The aureus was a gold coin of ancient Rome valued at 25 pure silver denarii. The aureus was issued from the 1st century BC to the beginning of the 4th century AD, when it was replaced by the solidus; the aureus was about the same size as the denarius, but heavier due to the higher density of gold. Before the time of Julius Caesar the aureus was struck infrequently because gold was seen as a mark of un-Roman luxury. Caesar struck the coin more and standardized the weight at 1 40 of a Roman pound. Augustus tariffed the value of the sestertius as 1 100 of an aureus; the mass of the aureus was decreased to 1 45 of a pound during the reign of Nero. At about the same time the purity of the silver coinage was slightly decreased. After the reign of Marcus Aurelius the production of aurei decreased, the weight fell to 1 50 of a pound by the time of Caracalla. During the 3rd century, gold pieces were introduced in a variety of fractions and multiples, making it hard to determine the intended denomination of a gold coin.

The solidus was first introduced by Diocletian around 301 AD, struck at 60 to the Roman pound of pure gold and with an initial value equal to 1,000 denarii. However, Diocletian's solidus was struck only in small quantities, thus had only minimal economic effect; the solidus was reintroduced by Constantine I in 312 AD, permanently replacing the aureus as the gold coin of the Roman Empire. The solidus was struck at a rate of 72 to a Roman pound of pure gold, each coin weighing twenty-four Greco-Roman carats, or about 4.5 grams of gold per coin. By this time, the solidus was worth 275,000 of the debased denarii. However, regardless of the size or weight of the aureus, the coin's purity was little affected. Analysis of the Roman aureus shows the purity level to have been near to 24 karat gold, so in excess of 99% pure. Due to runaway inflation caused by the Roman government issuing base-metal coinage but refusing to accept anything other than silver or gold for tax payments, the value of the gold aureus in relation to the denarius grew drastically.

Inflation was affected by the systematic debasement of the silver denarius, which by the mid-3rd century had no silver left in it. In 301, one gold aureus was worth 833⅓ denarii. In 337, after Constantine converted to the solidus, one solidus was worth 275,000 denarii and by 356, one solidus was worth 4,600,000 denarii. Today, the aureus is sought after by collectors because of its purity and value, as well its historical interest. An aureus is much more expensive than a denarius issued by the same emperor. For instance, in one auction, an aureus of Trajan sold for $15,000, a silver coin of the same emperor sold for $100. Two of the most expensive aurei were sold in the same auction in 2008. One aureus, issued in 42 BC by Marcus Junius Brutus, the assassin of Gaius Julius Caesar, had a price realized of $661,250; the second aureus, issued by the emperor Alexander Severus, has a picture of the Colosseum on the reverse, had a price realized of $920,000. An aureus with the face of Allectus was auctioned off in the United Kingdom for £552,000 in June 2019.

Guilder Polish złoty Online numismatic exhibit: "This round gold is but the image of the rounder globe". The charm of gold in ancient coinage

Jean Sulivan

Jean Sulivan was a 20th-century French Catholic writer. 1958: Le Voyage intérieur, Plon 1959: L'insurrection du prince 1959: Provocation ou la faiblesse de Dieu 1960: Le bonheur des rebelles, Plon 1960: Le Prince et le mal, Spes 1961: Ligne de crête Plon 1962: Paradoxe et scandale, Plon 1962: Du côté de l'ombre, Éditions Gallimard 1964: Mais il y a la mer, Gallimard 1965: Le plus petit abîme, Gallimard 1966: Devance tout adieu, Prix des écrivains de l'Ouest 1966: Car je t'aime, ô Éternité!, Gallimard 1967: L'Obsession de Delphes, Gallimard 1968: Bonheur des rebelles, Gallimard 1968: Consolation de la Nuit, Gallimard 1968: Dieu au-delà de Dieu, series "Les Essais" 1969: Les Mots à la gorge, Gallimard 1969: Miroir brisé, Gallimard 1970: D'Amour et de mort à Mogador, Gallimard 1971: Petite littérature individuelle followed by Logique de l'écrivain chrétien, series "Voies ouvertes" directed by Jean Sulivan 1974: Joie errante, Gallimard 1975: Je veux battre le tambour, Gallimard 1976: Matinales I: Itinéraire spirituel, Prix Bretagne Morning Light: The Spiritual Journal of Jean Sulivan 1977: Matinales II: La Traversée des illusions, Passez les passants, postface to Henri Guillemin, Sulivan ou la parole libératrice, Gallimard.

1979: "La Dévotion moderne", introduction to L'imitation de Jésus-Christ, nouvelle traduction du latin par Michel Billon, Desclée de Brouwer, series "Connivence" 1978: L'instant l'éternité, conversations with Bernard Feillet, Éditions du Centurion 1979: Quelque temps de la vie de Jude et Cie, Stock 1980: L'Exode, Desclée de Brouwer 1980:Parole du passant, Le Centurion-Panorama Aujourd'hui, Paris___________ 1981: L'Écart et l'alliance, Gallimard 1986: Bloc-notes, preface by Jacques de Bourbon Busset, éditions SOS du Secours catholique 1994:Une lumière noire, about Hubert Beuve-Méry, Paris, éditions Arléa At the beginning of 2011, Jean Sulivan's archives were deposited by Édith Delos, legatee of Jean Sulivan, at the Institut mémoires de l'édition contemporaine. 1996: Pages, édition de Marie Botturi, Edith Delos, Marguerite Genzbittel, Gallimard 2006: Jean Sulivan. Libre sous le regard de Dieu, presentation by Patrick Gormally and Mary Ann Mannion, Quebec 2003: L'incessante marche. Extraits de Jean Sulivan, selection by Joseph and Maryvonne Thomas, Mine de Rien, Néant-sur-Ivel 2010: Jean Sulivan Abécédaire, edition established and presented by Charles Austin, Gallimard ISBN 978-2-07-013178-5 « Jean Sulivan », mentioned in chapter "Roman et idéologies d'après-guerre.

2.:Orthodoxies et création" in Littérature XXe siècle - Textes et documents, Collection Henri Mitterand, Éditions Nathan and updated edition - printing in February 2001, p. 525. Henri Guillemin, Sulivan ou la Parole libératrice followed by Passez les passants by Jean Sulivan, Gallimard, 1977. « Le sacrement de l'instant. Présence de Jean Sulivan », Question de, n°80 Rencontres avec Jean Sulivan, Revue de l'Association des Amis de Jean Sulivan, directrice de publication: Édith Delos, directeur de rédaction: Claude Goure Claude Lebrun, Invitation à Jean Sulivan, Éditions du Cerf, 1981. Jean Lavoué, Jean Sulivan, je vous écris, Éditions Desclée de Brouwer, 2000 Collective, Yvon Tranvouez, Jean Sulivan, L'écriture insurgée, Éditions Apogée, Rennes, 2007 Eamon Maher, Jean Sulivan, 1913-1980: la marginalité dans la vie et l'œuvre, L'Harmattan, 2008. Franck Delorme, "La parole vive de Jean Sulivan", in Études - revue de culture contemporaine, March 2010. Jean Sulivan, une parole d'intériorité pour aujourd'hui, Acts of the symposium in Ploërmel 24 and 25 April 2010, Les Sources et les Livres, 2, rue de la Fontaine, 44410 Assérac.

Jean Lavoué, Jean Sulivan, la voie nue de l'intériorité, Éditions Golias, Lyon, 2011. Bruno Frappat, « Jean Sulivan, contemporain » - sur Jean Sulivan Abécédaire by Charles Austin, La Croix, 6 January 2011. La flûte de Jean Sulivan, film by Patrick Chagnard, broadcast on TF1 18 February 1968, « La parole inachevée », interview of Jean Sulivan by Marie-Thérèse Maltèse, broadcast on TF1 24 September 1978 - Association des amis de Jean Sulivan, Les Films du Parotier et CFRT, 2006. Updated bibliography in "Appendices" of Jean Sulivan Abécédaire, edition established and presented by Charles Austin, November 2010 ISBN 978-2-07-013178-5. Jean Sulivan, contemporain on La Croix Jean Sulivan on Babelio L’Exode de Sulivan: une parole d’intériorité pour aujourd’hui on Culture et Foi Littérature et spiritualité: l'aventure de Jean Sulivan on Persée

Daniel A. Dorsey

Daniel Allen Dorsey was an American soldier who fought in the American Civil War. Dorsey received the country's highest award for bravery during combat, the Medal of Honor, for his action during the Great Locomotive Chase in Georgia in April 1862, he was honored with the award on 17 September 1863. Dorsey was born on 31 December 1838 in Lancaster and joined the 33rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry at Portsmouth, Ohio on 18 September 1861. Within a few months he was promoted to corporal, in November 1861, he was one of 22 men who took part in what became known as the Great Locomotive Chase. The mission involved attempting to disrupt Confederate telegraph and rail communication; the men, known as Andrews' Raiders, under the direction of James J. Andrews, boarded a train in Georgia. On April 12, after the train had stopped in Big Shanty, they commandeered the train and headed for Chattanooga, Tennessee. While being pursued by the Confederates, they destroyed telegraph lines along the way, they were soon captured.

Some of the men were hanged and others taken to prison camp. Dorsey, among those, captured, managed to escape from the Fulton County jail on 16 October 1862, rejoining his company soon afterwards. After this event Dorsey was involved in the Battle of Chickamauga in September 1863, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1863 and as a first lieutenant in 1864. He mustered out of the army on 24 August 1864, with disability. Dorsey married Annie C. Miller shortly after leaving the army, they resided in Circleville and produced six children together. He separated from his family and died on May 10, 1918 in Kansas, his remains are interred at the Leavenworth National Cemetery. One of the 19 of 22 men who, by direction of Gen. Mitchell, penetrated nearly 200 miles south into enemy territory and captured a railroad train at Big Shanty, Ga. in an attempt to destroy the bridges and track between Chattanooga and Atlanta. List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: A–F