The Franco-Indian alliance was an alliance between American Indians and the French, centered on the Great Lakes and the Illinois country during the French and Indian War. The alliance involved French settlers on the one side, and the Abenaki, Menominee, Mississauga, Sioux, Huron-Petun, Potawatomi etc. on the other. It allowed the French and the Indians to form a haven in the valley before the open conflict between the European powers erupted. France had a presence in Northern America, starting with the establishment of New France in 1534. Acculturation and conversion were promoted, especially through the activities of the Jesuit missions in North America, but unlike the other colonial powers, under the guidance of Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu, encouraged a peaceful coexistence in New France between Natives and Colonists. The Baron de Saint-Castin was adopted by an Abenaki tribe and married a native girl, governor Frontenac danced and sang war songs at an Indian council. While Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu fought bare-chested and covered with war paints at the battle against Braddock, Natives adopted French habits, like chief Kondiaronk who wanted to be buried in his uniform of captain or Kateri Tekakwitha who became a Catholic Saint.
French settlers and natives were allied in every conflict preceding the Seven Years War, Father Rales War, King Georges War, intermarriages were frequent in New France, giving rise to the Métis people. In North America in the 18th century, the British outnumbered the French 20 to 1, britain had a string of successes, especially with the Battle of Fort Niagara, and the Franco-Indian alliance started to unravel. At the same time, the British were making promises of support, finally Quebec fell in September following the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. At the conclusion of the Seven Years War in 1763, New France was divided with Canada going to the British, long after the extinction of New France in 1763, Franco-Indian communities would persist, practicing the catholic faith, speaking French and using French names. From the Saint Lawrence to the Mississippi, cosmopolitan French communities accommodated Indians, in 1869 and 1885, Louis Riel led two Métis revolts against the Canadian government, known as the Red River Rebellion and the North-West Rebellion.
The revolts were suppressed and Riel executed, foreign alliances of France French and Indian War Kahnawake surnames Alfred A. Cave The French and Indian War 2004 Greenwood Press ISBN 0-313-32168-X
The Franco-American alliance was the 1778 alliance between the Kingdom of France and the United States during the American Revolutionary War. Formalized in the 1778 Treaty of Alliance, it was a pact in which the French provided many supplies for the Americans. The Netherlands and Spain joined as allies of France, Britain had no European allies, the French alliance was possible once the Americans captured a British invasion army at Saratoga in October 1777, demonstrating the viability of the American cause. The alliance became controversial after 1793 when Britain and Revolutionary France again went to war, relations between France and the United States worsened as the latter became closer to Britain in the Jay Treaty of 1795, leading to an undeclared Quasi War. The alliance was defunct by 1794 and formally ended in 1800, France had been left deeply alarmed by the British success in the Seven Years War which they feared gave the British naval superiority. From 1763 both France, and their allies Spain, began to rebuild their navies and prepare for a war in which they would construct an alliance to overwhelm.
As Britains troubles with its American colonies intensified during the 1760s and eventually led to rebellion in 1775. In September 1775 the Continental Congress described foreign assistance as undoubtedly attainable and began to seek supplies, the French leadership sought the humiliation of England and began giving covert aid to the rebels. The American Declaration of Independence was advocated by some as necessary in order to secure European support against Britain, Silas Deane, an American envoy in Paris, proposed a major anti-British alliance and French invasions of Hanover and Portugal which were both British allies. The alliance was promoted in the United States by Thomas Jefferson, based on the Model Treaty of 1776, Jefferson encouraged the role of France as an economic and military partner to the United States, in order to weaken British influence. In 1776, Latouche Tréville transferred ammunition from France to the United States of America, numerous French supplies as well as guns of the de Valliere type were used in the American War of Independence, especially the smaller 4-pounder field guns.
The guns were shipped from France, and the carriages provided for in the US. These guns played an important role in battles as the Battle of Saratoga. That of the French ships of war, with artillery and other stores, is most valuable. It is my intent to have all the arms that were not immediately wanted by the Eastern States, to be removed to Springfield, I shall write Congress and press the immediate removal of the artillery, and other military stores from Portsmouth. I would have you forward the twenty-five chests of arms lately arrived from Martinico to Springfield, on 13 June 1777, the Marquis de Lafayette reached America and joined George Washington in the Continental Army as Major General. He participated to the Battle of Brandywine where he was wounded, Lafayette would return to France during the war in order to advocate more support for the American cause. The combined strength of the Americans and the French virtually guaranteed victory against Great Britain, naval conflict started in European waters with the First Battle of Ushant in July 1778, and continued with the attempted invasion of Britain by the Armada of 1779
Romanticism in Scotland
Romanticism in Scotland was an artistic and intellectual movement that developed between the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth centuries. Scott had a impact on the development of a national Scottish drama. Art was heavily influenced by Ossian and a new view of the Highlands as the location of a wild, Scott profoundly affected architecture through his re-building of Abbotsford House in the early nineteenth century, which set off the boom in the Scots Baronial revival. Intellectually and figures like Thomas Carlyle played a part in the development of historiography, Romanticism influenced science, particularly the life sciences, geology and astronomy, giving Scotland a prominence in these areas that continued into the late nineteenth century. Scottish philosophy was dominated by Scottish Common Sense Realism, which shared some characteristics with Romanticism and was an influence on the development of Transcendentalism. Scott played a part in defining Scottish and British politics, helping to create a romanticised view of Scotland.
Romanticism began to subside as a movement in the 1830s, and it had a lasting impact on the nature of Scottish identity and outside perceptions of Scotland. It is associated with political revolutions, beginning with those in Americana and France and movements for independence, particularly in Poland and Greece. It is often thought to incorporate an emotional assertion of the self and of individual experience along with a sense of the infinite, transcendental, in art there was a stress on imagination, landscape and a spiritual correspondence with nature. It has been described by Margaret Drabble as a revolt against classical form, conservative morality, authoritarian government, personal insincerity. Allan Ramsay laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, James Macpherson was the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation. Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard Ossian, he published translations that acquired international popularity and it was popularised in France by figures that included Napoleon.
Eventually it became clear that the poems were not direct translations from the Gaelic, Robert Burns and Walter Scott were highly influenced by the Ossian cycle. Burns, an Ayrshire poet and lyricist, is regarded as the national poet of Scotland. His poem Auld Lang Syne is often sung at Hogmanay, Scott began as a poet and collected and published Scottish ballads. His first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is called the first historical novel. It launched a successful career, with other historical novels such as Rob Roy, The Heart of Midlothian. Scott probably did more than any other figure to define and popularise Scottish cultural identity in the nineteenth century, other major literary figures connected with Romanticism include the poets and novelists James Hogg, Allan Cunningham and John Galt
Renaissance in Scotland
The Renaissance in Scotland was a cultural and artistic movement in Scotland, from the late fifteenth century to the beginning of the seventeenth century. It involved an attempt to revive the principles of the era, including humanism, a spirit of scholarly enquiry, scepticism. The court was central to the patronage and dissemination of Renaissance works and it was central to the staging of lavish display that portrayed the political and religious role of the monarchy. The Renaissance led to the adoption of ideas of imperial monarchy, the growing emphasis on education in the Middle Ages became part of a humanist and Protestant programme to extend and reform learning. It resulted in the expansion of the system and the foundation of six university colleges by the end of the sixteenth century. Vernacular works in Scots began to emerge in the fifteenth century, with the patronage of James V and James VI, writers included William Stewart, John Bellenden, David Lyndsay, William Fowler and Alexander Montgomerie.
In the sixteenth century, Scottish kings, particularly James V, built palaces in a Renaissance style, the trend soon spread to members of the aristocracy. Painting was strongly influenced by Flemish art, with works commissioned from the continent, music incorporated wider European influences although the Reformation caused a move from complex polyphonic church music to the simpler singing of metrical psalms. Combined with the Union of Crowns in 1603, the Reformation removed the church, in the early seventeenth century the major elements of the Renaissance began to give way to Stoicism and the Baroque. It encompassed a rational and sceptical attitude, a return to ideas of original sources and proportion, the major ideas of the Renaissance are generally considered to have reached Northern Europe much later, in the late fifteenth century. Instead they emphasised the intellectual trends and movements that went before it. It was common for historians to suggest that Scotland had little or no participation in the Renaissance.
More recently, the significant changes in intellectual and cultural life in the period have been seen as forming a watershed in Scottish cultural history, the court was central to the patronage and dissemination of Renaissance works and ideas. It was central to the staging of lavish display that portrayed the political and this display was often tied up with ideas of chivalry, which was evolving in this period from a practical military ethos into a more ornamental and honorific cult. It saw its origins in the era, with Hector of Troy, Alexander the Great. Tournaments provided one focus of display, the most famous being those of the Wild Knight in 1507 and they were pursued enthusiastically by James V who, proud of his membership of international orders of knighthood, displayed their insignia on the Gateway at Linlithgow Palace. During her brief rule, Queen of Scots brought with her many of the elaborate court activities that she had grown up with at the French court. She introduced balls and celebrations designed to illustrate the resurgence of the monarchy, the most elaborate event was the baptism of the future James VI at Stirling Castle in 1566, organised by her French servant Bastian Pagez
The alliance was exceptional, and caused a scandal in the Christian world. Carl Jacob Burckhardt called it the sacrilegious union of the lily, the Habsburg Empire thus entered in direct conflict with the Ottomans. Some early contacts seem to have taken place between the Ottomans and the French, Louis XI refused to see the envoys, but a large amount of money and Christian relics were offered by the envoy so that Djem could remain in custody in France. Djem was transferred to the custody of Pope Innocent VIII in 1489, France had already been looking for allies in Central Europe. The ambassador of France Antonio Rincon was employed by Francis I on several missions to Poland, at that time, following the 1522 Battle of Bicoque, Francis I was attempting to ally with king Sigismund I the Old of Poland. Finally, in 1524, a Franco-Polish alliance was signed between Francis I and the king of Poland Sigismund I and this situation forced Francis I to find an ally against the powerful Habsburg Emperor, in the person of Suleiman the Magnificent.
The alliance was an opportunity for both rulers to fight against the rule of the Habsburg, the objective for Francis I was clearly to find an ally in the struggle against the House of Habsburg, although this policy of alliance was in reversal of that of his predecessors. The pretext used by Francis I to seal an alliance with a Muslim power was the protection of the Christians in Ottoman lands, King Francis was imprisoned in Madrid when the first efforts at establishing an alliance were made. A first French mission to Suleiman seems to have been sent right after the Battle of Pavia by the mother of Francis I, Louise de Savoie, but the mission was lost on its way in Bosnia. The Ottomans were attracted by the prestige of being in alliance with such a country as France. Meanwhile, Charles V was manoeuvring to form a Habsburg-Persian alliance with Persia, envoys were sent to Shah Tahmasp I in 1525, and again in 1529, pleading for an attack on the Ottoman Empire. In 1528 also, Francis used the pretext of the protection of Christians in the Ottoman Empire to again enter into contact with Suleiman, in his 1528 letter to Francis I Suleiman politely refused, but guaranteed the protection of Christians in his states.
He renewed the privileges of French merchants which had obtained in 1517 in Egypt. Francis I lost in his European campaigns, and had to sign the Paix des Dames in August 1529 and he was even forced to supply some galleys to Charles V in his fight against the Ottomans. However, the Ottomans would continue their campaigns in Central Europe, and besiege the Habsburg capital in the 1529 Siege of Vienna, in early July 1532, Suleiman was joined by the French ambassador Antonio Rincon in Belgrade. Antonio Rincon presented Suleiman with a magnificent four-tiered tiara, made in Venice for 115,000 ducats, Rincon described the Ottoman camp, Astonishing order, no violence. Merchants, women even and going in perfect safety, life as safe, as large and easy as in Venice. Justice so fairly administered that one is tempted to believe that the Turks are turned Christians now, Ottoman embassies were sent to France, with the Ottoman embassy to France led by Hayreddin Barbarossa, and the Ottoman embassy to France led by representatives of Suleiman
A Franco-Persian alliance or Franco-Iranian alliance was formed for a short period between the French Empire of Napoleon I and Fath Ali Shah against Russia and Great Britain between 1807 and 1809. The alliance was part of a plan to gather extra aid against Russia and by Persias help, having another front on Russias southern borders, the alliance unravelled when France finally allied with Russia and turned its focus to European campaigns. Due to the friendly relations of France with the Ottoman Empire formalized by a long-standing Franco-Ottoman alliance. Attempts to resume contact were made following the French revolution, as France was in conflict with Russia, in 1796, two scientists, Jean-Guillaume Bruguières and Guillaume-Antoine Olivier, were sent to Iran by the Directoire, but were unsuccessful in obtaining an agreement. Soon however, with the advent of Napoleon I, France adopted a strongly expansionist policy in the Mediterranean and the Near East. Napoleon assured the Directoire that as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions.
Napoleon was initially defeated by the Ottoman Empire and Britain at the Siege of Acre in 1799, and at the Battle of Abukir in 1801, by 1802, the French were completely vanquished in the Middle East. In order to reinforce the Western border of British India, the diplomat John Malcolm was sent to Iran to sign the Anglo-Persian Treaty of 1801, Napoleon sent General Horace Sebastiani as envoy extraordinary, promising to help the Ottoman Empire recover lost territories. In his grand scheme to reach India, the step for Napoleon was now to develop an alliance with the Persian Empire. Early 1805, Napoléon sent one of his officers Amédée Jaubert on a mission to Persia and he would return to France in October 1806. General Tsitsianov occupied Georgia against rival Iranian claims, and attacked Ganja in Iran in 1804, triggering a Russo-Persian War, Britain, an ally of Russia, had been temporizing without a clear show of support. The Shah decided to respond to Napoleons offers, sending a letter carried by ambassador Mirza Mohammed Reza-Qazvini to the court of Napoleon, in Tilsit in eastern Prussia.
In his instructions to the ambassador, the Shah explained that, was equally an enemy of the kings of Persia and of France, France would attack her from that quarter, Persia from this. The Shah however denied the possibility of providing a port to the French on they way to Hindustan, in exchange, Persia was to fight Great Britain, and to allow France to cross the Persian territory to reach India. A military mission was sent under General Antoine Gardanne in order to help modernize the Persian army. Gardanne had the missions to coordinate Ottoman and Persian efforts against Russia, gardannes mission consisted in 70 commissioned and non-commissioned officers, and started to work at modernizing the Persian army along European lines. The mission arrived on 4 December 1807, captains of infantry Lamy and Verdier trained the Nezame Jadid, which served under Prince Abbas Mirza. This modernized army successfully defeated a Russia Army attack on the city of Erevan on 29 November 1808
The Franco-Russian Alliance, or Russo-French Rapprochement, was an alliance formed by the agreements of 1891–93, it lasted until 1917. The development of ties between the two countries created the economic prerequisites for the Russo-French Alliance. The history of the dates to the beginning of the 1870s, to the contradictions engendered by the Franco-Prussian War. The Russian government had supported France during the war scare of 1875, in 1877, during the new Franco-German war scare, Russia maintained friendly relations with France. However, after the Berlin Congress of 1878, French diplomacy, in aiming at a rapprochement with Great Britain and Germany, france’s alienation from Russia and her policy of colonial seizures lasted until 1885, when the Franco-German contradictions became heightened after the French defeat in Annan. Early in 1887, new complications arose in Franco-German relations, France appealed to the Russian government for aid. In concluding the so-called Reinsurance Treaty with Germany in 1887, Russia insisted on maintaining for France the same conditions that Germany had stipulated for its ally, at the end of the 1880s, Russo-German economic discrepancies grew stronger.
The Russo-French political rapprochement contributed to the influx of French capital into Russia, at the end of the 1880s and the beginning of the 1890s, Russia received a number of large loans from France. During a visit by a French squadron to Kronstadt in July 1891, France was interested significantly more than Russia in a military alliance and endeavored to supplement the 1891 agreement with military obligations. By an exchange of letters between December 15,1893, and December 23,1893, both announced their ratification of the military convention. This formalized the Russo-French military-political alliance and it was a response to the formation of an aggressive military bloc headed by Germany. In Europe, two opposing hostile imperialist blocs had formed, relying on Russian support, France intensified its colonial policy. After the Fashoda Incident of 1898 with Great Britain, it endeavored even more to strengthen the alliance with Russia, the alliance with France facilitated the tsarist government’s expansion into Manchuria in the 1890s.
During the preparatory period and the first years of the existence of the Russo-French Alliance, the role was played by Russia. By constantly receiving new loans from France, Russian tsarism gradually fell into dependence on French imperialism. Prior to World War I, the cooperation of the staffs of both countries assumed closer forms. In 1912 a Russo-French naval convention was signed and France entered the war united by the treaty of alliance. This had a significant effect on the course and outcome of the war and this led to the defeat at the battle of the Marne, to the collapse of the Schlieffen Plan, and finally to the defeat of Germany
Scotland in the Middle Ages
From the fifth century North Britain was divided into a series of petty kingdoms. Of these the four most important to emerge were the Picts, the Scots of Dál Riata, the Britons of Strathclyde, after the arrival of the Vikings in the late eighth century, Scandinavian rulers and colonies were established along parts of the coasts and in the islands. In the ninth century the Scots and Picts combined under the House of Alpin to form a single Kingdom of Alba, with a Pictish base and dominated by Gaelic culture. After the reign of King David I in the twelfth century, Alexander II and his son Alexander III, were able to annexe the remainder of the western seaboard, cumulating the Treaty of Perth with Norway in 1266. Scotland established its independence from England under figures including William Wallace in the thirteenth century. Kingship was the form of government, growing in sophistication in the late Middle Ages. The scale and nature of war changed, with larger armies, naval forces. Christianity introduced monasticism and what has been identified as Celtic Christianity, Scotland grew from a relatively small area in the eastern Lowlands, to approximately its modern borders.
The varied and dramatic geography of the land provided a protection against invasion and it defined the largely pastoral economy, with the first burghs being created from the twelfth century. The population may have grown to a peak of a million before the arrival of the Black Death in 1337, in the early Middle Ages society was divided between a small aristocracy and larger numbers of freemen and slaves. Serfdom disappeared in the century and there was a growth of new social groups. The Pictish and Cumbric languages were replaced by Gaelic, Old English and Norse, from the eleventh century French was adopted in the court and in the late Middle Ages, derived from Old English, became dominant, with Gaelic largely confined to the Highlands. Christianity brought Latin, written culture and monasteries as centres of learning, from the twelfth century, educational opportunities widened and a growth of lay education cumulated in the Education Act 1496. Until in the century, when Scotland gained three universities, Scots pursuing higher education had to travel to England or the continent, where some gained an international reputation.
Art from the early Middle Ages survives in carving, in metalwork, and elaborate illuminated books, much of the finest work has not survived, but there are a few key examples, particularly of work commissioned in the Netherlands. Scotland had a tradition, with secular music composed and performed by bards and from the thirteenth century, church music increasingly influenced by continental. In the centuries after the departure of the Romans from Britain, in the east were the Picts, whose kingdoms eventually stretched from the river Forth to Shetland. After his death seems to have shifted to the Fortriu, whose lands were centred on Strathearn and Menteith
Scotland under the Commonwealth
After the execution of Charles I in 1649, the Scottish Parliament declared his son Charles II to be King of Great Britain and Ireland. The English responded with a led by Oliver Cromwell, resulting in defeats for the Scots at Dunbar and at Worcester. Under the terms of the union, the Scots gained 30 members of parliament, but many posts were not filled, or fell to English agents of the government, and had very little say at Westminster. Initially the government was run by eight commissioners and adopted a policy of undermining the power of the nobility in favour of the meaner sort. From 1655 it was replaced by a new Council of Scotland, headed by Irish peer Lord Broghill, the regime built a series of major citadels and minor forts at immense cost. The Scottish legal system was suspended, but some courts and institutions were gradually restored, generally the regime was successful in enforcing law and order and suppressing banditry. There was a major Royalist rising in the Highlands in 1653–55 led by William Cunningham, Earl of Glencairn, after initial success, it suffered from internal divisions and petered out after defeat at the Battle of Dalnaspidal in 1654.
The Commonwealth extended toleration to Protestants, including sectaries, but the significant group were a small number of Quakers. The regime tended to favour the Protestors giving them control over the universities, the country was relatively highly taxed, but gained access to English markets. The era was remembered as one of prosperity, but not everywhere benefitted from economic expansion, there was an attempt to create national symbols with the revival of the union flag and unite coin. After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the fall of his son Richards regime, General Monck marched the army in Scotland south and facilitated the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Having supported Parliament in the First English Civil War under the Solemn League and Covenant, as part of a Second English Civil War, they invaded England in support of royalist risings, and were defeated by the New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell at Battle of Preston. With many of its leaders captured, the Engagement regime fell in the Whiggamore Raid, after the execution of Charles I in January 1649, England was declared a Commonwealth.
As soon as news of Charles Is execution reached Scotland, his son was proclaimed king as Charles II of Great Britain by the Scottish Parliament. The English responded with an army of 16,000 under Cromwell, on 3 September 1650 the English army defeated the Scots under David Leslie at the Battle of Dunbar, taking over 10,000 prisoners and occupying Edinburgh, taking control of the Lowlands. Charles could now more easily make an alliance with the moderate Covenanters and he was crowned at Scone on 1 January 1651 and a new army was assembled. In June 1651 Cromwell advanced against the Scots under Leslie at Stirling, the Scots army with the King set off for England, but there was no rising in their favour, and the army was caught at Worcester by forces under Cromwell. On 3 September it was defeated, bringing the civil wars to an end
Scotland during the Roman Empire
Scotland during the Roman Empire refers to the protohistorical period during which the Roman Empire interacted with the area that is now Scotland, which was known to them as Caledonia. Roman legions arrived around AD71, having conquered the Celtic tribes of Britain over the three decades. Aiming to annex all of the island of Albion, Romans under Q, Julius Agricola invaded the Caledonians in the 70s and 80s. An account by Agricolas son-in-law Tacitus mentions a Roman victory at Mons Graupius which became the namesake of the Grampians but has been questioned by modern scholarship and this line was fortified as Hadrians Wall. Several Roman commanders attempted to conquer lands north of this line. The history of the period is complex and not well-documented, the province of Valentia, for instance, may have been the lands between the two Roman walls, or the territory around and south of Hadrians Wall, or Roman Wales. Romans held most of their Caledonian territory only a little over 40 years, some Scottish historians such as Moffat go so far as to say Romes presence was entirely uninfluential.
Scots and Scotland proper would not emerge as unified ideas until centuries later, the Scoti, Gaelic Irish raiders who would give Scotland its English name, had begun to settle along the west coast as well. All three groups may have involved in the Great Conspiracy that overran Roman Britain in 367. The era saw the emergence of the earliest historical accounts of the natives, the most enduring legacies of Rome, were Christianity and literacy, both of which arrived indirectly via Irish missionaries. Scotland had been inhabited for thousands of years before the Romans arrived, however, it is only during the Greco-Roman period that Scotland is recorded in writing. The work On the Cosmos by Aristotle or Pseudo-Aristotle mentions two very large islands called Albion and Ierne, the Greek explorer and geographer Pytheas visited Britain sometime between 322 and 285 BC and may have circumnavigated the mainland, which he describes as being triangular in shape. In his work On the Ocean, he refers to the most northerly point as Orcas, pomponius Mela, the Roman geographer, recorded in his De Chorographia, written around AD43, that there were 30 Orkney islands and seven Haemodae.
There is certainly evidence of an Orcadian connection with Rome prior to AD60 from pottery found at the broch of Gurness. By the time of Pliny the Elder, Roman knowledge of the geography of Scotland had extended to the Hebudes, the Caledonian Forest, and the Caledonians. His information becomes much less reliable in the north and west, his coördinates place most of Scotland north of Hadrians Wall bent at a right angle, stretching due eastward from the rest of Britain. It is likely all of these cultures spoke a form of Celtic language known as Pritennic. The occupants of southern Scotland were the Damnonii in the Clyde valley, the Novantae in Galloway, the Selgovae on the south coast and these peoples may have spoken a form of Brythonic language
Glorious Revolution in Scotland
The Glorious Revolution in Scotland was part of a wider change of regime, known as the Glorious Revolution or Revolution of 1688, in the British kingdoms of the Stuart monarchy in 1688–89. After the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 in the person of Charles II, the reintroduction of episcopacy led to divisions in the church as some Presbyterians began to attend separate conventicles. The Catholicism of Charless heir, Duke of Albany and of York, alienated some support, Scotland had little option but to accept a change of monarch and a Presbyterian-dominated convention offered the crown of Scotland to William and Mary. Episcopacy was abolished and the Whigs became dominant in politics, there were a series of Jacobite risings between 1689 and 1746 in favour of James and his heirs. As a result of the Revolution, Scotland was drawn into major international wars, in 1638 the Scots had rebelled against the religious policies of Charles I, established a national Covenant and abolished episcopacy.
During the 1650s Scotland had been defeated and for a short time annexed to the English Commonwealth. The Restoration of the monarchy in England in 1660 meant a restoration in Scotland as a fait accompli. In the event Scotland regained its system of law and kirk and they had a king in Charles II who did not visit the country and ruled largely without reference to Parliament through a series of commissioners. These began with John Middleton and ended with the brother and heir, Duke of York. Church ministers were forced to accept the restoration of episcopacy or lose their livings, up to a third, at least 270, of the ministry refused. Many ministers chose voluntarily to abandon their own rather than wait to be forced out by the government. Most of the vacancies occurred in the south-west of Scotland, a particularly strong in its Covenanting sympathies. Abandoning the official church, many of the people began to attend illegal field assemblies led by excluded ministers. They became known one of their leaders as the Cameronians.
Official attempts to suppress these led to a rising in 1679, defeated by James, Duke of Monmouth and James acted against Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, whose feudal rights in the south-west Highlands made him one of the most powerful figures in the kingdom. His rights were eroded in favour of other families and James may have been building up his own following in the region. Argyll was eventually tried and fled to the Dutch court, which became the focus of both Scottish and English political dissidents and exiles. These included Scottish peer Lord George Melville, who was implicated in the Rye House Plot, Charles died in 1685 and his brother succeeded him as James VII of Scotland