Augustus Saint-Gaudens was an American sculptor of the Beaux-Arts generation who embodied the ideals of the American Renaissance. Raised in New York City, he traveled to Europe for artistic study. After he returned to New York, he achieved major critical success for his monuments commemorating heroes of the American Civil War, many of which still stand. Saint-Gaudens created works such as the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common and grand equestrian monuments to Civil War generals: General John Logan Memorial in Chicago's Grant Park and William Tecumseh Sherman at the corner of New York's Central Park. Saint-Gaudens created Classical works such as the Diana, he used his design skills in numismatics. Most notably, he designed the $20 Saint Gaudens Double Eagle gold piece for the US Mint, considered one of the most beautiful American coins issued, as well as the $10 "Indian Head" gold eagle. In his years he founded the "Cornish Colony", an artistic colony that included notable painters, sculptors and architects.
His brother Louis Saint-Gaudens, with whom he collaborated, was a well-known sculptor. Saint-Gaudens was born in Dublin, Ireland to an Irish mother and French father, Bernard Paul Ernest Saint-Gaudens, a shoemaker by trade from a small village in the French Pyrenees, Aspet, 15 kilometers from Saint-Gaudens. After his parents immigrated to America when he was six months of age, he was reared in New York City. In 1861, he became an apprentice to a cameo-cutter, Louis Avet, took evening art classes at the Cooper Union in New York City. Two years he was hired as an apprentice of Jules Le Brethon, another cameo cutter, enrolled at the National Academy of Design. At age 19, his apprenticeship was completed and he traveled to Paris in 1867, where he studied in the atelier of François Jouffroy at the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1870, he left Paris for Rome to study art and architecture, worked on his first commissions. There he met a deaf American art student, Augusta Fisher Homer, whom he married on June 1, 1877.
The couple had a son named Homer Saint-Gaudens. In 1874, Edwards Pierrepont, a prominent New York reformer, hired Saint-Gaudens to create a marble bust of himself. Pierrepont, a phrenologist, proved to be a demanding client, insisting that Saint-Gaudens make his head larger. Saint-Gaudens said that Pierrepont's bust "seemed to be affected with some dreadful swelling disease" and he told a friend that he would "give anything to get hold of that bust and smash it to atoms". In 1876, he won a commission for a bronze David Farragut Memorial, he rented a studio at 49 rue Notre Dame des Champs. Stanford White designed the pedestal, it was unveiled on May 1881, in Madison Square Park. He collaborated with Stanford White again in 1892–94 when he created Diana as a weather vane for the second Madison Square Garden building in New York City; the statue stood on a 300-foot-high tower. It was the first statue in that part of Manhattan to be lit at night by electricity; the statue and its tower was a landmark until 1925.
In New York, he was a member of the Tilers, a group of prominent artists and writers, including Winslow Homer, William Merritt Chase and Arthur Quartley. He was a member of The Lambs, Salmagundi Club and The National Arts Club in New York City. In 1876, Saint-Gaudens received his first major commission: a monument to Civil War Admiral David Farragut, in New York's Madison Square; the commissions followed fast, including the colossal Standing Lincoln in Lincoln Park, Chicago in a setting by architect White, 1884–1887, considered the finest portrait statue in the United States, a long series of memorials, funerary monuments and busts, including the Adams Memorial, the Peter Cooper Monument, the John A. Logan Monument. Arguably the greatest of these monuments is the bronze bas-relief that forms the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common, 1884–1897, which Saint-Gaudens labored on for 14 years. Two grand equestrian monuments to Civil War generals are outstanding: to General John A. Logan, atop a tumulus in Chicago, 1894–1897, to William Tecumseh Sherman at the corner of Central Park in New York, 1892–1903, the first use of Robert Treat Paine's pointing device for the accurate mechanical enlargement of sculpture models.
The depictions of the African-American soldiers on the Shaw memorial is noted as a rare example of true-to-life, non-derogatory, depictions of Afro-ancestral physical characteristics in 19th-century American art. For the Lincoln Centennial in 1909, Saint-Gaudens produced another statue of the president. A seated figure, Abraham Lincoln: The Head of State, is in Chicago's Grant Park. Saint-Gaudens completed the design work and had begun casting the statue at the time of his death—his workshop completed it; the statue's head was used as the model for the commemorative postage stamp issued on the 100th anniversary of Lincoln's birth. Saint-Gaudens created the statue for the monument of Charles Stewart Parnell, in
The General of the Armies of the United States, or more referred to as General of the Armies, is the highest possible rank in the United States Army. The rank is equated to that of a six-star general and is one of the two highest possible military ranks in the United States Armed Forces; the rank has only been awarded on two occasions: in 1919, to general John J. Pershing in recognition of his service in the First World War, in 1976, to George Washington, posthumously promoted during the United States Bicentennial celebrations. General Pershing, promoted by President Woodrow Wilson with the authorization of Congress, remains the only at-the-time active duty officer or living American to have held the rank; the rank of General of the Armies is equivalent to the Admiral of the Navy and is senior to General of the Army, General of the Air Force, Fleet Admiral. Appointment to the rank or grade of General of the Armies of the United States has a history spanning over two centuries. In the course of its existence the authority and seniority of the rank, perceptions by both the American public and the military establishment, have varied.
The first mention of the rank "General of the Armies" was in an Act of the United States Congress on March 3, 1799. Congress provided: That a Commander of the United States shall be appointed and commissioned by the style of General of the Armies of the United States and the present office and title of Lieutenant General shall thereafter be abolished; the rank of General of the Armies was intended for bestowal upon George Washington, who held the rank of "General and Commander-in-Chief", a grade senior to all American major generals and brigadier generals from the American Revolutionary War. However, only a few months after the Congressional proposal, Washington died on December 14, 1799; the United States Army at that time had drastically reduced in size and there was no practical need for a superior General rank, thus the proposal for General of the Armies was soon forgotten. In 1865, after the close of the American Civil War, Congress again revisited the idea of a superior General rank; the result was the creation of a special rank called "General of the Army of the United States", held by Ulysses S. Grant.
This early version of General of the Army was in fact a four-star general officer rank although, unlike in modern times, Congress intended for only one Army officer to hold the position, thus granting the rank the same authority as the initial concept of General of the Armies. William T. Sherman and Philip Sheridan would hold the position. During Sherman's tenure, the insignia was changed to that of a major general superimposed upon a golden national eagle; the rank of General of the Army of the United States ceased to exist upon the death of Sheridan in 1888. The next proposal to create a superior general rank would occur thirty one years during the First World War. In the interim, the highest possible general officer rank of the United States Army was that of two-star major general. Within the United States Navy, three- and four-star ranks continued into the 20th century, leading to the creation of the Admiral of the Navy rank in 1899. George Dewey was appointed this rank which, at the time of its creation, was considered a four-star admiral with an added honorary title.
A comparison between Admiral of the Navy and General of the Armies was first made in 1944, although the rank of Admiral of the Navy was never declared equal in seniority. During World War I, the United States Congress authorized the appointment of three-star lieutenant generals and four-star generals to be granted temporarily for service in the National Army. Tasker H. Bliss and John J. Pershing were promoted to general in October 1917, Peyton C. March was promoted to that rank in May 1918. Hunter Liggett and Robert Lee Bullard were both promoted to lieutenant general on October 16, 1918. In 1919, by Congressional directive, the rank of General of the Armies was formally established and John J. Pershing became the first person to hold the rank. After the close of the First World War, the highest active grade in the U. S. Army again became major general, with all lieutenant generals and generals reverted to this permanent rank of major general. Pershing retired from the United States Army on September 13, 1924, retained his rank on the U.
S. Army retirement rolls until his death in 1948. Four-star generals were reauthorized starting with Charles Pelot Summerall. Pershing at this time was no longer on active duty, but his rank was regarded as senior to a full general outside the regular promotion tier. On December 14, 1944, the United States Army established a five-star general position and named this new rank "General of the Army", a title that had not been used since the 1880s after the Civil War. Unlike the Civil War version, this new rank was a five-star position, whereas the old version was considered a four-star rank. S. Army. Pershing was still living during World War II, although he was over eighty years old when the United States entered the war; the question was raised by both the media and the public as to whether Pershing's rank "fit in" with the new five-star position. It was decided that Pershing would outrank all five-star generals by order of seniority, meaning that if he did not have a higher rank, he was considered senior by virtue of an earlier date of promotion into that rank.
There was still rampant speculation, that Pershing was a six-star general, the media put the matter directly to the War Department for a clear and concise answer. In
Un Lujo is a collaborative Studio album released by Mexican recording artists Lucero and Joan Sebastian, released on 22 May 2012, by Skalona Records. Sebastian wrote and produced all tracks included, four performed by him, four songs by Lucero and three duets recorded by both. Un Lujo debuted in the top five in the Billboard Top Latin Albums in the United States and within the top forty in Mexico; the lead album single – the duet "Caminar Contigo" – went on to chart in the top twenty of the Billboard Latin Songs and the second single, "Diséñame", performed by Sebastian charted in Mexico and the United States. The album was nominated for a 2013 Billboard Mexican Music Award. Mexican singer Lucero and fellow Mexican singer-songwriter Joan Sebastian were both signed to the same record label during the 80s, Lucero recorded songs written by Sebastian on her albums Fuego y Ternura and Lucerito: Ocho Quince. In 1992, Lucero included on her album Lucero De México Sebastian's song "Llorar" and was released as the lead single from the album reaching top thirty in the Billboard Latin Songs.
In 2010, Lucero starred in the telenovela Soy Tu Dueña and was joined by Sebastian on the theme song titled "Golondrinas Viajeras", included on Sebastian's album Huevos Rancheros. While shooting the telenovela Por Ella Soy Eva in March 2012, Lucero recorded and released "No Me Dejes Ir", a song, to be included on the soundtrack, revealed that she was still working on a new album to be titled Lujo produced by Joan Sebastian. Two months the album title was announced as Un LuJo, using the first two letters of the names of both singers. Un Lujo includes four songs recorded by three duets; the song "Diséñame" was presented by Sebastian at the Festival Acapulco 2012. Sebastian stated that the album is "a representation of the love and admiration we have for each other"; the duet "Caminar Contigo" was selected as the album lead single and peaked at number 18 in the Billboard Latin Songs and at number seven in the Regional Mexican Songs chart in the United States. "Diséñame", performed by Sebastian, was released as the second single, peaking at number 13 in the Regional Mexican Songs chart.
In Mexico, the song peaked at number 10 on the Top General in the Monitor Latino charts and number 3 in the Mexican Airplay Chart according to Billboard International chart. All songs written by Joan Sebastian. In the United States, Un Lujo debuted and peaked at number four in the Billboard Top Latin Albums, reached the top of the Regional Mexican Albums chart in the second week; the album peaked at number 24 in Mexican Album Charts, lower than the previous releases by both performers, Indispensable by Lucero and Huevos Rancheros by Sebastian. Un Lujo was nominated for Ranchero/Mariachi Album of the Year at the 2013 Billboard Mexican Music Awards