Basileus is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history. In the English-speaking world it is perhaps most widely understood to mean king or emperor. The title was used by the Byzantine emperors, and has a history of use by sovereigns and other persons of authority in ancient Greece. The feminine forms are basilissa, basilis, or the archaic basilinna, the etymology of basileus is unclear. The Mycenaean form was *gʷasileus, denoting some sort of official or local chieftain. Its hypothetical earlier Proto-Greek form would be *gʷatileus, most linguists assume that it is a non-Greek word that was adopted by Bronze Age Greeks from a pre-existing linguistic Pre-Greek substrate of the Eastern Mediterranean. Schindler argues for an innovation of the -eus inflection type from Indo-European material rather than a Mediterranean loan. The first written instance of this word is found on the clay tablets discovered in excavations of Mycenaean palaces originally destroyed by fire.
The word basileus is written as qa-si-re-u and its meaning was chieftain. Here the initial letter q- represents the PIE labiovelar consonant */gʷ/, linear B uses the same glyph for /l/ and /r/, now uniformly written with a Latin r by convention. Linear B only depicts syllables of single vowel or consonant-vowel form, the word can be contrasted with wanax, another word used more specifically for king and usually meaning High King or overlord. With the collapse of Mycenaean society, the position of wanax ceases to be mentioned, in the works of Homer wanax appears, in the form ánax, mostly in descriptions of Zeus and of very few human monarchs, most notably Agamemnon. Otherwise the term survived almost exclusively as a component in compound personal names and is still in use in Modern Greek in the description of the anáktoron/anáktora, most of the Greek leaders in Homers works are described as basileís, which is conventionally rendered in English as kings. However, an accurate translation may be princes or chieftains, which would better reflect conditions in Greek society in Homers time.
Agamemnon tries to give orders to Achilles among many others, while another serves as his charioteer. His will, however, is not to be automatically obeyed, a study by Robert Drews has demonstrated that even at the apex of Geometric and Archaic Greek society, basileus does not automatically translate to king. In a number of authority was exercised by a college of basileis drawn from a particular clan or group. However, basileus could be applied to the leaders of tribal states, like those of the Arcadians
Religion in ancient Rome
The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety in maintaining good relations with the gods. According to legends, most of Romes religious institutions could be traced to its founders, particularly Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome, who negotiated directly with the gods. This archaic religion was the foundation of the mos maiorum, the way of the ancestors or simply tradition, as Rome came into contact with foreign cultures, and conquered them, foreign religions increasingly attracted devotees among Romans, who increasingly had ancestry from elsewhere in the Empire. The emperors promoted the Imperial cult around the empire, and this, Roman polytheism was brought to an end with the adoption of Christianity as the official religion of the empire. The priesthoods of public religion were held by members of the elite classes, there was no principle analogous to separation of church and state in ancient Rome.
During the Roman Republic, the men who were elected public officials might serve as augurs. Priests married, raised families, and led politically active lives, Julius Caesar became pontifex maximus before he was elected consul. The augurs read the will of the gods and supervised the marking of boundaries as a reflection of universal order, Roman religion was thus practical and contractual, based on the principle of do ut des, I give that you might give. Even the most skeptical among Romes intellectual elite such as Cicero, for ordinary Romans, religion was a part of daily life. Each home had a shrine at which prayers and libations to the familys domestic deities were offered. Neighborhood shrines and sacred such as springs and groves dotted the city. The Roman calendar was structured around religious observances, women and children all participated in a range of religious activities. The Romans are known for the number of deities they honored. The Romans looked for common ground between their major gods and those of the Greeks, adapting Greek myths and iconography for Latin literature, etruscan religion was a major influence, particularly on the practice of augury.
The mysteries, involved exclusive oaths and secrecy, conditions that conservative Romans viewed with suspicion as characteristic of magic, conspiratorial, or subversive activity. Sporadic and sometimes brutal attempts were made to suppress religionists who seemed to threaten traditional morality and unity, one way that Rome incorporated diverse peoples was by supporting their religious heritage, building temples to local deities that framed their theology within the hierarchy of Roman religion. Inscriptions throughout the Empire record the worship of local and Roman deities. Because Romans had never been obligated to one god or one cult only
A Roman legion was the largest unit of the Roman army involving from 3000 men in early times to over 5200 men in imperial times, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century,10 cohorts made up a Roman Legion and this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size and one cohort, the first cohort, of double strength. In the early Roman Kingdom the legion may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few, Legions included a small ala or cavalry unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have even smaller. The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted mostly of auxiliaries rather than legions, because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, and were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified, toward the end of the 2nd Century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army.
In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions, a legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries. The recruitment of non-citizens was rare but appears to have occurred in times of great need, For example, Caesar appears to have recruited the Legio V Alaudae mostly from non-citizen Gauls. In the period before the raising of the legio and the years of the Roman Kingdom. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them, the roles of century leader, second in command and standard bearer are referenced in this early period. Much Roman history of the era is shrouded in legend, but it is believed that during the reign of Servius Tullius, the census was introduced. Joining the army was both a duty and a mark of Roman citizenship, during the entire pre-Marian period the wealthiest land owners performed the most years of military service.
These individuals would have had the most to lose should the state have fallen. The first and wealthiest common class was armed in the fashion of the hoplite with spear, helmet, breast plate and round shield, there were 82 centuries of these, Roman soldiers had to purchase their own equipment. The second and third class acted as spearmen but were heavily armoured and carried a larger oval or rectangular shield. The fourth class could afford no armour, perhaps bearing a shield and armed with spear. All three of the latter made up about 26 centuries
Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.
He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards.
He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War
Roman naming conventions
The distinguishing feature of Roman nomenclature was the use of both personal names and regular surnames. Throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, other ancient civilizations distinguished individuals through the use of personal names. Consisting of two elements, or themes, these names allowed for hundreds or even thousands of possible combinations. But a markedly different system of nomenclature arose in Italy, where the name was joined by a hereditary surname. Over time, this binomial system expanded to include additional names, the most important of these names was the nomen gentilicium, or simply nomen, a hereditary surname that identified a person as a member of a distinct gens. This was preceded by the praenomen, or forename, a name that served to distinguish between the different members of a family. The origin of this system is lost in prehistory, but it appears to have been established in Latium. In written form, the nomen was usually followed by a filiation, indicating the name of an individuals father.
Toward the end of the Roman Republic, this was followed by the name of a citizens voting tribe, these elements could be followed by additional surnames, or cognomina, which could be either personal or hereditary, or a combination of both. The Roman grammarians came to regard the combination of praenomen, even then, not all Roman citizens bore cognomina, and until the end of the Republic the cognomen was regarded as somewhat less than an official name. Naming conventions for women varied from the concept of the tria nomina. By the end of the Republic, the majority of Roman women either did not have or did not use praenomina, most women were called by their nomen alone, or by a combination of nomen and cognomen. For a variety of reasons, the Roman nomenclature system broke down in the following the collapse of imperial authority in the west. The praenomen had already become scarce in written sources during the fourth century, over the course of the sixth century, as Roman institutions and social structures gradually fell away, the need to distinguish between nomina and cognomina likewise vanished.
By the end of the century, the people of Italy. But many of the names that had originated as part of the tria nomina were adapted to this usage, as in other cultures, the early peoples of Italy probably used a single name, which developed into the praenomen. Marcus Terentius Varro wrote that the earliest Italians used simple names, names of this type could be honorific or aspirational, or might refer to deities, physical peculiarities, or circumstances of birth. In this early period, the number of personal names must have quite large
In ancient Roman religion, Ops or Opis was a fertility deity and earth-goddess of Sabine origin. In Ops statues and coins, she is figured sitting down, as Chthonian deities normally are, the husband of Ops was Saturn. In Roman mythology, and in Greek mythology where Ops is identified as Rhea, her husband was Cronus, Cronus was Rheas husband and brother. In Latin writings of the time, the nominative is not used. According to Festus, Ops is said to be the wife of Saturn, by her they designated the earth, because the earth distributes all goods to the human genus. The Latin word ops means riches, abundance, munificence, the word is related to opus, which means work, particularly in the sense of working the earth, sowing. This activity was deemed sacred, and was attended by religious rituals intended to obtain the good will of chthonic deities such as Ops. Ops is related to the Sanskrit word ápnas, according to Roman tradition, the cult of Opis was instituted by Titus Tatius, one of the Sabine kings of Rome.
Opis soon became the patroness of riches and prosperity, Opis had a famous temple in the Capitolium. Originally, a festival took place in Opis honor on August 10, additionally, on December 19, the Opalia was celebrated. On August 25, the Opiconsivia was held, Opiconsivia was another name used for Opis, indicating when the earth was sown. These festivals included activities that were called Consualia, in honor of Consus, when syncretized with Greek mythology, was not only the wife of Saturn, she was his sister and the daughter of Caelus. Her children were Jupiter, Pluto, Ceres, Opis acquired queenly status and was reputed to be an eminent goddess. By public decree temples and sacrifices were accorded her, virginia Browns translation of Giovanni Boccaccio’s Famous Women, p.12 -13, Harvard University Press 2001, ISBN 0-674-01130-9
The Latin word imperator was originally a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic. Later it became a part of the titulature of the Roman Emperors as part of their cognomen, the English word emperor derives from imperator via Old French Empereür. The Roman emperors themselves generally based their authority on multiple titles and positions, imperator was used relatively consistently as an element of a Roman rulers title throughout the principate and the dominate. In Latin, the form of imperator is imperatrix, denoting a ruling female. When Rome was ruled by kings, to be able to rule, so, after the comitia curiata, held to elect the king, the king had to be conferred the imperium. In Roman Republican literature and epigraphy, an imperator was a magistrate with imperium, but also, mainly in the Roman Republic and during the late Republican civil wars, imperator was the honorific title assumed by certain military commanders. After an especially great victory, an armys troops in the field would proclaim their commander imperator, an acclamation necessary for a general to apply to the Senate for a triumph.
After being acclaimed imperator, the general had a right to use the title after his name until the time of his triumph. Since a triumph was the goal of many politically ambitious Roman commanders, in 15 AD Germanicus was imperator during the empire of his adoptive father Tiberius. As a permanent title, imperator was used as a praenomen by the Roman emperors and was taken on accession, after the reign of Tiberius, the act of being proclaimed imperator was transformed into the act of imperial accession. In fact, if a general was acclaimed by his troops as imperator, at first the term continued to be used in the Republican sense as a victory title but attached to the de facto monarch and head of state, rather than the actual military commander. The title followed the name along with the number of times he was acclaimed as such. In time it became the title of the de facto monarch, this title was used in Greek-language texts for Roman emperors from the establishment of the empire. After the Roman empire collapsed in the West in the 5th century, Latin continued to be used as the language of learning, the Roman emperors of this period were referred to as imperatores in Latin texts, while the word basileus was used in Greek.
After 800, the imperator was used as a formal Latin title in succession by the Carolingian and German Holy Roman Emperors until 1806,1480 to likewise assert their contention to be the heirs to the Byzantine state Reigning female Russian rulers were styled imperatritsa. Still, in rare cases in which a European monarchs Latin titles were used. Famously, after assuming the title Emperor of India, British monarchs would follow their signatures with the initials RI, standing for rex imperator. George VI of the United Kingdom was the last European ruler to claim a title, when he abdicated as Emperor of India in 1948
Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion of interpreting omens from the observed flight of birds. When the individual, known as the augur, interpreted these signs and auspices are from the Latin auspicium and auspex, literally one who looks at birds. Depending upon the birds, the auspices from the gods could be favorable or unfavorable, sometimes bribed or politically motivated augures would fabricate unfavorable auspices in order to delay certain state functions, such as elections. Pliny the Elder attributes the invention of auspicy to Tiresias the seer of Thebes, plato notes that hepatoscopy held greater prestige than augury by means of birds. One of the most famous auspices is the one which is connected with the founding of Rome, once the founders of Rome and Remus, arrived at the Palatine Hill, the two argued over where the exact position of the city should be. Romulus was set on building the city upon the Palatine, but Remus wanted to build the city on the strategic, the two agreed to settle their argument by testing their abilities as augures and by the will of the gods.
Each took a seat on the ground apart from one another, according to unanimous testimony from ancient sources the use of auspices as a means to decipher the will of the gods was more ancient than Rome itself. The use of the word is associated with Latins as well as the earliest Roman citizens. Stoics, for instance, maintained that if there are gods, they care for men, in ancient Rome, the appointment and inauguration of any magistrate, decisions made within the people’s assembly and the advancement of any campaign always required a positive auspicium. Unlike in Greece where oracles played the role of messenger of the gods, Auspices showed Romans what they were to do, or not to do, giving no explanation for the decision made except that it was the will of the gods. It would be difficult to execute any public act without consulting the auspices, the passing of laws, and initiation of wars were all put on hold until the people were assured the gods agreed with their actions. The men who interpreted these signs, revealing the will of the gods were called augures, the magistrates were expected to understand the basic interpretations as they were often expected to take the auspices whenever they undertook any public business.
Until 300 BC only patricians could become augures, plebeian assemblies were forbidden to take augury and hence had no input as to whether a certain law, war or festival should occur. Cicero, an augur himself, accounts how the monopoly of the created a useful barrier to the encroachment of the populares. With this new power it was not only possible for plebeians to determine the gods will in their favor, there were five different types of auspices. Of these, the last three formed no part of the ancient auspices, ex caelo This auspice involved the observation of thunder and lightning and was often seen as the most important auspice. Whenever an augur reported that Jupiter had sent down thunder and lightning, ex avibus Though auspices were typically bird signs, not all birds in the sky were seen as symbols of the will of the Gods. There were two classes of birds, who gave auspices via their singing, and Alites, the Oscines included ravens, crows and hens, each offering either a favorable omen or an unfavorable depending on which side of the Augurs designated area they appeared on
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops and motherly relationships. She was originally the central deity in Romes so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad and her seven-day April festival of Cerealia included the popular Ludi Ceriales. She was honoured in the May lustratio of the fields at the Ambarvalia festival, at harvest-time, Ceres is the only one of Romes many agricultural deities to be listed among the Dii Consentes, Romes equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature. Roman etymologists thought ceres derived from the Latin verb gerere, to bear, bring forth, because the goddess was linked to pastoral and human fertility. Archaic cults to Ceres are well-evidenced among Romes neighbours in the Regal period, including the ancient Latins and Sabellians, an archaic Faliscan inscription of c.600 BC asks her to provide far, which was a dietary staple of the Mediterranean world.
Throughout the Roman era, Ceres name was synonymous with grain and, by extension and she had the power to fertilise and fructify plant and animal seed, and her laws and rites protected all activities of the agricultural cycle. In January, Ceres was offered spelt wheat and a pregnant sow and this was almost certainly held before the annual sowing of grain. The divine portion of sacrifice was the entrails presented in an earthenware pot, in a rural context, Cato the Elder describes the offer to Ceres of a porca praecidanea. Before the harvest, she was offered a propitiary grain sample, Ovid tells that Ceres is content with little, provided that her offerings are casta. Ceres main festival, was held from mid to late April and it was organised by her plebeian aediles and included circus games. From c.175 BC, Cerealia included ludi scaenici through April 12 to 18, W. H. Roscher lists these deities among the indigitamenta, names used to invoke specific divine functions. The adult males of the party waited at the grooms house.
A wedding sacrifice was offered to Tellus on the brides behalf, Varro describes the sacrifice of a pig as a worthy mark of weddings because our women, and especially nurses call the female genitalia porcus. Spaeth believes Ceres may have included in the sacrificial dedication, because she is closely identified with Tellus and, as Ceres legifera. In the most solemn form of marriage, the bride and groom shared a cake made of far, from at least the mid-republican era, an official, joint cult to Ceres and Proserpina reinforced Ceres connection with Roman ideals of female virtue. The promotion of this cult coincides with the rise of a nobility, an increased birthrate among plebeian commoners. Several of Ceres ancient Italic precursors are connected to fertility and motherhood
Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, the change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called Year of the Four Emperors. For political and personal reasons Octavian chose to emphasize his relationship with Caesar by styling himself simply Imperator Caesar, without any of the other elements of his full name. His successor as emperor, his stepson Tiberius, bore the name as a matter of course, born Tiberius Claudius Nero, he was adopted by Caesar Augustus on June 26,4 AD, as Tiberius Julius Caesar. The precedent was set, the Emperor designated his successor by adopting him, Claudius in turn adopted his stepson and grand-nephew Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, giving him the name Caesar in the traditional way, his stepson would rule as the Emperor Nero. Galba helped solidify Caesar as the title of the heir by giving it to his own adopted heir. Galbas reign did not last long and he was deposed by Marcus Otho.
Otho did not at first use the title Caesar and occasionally used the title Nero as emperor, Otho was defeated by Aulus Vitellius who acceded with the name Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus. Vitellius did not adopt the cognomen Caesar as part of his name, vespasians son, Titus Flavius Vespasianus became Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus. By this point the status of Caesar had been regularised into that of a given to the Emperor-designate. After some variation among the earliest emperors, the style of the Emperor-designate on coins was usually Nobilissimus Caesar Most Noble Caesar, on March 1,293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors. The two coequal senior emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors, as Imperator Caesar NN, pius Felix Invictus Augustus, and were called the Augusti, while the two junior sub-Emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors-designate, as Nobilissimus Caesar.
Likewise, the junior sub-Emperors retained the title Caesar upon accession to the senior position, an exceptional case was the conferment of the dignity and its insignia to the Bulgarian khan Tervel by Justinian II who had helped him regain his throne in 705. The title was awarded to the brother of Empress Maria of Alania, according to the Klētorologion of 899, the Byzantine Caesars insignia were a crown without a cross, and the ceremony of a Caesars creation, is included in De Ceremoniis I.43. The title remained the highest in the hierarchy until the introduction of the sebastokratōr by Alexios I Komnenos. The title remained in existence through the last centuries of the Empire, in the late Byzantine hierarchy, as recorded in the mid-14th century Book of Offices of pseudo-Kodinos, the rank continued to come after the sebastokratōr. Pseudo-Kodinos writes that the forms of another form of hat, the domed skaranikon, and of the mantle. In the Middle East, the Persians and the Arabs continued to refer to the Roman and Byzantine emperors as Caesar
Lares, were guardian deities in ancient Roman religion. Their origin is uncertain, they may have been hero-ancestors, guardians of the hearth, boundaries or fruitfulness, Lares were believed to observe and influence all that happened within the boundaries of their location or function. The statues of domestic Lares were placed at the table during meals, their presence, cult. Roman writers sometimes identify or conflate them with ancestor-deities, domestic Penates, because of these associations, Lares are sometimes categorised as household gods but some had much broader domains. Roadways, agriculture, towns and those who protected local neighbourhoods were housed in the crossroad shrines which served as a focus for the religious and political life of their local, overwhelmingly plebeian communities. Their cult officials included freedmen and slaves, otherwise excluded by status or property qualification from most administrative, compared to Romes major deities Lares had limited scope and potency but archaeological and literary evidence attests to their central role in Roman identity and religious life.
By analogy, a homeward-bound Roman could be described as returning ad Larem, despite official bans on non-Christian cults from the late 4th century AD onwards, unofficial cults to Lares persisted until at least the early 5th century AD. Archaic Romes Etruscan neighbours practiced domestic, ancestral or family cults very similar to those offered by Romans to their Lares, the word itself seems to derive from the Etruscan lar, lars, or larth, meaning lord. Weinstock proposes a more ancient equivalence of Lar and Greek hero, Lares are represented as two small, lively male figures clad in short, girdled tunics – made of dogskin, according to Plutarch. They take an attitude, tiptoed or lightly balanced on one leg. One arm raises a drinking horn aloft as if to offer a toast or libation, Compitalia shrines of the same period show Lares figures of the same type. Painted shrine-images of paired Lares show them in mirrored poses to the left and right of a central figure, Lares belonged within the bounded physical domain under their protection, and seem to have been as innumerable as the places they protected.
Some appear to have had overlapping functions and changes of name, likewise those invoked along with other deities by the consul Publius Decius Mus as an act of devotio before his death in battle are simply Lares. The titles and domains given below cannot therefore be taken as exhaustive or definitive, official Cult to the Lares Augusti continued from their institution through to the 4th century AD. They are identified with the Lares Compitalicii and Lares Praestites of Augustan religious reform, Lares Compitalicii, the Lares of local communities or neighbourhoods, celebrated at the Compitalia festival. The Lares Compitalicii are synonymous with the Lares Augusti of Augustan reform, Augustus institution of cult to the Lares Praestites was held at the same Compitalia shrines, but on a different date. Lares Domestici, Lares of the house, probably identical with Lares Familiares, Lares Familiares, Lares of the family, probably identical with the Lares Domestici. Lares Grundules, the thirty grunting Lares or Lares of the eaves, supposedly given an altar, according to Dionysius of Halicarnassus the place where the sow bore the piglets and Aeneas made the sacrifice was sacred, and forbidden to foreigners