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Australia (continent)

The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea, or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the landmasses which sit on Australia's continental plate. This includes mainland Australia and the island of New Guinea, which comprises Papua New Guinea and Indonesia's Western New Guinea. Situated in the geographical region of Oceania, it is the smallest of the seven traditional continents in the English conception; the continent includes a continental shelf overlain by shallow seas which divide it into several landmasses—the Arafura Sea and Torres Strait between mainland Australia and New Guinea, Bass Strait between mainland Australia and Tasmania. When sea levels were lower during the Pleistocene ice age, including the Last Glacial Maximum about 18,000 BC, they were connected by dry land. During the past 10,000 years, rising sea levels overflowed the lowlands and separated the continent into today's low-lying arid to semi-arid mainland and the two mountainous islands of New Guinea and Tasmania.

The Australian continent, being part of the Indo-Australian Plate, is the lowest and oldest landmass on Earth and it has had a stable geological history. New Zealand is not part of the continent of Australia, but of the separate, submerged continent of Zealandia. New Zealand and Australia are both part of the Oceanian sub-region known as Australasia, with New Guinea being in Melanesia; the term Oceania a "great division" of the world, was replaced by the concept of Australia as a continent in the 1950s. Today, the term Oceania is used to denote the region encompassing the Australian continent and various islands in the Pacific Ocean that are not included in the seven-continent model. Papua New Guinea, a country within the continent, is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse countries in the world, it is one of the most rural, as only 18 percent of its people live in urban centres. West Papua, a province of Indonesia, is home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups. Australia, the largest landmass in the continent, is urbanised, has the world's 14th-largest economy with the second-highest human development index globally.

Australia has the world's 9th largest immigrant population. The first settlers of Australia, New Guinea, the large islands just to the east arrived between 50,000 and 30,000 years ago. Archaeological terminology for this region has changed repeatedly. Before the 1970s, the single Pleistocene landmass was called Australasia, derived from the Latin australis, meaning "southern", although this word is most used for a wider region that includes lands like New Zealand that are not on the same continental shelf. In the early 1970s, the term Greater Australia was introduced for the Pleistocene continent. At a 1975 conference and consequent publication, the name Sahul was extended from its previous use for just the Sahul Shelf to cover the continent. In 1984 W. Filewood suggested the name Meganesia, meaning "great island" or "great island-group", for both the Pleistocene continent and the present-day lands, this name has been accepted by biologists. Others have used Meganesia with different meanings: travel writer Paul Theroux included New Zealand in his definition and others have used it for Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii.

Another biologist, Richard Dawkins, coined the name Australinea in 2004. Australia-New Guinea has been used. Indigenous Australians are the original inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby islands who migrated from Africa to Asia around 70,000 years ago and arrived in Australia around 50,000 years ago, they are believed to be among the earliest human migrations out of Africa. There is evidence of genetic and linguistic interchange between Australians in the far north and the Austronesian peoples of modern-day New Guinea and the islands, but this may be the result of recent trade and intermarriage; the earliest known human remains were found at Lake Mungo, a dry lake in the southwest of New South Wales. Remains found at Mungo suggest one of the world's oldest known cremations, thus indicating early evidence for religious ritual among humans. Dreamtime remains a prominent feature of Australian Aboriginal art, the oldest continuing tradition of art in the world. Papuan habitation is estimated to have begun 48,000 years ago in New Guinea.

Trade between New Guinea and neighboring Indonesian islands was documented as early as the seventh century, archipelagic rule of New Guinea by the 13th. At the beginning of the seventh century, the Sumatra-based empire of Srivijaya engaged in trade relations with western New Guinea taking items like sandalwood and birds-of-paradise in tribute to China, but making slaves out of the natives; the rule of the Java-based empire of Majapahit extended to the western fringes of New Guinea. Recent archaeological research suggests that 50,000 years ago people may have occupied sites in the highlands at New Guinean altitudes of up to 2,000 m, rather than being restricted to warmer coastal areas. Legends of Terra Australis Incognita—an "unknown land of the South"—date back to Roman times and before, were commonplace in medieval geography, although not based on any documented knowledge of the continent. Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle speculated of a large landmass in the southern hemisphere, saying, "Now since there must be a region bearing the same relation to the southern pole as the place we live in bears to our pole...".

His ideas were expanded by Ptolemy, who believed that the lands of the Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land in the south. The theory

Pular grammar

Pular grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the Pular language, one of the Fula languages of the Niger-Congo language family spoken in West Africa. It varies from region to region; this may explain why it is impossible to find literature that teaches advanced topics in Pular Grammar. The following explanation concerns the Pular language spoken in Futa Jallon. To facilitate learning, all expressions are translated into English, so this article could be a tool for learning Pular vocabulary. Numerous examples are given in tables to demonstrate the rules provided and to allow the reader to decipher the rules of Pular grammar. Since the articles of nouns vary it is better to learn each Pular noun with its appropriate articles, it is useful to learn the plural and singular forms of Pular nouns together because no simple rules are apparent for going from the singular form to the plural form. This may sound like a daunting task. Pular nouns don't have indefinite articles. So the "a" article in English is omitted in Pular.

Example: a hand = jungo. The most common, definite articles associated with plural nouns are: ɗin and ɗen; the latter two articles are used for nouns referring to things. Ɓen, ɗin and ɗen correspond to "the" in English. On is the singular form of ɓen, they are used for nouns that indicate a single person or many people, respectively. Nouns imported from other languages French, follow some systematic patterns. In the singular form of the noun, the definite article is on. If the noun indicates an object or a thing, the plural form of the noun is obtained by adding ji at the end of the singular form and ɗin is used as the article for the plural form. If the imported noun indicates a person, the singular form of the noun will end with jo, but the plural form will end with ɓe, ɓen is used as the article for the plural form; the plural articles ɓen, ɗin and ɗen correspond to the ɓe, ɗi and ɗe in other varieties of Fula. Pular pronunciation tends to nasalize these words, represented by the trailing letter "n."

Please see the tables below for examples that demonstrate these systematic patterns. The nouns of most fruits and vegetables follow a similar pattern when changing from singular to plural; these nouns have a root form, imported from other languages. The singular form of these nouns is obtained by adding re to the root, nden is the definitive article. By contrast, the plural form is obtained by adding je to the root, ɗen is the definitive article for the plural form; the table below provides examples to demonstrate this pattern. Note that "jungo" can be used for all when it means "responsibility". Example: No e jungo amen = it is in our responsibility or we are in change. Men acci e jungo mon = We leave it to you. Unlike in English, in Pular the possessive adjective comes after the noun. In the table above, "jungo" is a noun. Similar to English, the possessive adjective does not vary with the genre or number of what is possessed, it varies only with the noun. For example: ɓeyngu an --> moodi an. Note here that the genre of the noun changed, but the possessive adjective stayed the same.

Jungo an --> juuɗe an. Note here that the noun changed from singular to plural, but the possessive adjective stayed the same; the singular possessive in Pular - an - corresponds with the am used in other varieties of Fula. Again, the pronunciation is more nasalized in Pular. Lan, ma, te, mo, men, en, on, ɓe. ko hombo, ko honɗun, ko homɓe, ko honno, ko honto, ko... honɗi, ko... njelo, ko... jelu mi, a, o, men, en, on, ɓe, ɗe, ɗi Pular has many demonstrative adjectives, which are keywords that indicate the location of a "noun" with respect to the speaker. However, they are derived from the definitive articles described above. Here is a partial list: oo, ɓee, ɗii, ɗee, The English equivalent of these adjective demonstratives are: this, these and those. Note that this is a partial list. Goɗɗo, goɗɗun, hay e gooto, hay e fusSee the table below for some expressions using indefinite pronouns. Ɗoo, gaa, ɗaa, too, gaɗa, gaanin Pular verbs - like those in other varieties of Fula - fall into one of three "voices": active and passive.

Infinitives in Pular are formed with -gol rather than -de as in other varieties of Fula. The endings are: Active: -ugol Middle: -agol Passive: -egolVerbal extensions can be added between the root and the verb ending to change meaning. Examples of verb endings with this adfixes include: angol, ingol and others. Please see the table below for examples. 1) Active voice verbs: To express the affirmative form of ugol verbs in the future replace the ugol ending with ay. For example, soodugol turns into sooday. Note that the verb does not vary with the subject; the table below provides more examples using the verb "soodugol". Although the verb does not vary with the subject, it does vary with the object; that is when the object is the singular form of you, the "ay" ending becomes "e". The table below shows some examples of. Verbs with "infixes": To express the affirmative form of these verbs in the future replace the gol ending with ay. For ex

1946 Dominican Republic earthquake

The 1946 Dominican Republic earthquake occurred on August 4 at 17:51 UTC near Samaná, Dominican Republic. The mainshock measured 8.1 on the surface wave magnitude scale and an aftershock occurred four days on August 8 at 13.28 UTC with a magnitude of 7.6. A tsunami was generated by the initial earthquake and caused widespread devastation across Hispaniola; the tsunami was observed in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. The earthquake left some 20,000 people homeless; the death toll was unusually low as it coincided with a holiday in the afternoon, when most people were outdoors. It caused severe damage in the northern Dominican Republic from Samana to Puerto Plata. Slumping and sand blows were observed in Yuna River Valleys; the earthquake was felt in parts of Haiti and Puerto Rico, to a lesser extent in the Virgin Islands and eastern Cuba. The earthquake caused a tsunami which struck at Matanza, near Nagua, where a 2.5–5-metre high wave drowned a number of people and affected an area of land several kilometres inland.

The tsunami associated with the quake killed 1,600–1,800 people, for a total of about 2,550 fatalities. A small tsunami was recorded by tide gauges at San Juan in Puerto Rico, Bermuda and in the United States at Daytona Beach and Atlantic City, New Jersey. List of earthquakes in 1946 List of earthquakes in the Caribbean Small, Walter M. "A short description of the general geology of the Dominican Republic, with notes on the earthquake of August 4, 1946", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 38: 19–32 The International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative data for this event

MTV Mandarin

MTV Mandarin is a 24-hour music channel which airs Chinese and international music programs owned by ViacomCBS Networks EMEAA. One of the first three MTV Asia channels along with MTV Asia and MTV India. MTV Mandarin has two different feeds; the channel broadcasts in China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Indonesia. MTV Hong Kong - based in Hong Kong MTV Taiwan - based in Taipei MTV China - based in Beijing and Shanghai George Chang Andy Chen Emma Stacy Hsu Sammy Hu Katherine Linda Liao Meimei Tony MTV MTV Networks Asia Pacific MTV Southeast Asia MTV China MTV Taiwan

Brian Tinnion

Brian Tinnion is an English former footballer and ex-manager. He made over 450 appearances including a spell as player-manager, he started as a left-back but became a goal-scoring left-sided midfielder. He was born in Stanley, County Durham and was recruited by Newcastle United as an apprentice after scouts had spotted his useful left foot, he went on to be a member of the Newcastle United FA Youth Cup winning side of 1985 that included the likes of Paul Gascoigne. Tinnion signed as a professional before a first-team home game on the pitch of St James' Park a few days after his eighteenth birthday in 1986. In the 1987–88 season, he started 30 league games for the Magpies in the left-back slot, he earned a call-up to the England Under-21 squad in May 1988 for a tour of Toulon but had to pull out injured. He was sold to Bradford City for £150,000 in 1989, he scored the last-gasp penalty that pinched a point at Elland Road on Grand National Day 1990 in a heated local derby against Leeds United. It was while at Bradford that Tinnion expressed himself when pushed forward onto the left side of a three-man midfield in the early 1990s, the Bantam soon had the reputation of having the most creative left foot of the lower leagues.

Tinnion found himself top-goalscorer in all competitions across all four divisions by Christmas 1991 with 13 goals, but he picked up a career-threatening injury at Hartlepool on Boxing Day 1991. His injury was overcome in time to start the 1992–93 season in the Bantams starting line-up, but before the season was out, in March 1993, he failed to agree a new contract and moved on to Bristol City for a tribunal-set fee of around £180,000, his first goal for his new club came against bitter rivals Bristol Rovers with a last-gasp penalty. In January 1994 he scored the winning goal in City's giant-killing FA Cup win over Liverpool at Anfield, he went on to become one of City's dominant players of the 1990s. He switched from wide on the left flank into the centre of a three-man midfield under new manager Danny Wilson in 2000 and the role gave him time and space to execute through balls, such was his form in that role that he was voted as the best player in his division, he became player-coach in 2000 and succeeded Danny Wilson as manager in 2004.

Tinnion's first season in charge saw Bristol City fail to make the play-offs and the 2005–06 season started inconsistently, leaving the City fans unconvinced about his ability to make his move into management successful. City's league results failed to improve in 2005/6, capitulating in a 7–1 thrashing by Swansea City on 10 September 2005 was the final straw. After his departure from Bristol City, Tinnion trained with Cheltenham Town, turning out for them in a reserve match, joined Conference side Aldershot, he subsequently played for Conference South side Weston-super-Mare and in January 2007 joined TeamBath. Tinnion has since retired from playing in the summer of 2007 and now coaches youth football, running soccer schools both in Southern Spain and at The Imperial Ground in Bristol. In addition to this, he now works in the Bristol City youth setup, managing the loan moves of young players. Brian Tinnion management career statistics at Soccerbase

Society for the Teaching of Psychology

The Society for the Teaching of Psychology is Division 2 of the American Psychological Association. It is an academic society that promotes effective pedagogy while providing supports for teachers of psychology at all levels. Although it is one of the divisions of the American Psychological Association, it does not require its members to join the APA; the STP provides access to peer-reviewed teaching resources, such as course syllabi and e-books, free of charge to the general public through its website. Some sections of the website require STP membership to gain access; the STP was founded as Division 2 of APA in 1945. Past presidents include notable key figures in the field of psychology, such as Wilbert J. McKeachie, John Dashiell, Charles Brewer, Ludy T. Benjamin, Diane Halpern. In its early years, the STP struggled to increase membership and clarify its professional identity and purpose. In 1947, Division 2 had only 184 registered members, lagging behind other divisions. In 1950, the STP created the Teaching of Psychology Newsletter.

In 1951, the STP's 6th president Claude E. Buxton surveyed the membership to find out more about the current composition and possible future direction of the STP. Buxton found that the STP membership consisted of educators interested in undergraduate liberal arts education, lacked graduate-level instructors. Finding that most survey respondents saw a need to continue and improve the STP, Buxton worked on increasing membership, a proposal requiring membership in another APA division before joining Division 2 was not adopted, as it seemed to subordinate the STP to other APA divisions. By the end of the 1950s, Division 2 had gained greater prestige, included members of various disciplines in psychology from both small and large institutions of higher education. In the early 1960s, Wilbert J. McKeachie gave the Teaching of Psychology newsletter a more polished image. Between 1960 and 1974, the STP saw a marked increase in membership, the organization increased services to help teachers of psychology, formulated more rigorous standards in the scholarship of teaching psychology.

In the early 1960s, STP president Robert S. Daniel was instrumental in making sure that teaching tips and sample psychology course syllabi were available to instructors; the STP took a leading role in developing educational television during this period. During his leadership the STP provided supports and equipment to aid departments operating on a limited budget. Daniel lobbied the American Psychological Foundation to establish an annual award for outstanding teachers. In 1974, Daniel was responsible for turning the Teaching of Psychology Newsletter into what is now the journal Teaching of Psychology. By 1965, membership in Division 2 was higher than that of all other APA division, except divisions 8, 12, 15; the establishment of the Teaching of Psychology journal by a group of editors around Robert S. Daniel in 1974 was a major step forward for STP; this journal became respected within the discipline by 1981. During the 1950s, efforts to begin a journal had been defeated by those arguing that a journal giving teachers an identity apart from other areas of specialization would diminish the prestige of Division 2.

Between 1975 and 1987, leaders of the STP worked to recruit new members, in order to offset declining enrollment in Division 2 and across many APA divisions. During this period, STP leadership developed awards. In the early 1990s, the STP aimed at increasing its outreach to academics at the regional level through the Council of Teachers of Undergraduate Psychology. During this period, former STP president Patricia Keith-Spiegel developed the Office of Teaching Resources in Psychology to achieve these outreach-related aims and to provide academics and teachers of Psychology with centralized and accessible resources; the STP Members approved a bylaws revision in 2018 to shorten the title of this office to Director of Teaching Resources. The STP worked on developing exchange systems for course syllabi and activities. During the mid 1990s, under the presidency of Margaret A. Lloyd, the STP developed the Long-Range Planning Committee to help Division 2 enter the 21st century with increased visibility and influence.

The STP adapted to rapid changes in technology by making all resources computerized, focused on maintaining the high quality and integrity of the Teaching of Psychology journal. The Society for the Teaching of Psychology offers many resources to help teachers of psychology; the Primary Resources page contains a wealth of materials, ranging from classroom assignments and class demonstrations to books about teaching psychology, to mentorship programs for teachers of psychology or scholars of teaching and learning. STP provides Resources for Teachers of Psychology, These include peer-reviewed assignments and strategies for teaching at all levels. Resources are divided into about 25 categories that reflect different sub-disciplinary areas and covers the responsibilities of teachers beyond the classroom, such as advising and writing letters of recommendation. STP hosts Project Syllabus through which experienced teachers review syllabi submitted by teachers of psychology from across the nation. Project Syllabus has posted over 100 syllabi that can be used as inspiration for novice teachers or first-time teachers of a specific course.

The Teaching of Psychology Idea Exchange curates ideas psychology teachers have posted about teaching strategies, assignments and discussion topics that are innovative and open for use. The STP has selected a set of