's first champion and its first dynasty. The team was the first baseball club to visit the White House in 1865 at the invitation of President Andrew Johnson. Established on August 14, 1855, Atlantic was a founding member of the National Association of Base Ball Players in 1857. In 1859, with a record of 11 wins and 1 loss, Atlantic emerged as the recognized champions of baseball. Atlantic held the championship through the 1861 season, albeit in controversial fashion. In a third and deciding game with Excelsior of Brooklyn, Excelsior was leading 8–6 and had men on base, but was forced to withdraw by a rowdy crowd of Atlantic partisans and gamblers; the game was declared a draw, the championship retained by Atlantic. Atlantic held the championship again through the 1861 season, shortened due to the American Civil War, before surrendering it to archrival Eckford of Brooklyn in 1862. Atlantic recaptured the pennant in 1866 with a season record of twenty wins, no defeats, a single tie as the only blemish on its record.

Atlantic went undefeated in 1865 with an 18–0 record, sweeping series against chief rivals Mutual of New York and Athletic of Philadelphia. Great players of this era included Joe Start, Dickey Pearce, Charlie Smith, Fred Crane, Tom Pratt. Atlantic's 36-game winning streak was broken in June, 1866 by Irvington, NJ. Atlantic retained the pennant that year by splitting a two-game series with Athletic of Philadelphia and declining to schedule a series with Union of Morrisania. Atlantic did surrender the title to Union in 1867; when Atlantic defeated Eckford to regain the pennant in 1869, Atlantic had lost to the Cincinnati Red Stockings. This allowed Atlantic to claim the championship over the undefeated Cincinnati club under the "challenge" format of the National Association of Base Ball Players, which resembled modern boxing championship rules rather than a league or tournament format; this outcome undoubtedly contributed to the tremendous anticipation when Cincinnati came to Brooklyn with an 89-game winning streak to meet the Atlantics on June 14, 1870 at Atlantic's home Capitoline Grounds.

An estimated crowd of fifteen thousand paid 50 cents a piece to see Atlantic win 8–7 in extra innings in one of the most significant games in baseball history. Atlantic surrendered the title in the year, though, to Mutual. After the 1865 season, the Atlantics became the first baseball team to visit the White House. Arthur Gorman, one of the founders of the Washington Nationals Base Ball Club and an acquaintance of President Andrew Johnson, organized a tournament featuring his team, the Athletic Base Ball Club of Philadelphia and the Atlantics. Philadelphia refused to play in the final game as they would not receive any of the gate revenue and left. Having known President Johnson since his days as a page in the United States Senate, Gorman offered to take the visiting team to the White House to meet the President. Brooklyn accepted and visited on August 30, 1865. Atlantic had been among the first clubs to declare themselves professional when allowed to do so in 1869. However, when the major professional clubs formed the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players in 1871, Atlantic declined to field a team.

As a result, their best players, including George Zettlein, Bob Ferguson, Joe Start and Lip Pike, jumped to other clubs. When Atlantic did join the professional circuit in 1872, it was unable to reestablish itself as a leading club, suffering losing records in each of its four seasons in the league. Atlantic was not invited to join the National League when that circuit was formed in 1876, but continued to play an independent schedule until at least 1882. A remnant Atlantic was invited to join the upstart American Association in 1882 but failed to satisfy the requirements for doing so. For many years afterwards, the term Atlantic batting referred to a big inning late in the game. Source for season records: Wright has published records for dozens of NABBP teams each season, relying on a mix of game and season records in contemporary newspapers and guides. Dozens of leading clubs by number of matches are included; the records do not cover either all games played or all championship matches between NABBP members.

1872 Brooklyn Atlantics season 1873 Brooklyn Atlantics season 1874 Brooklyn Atlantics season 1875 Brooklyn Atlantics season The 1865 Atlantics are said to have been on the first baseball card. The only known card was archived at the Library of Congress since the 1880s, when the photographer Charles Williamson submitted the photo for copyright, it remained the only copy of this "card" known to exist until 2013, when another card was found in an old photo album at a yard sale. The 148-year-old team photo was sold to an unnamed bidder for $92,000.00 when it went up for auction on February 6, 2013 in Maine. Baseball-Reference. "Brooklyn Atlantics Team Index". Retrieved 2006-09-17. Retrosheet. "Brooklyn Atlantics". Retrieved 2006-09-17. Wright, Marshall; the National Association of Base Ball Players, 1857–1870. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-7864-0779-4 Brooklyn Atlantics – a vintage base ball club Brooklyn Atlantics at Baseball Reference