Australia national rugby union team

The Australia national rugby union team, nicknamed the Wallabies, is the representative national team in the sport of rugby union for the nation of Australia. The team first played at Sydney in 1899, winning their first test match against the touring British Isles team. Australia have competed in all eight Rugby World Cups, winning the final on two occasions and finishing as runner-up twice. Australia beat England at Twickenham in the final of the 1991 Rugby World Cup and won again in 1999 at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff when their opponents in the final were France; the Wallabies compete annually in The Rugby Championship, along with southern hemisphere counterparts Argentina, New Zealand and South Africa. They have won this championship on four occasions. Australia plays Test matches against the various rugby-playing nations. More than a dozen former Wallabies players have been inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame. Australia's first international match was played against the touring British Isles team in 1899.

The first Test was played at the Sydney Cricket Ground and won 13–3 by Australia, but the tourists won the remaining three Tests. The Australian team for the first match consisted of six players from Queensland and nine from New South Wales; the team wore the blue of New South Wales when playing in Sydney and the maroon of Queensland when playing in Brisbane, but with an Australian Coat of Arms in place of the usual emblems of each colony. The first Test between Australia and New Zealand was played at the Sydney Cricket Ground in 1903, with New Zealand winning 22–3; this tour improved rugby's popularity in Sydney and Brisbane and helped to boost club match attendances. In 1907 the New South Wales Rugby League was formed and star player Dally Messenger left rugby union for the rival code; the next year the first Australian rugby team to tour the British Isles left Sydney. Newspapers in England gave the team the name'Rabbits'; the Australian players thought this nickname derogatory and replaced it with'Wallabies'.

In 1909, when the new "Northern Union" code was still in its infancy in Australia, a match between the Kangaroos and the Wallabies was played before a crowd of around 20,000, with the Rugby League side winning 29–26. The First World War had a negative effect on rugby union in Australia. All rugby union competitions in New South Wales and Queensland ceased after the state bodies decided it was inappropriate to play football when so many young men were fighting overseas; the sport of rugby union was all but closed down causing many players to switch to rugby league – which did not cease playing during the war. In Queensland regular competitions did not commence again until 1929, there was no official Australian team selected through most of the 1920s before the 1929 All Blacks tour; the New South Wales Waratahs were re-formed in 1920, played throughout the decade including a series of matches against New Zealand and South Africa before their 1927–28 tour of the British Isles and Canada. Because these Waratahs teams were Australia's only representatives at the time, all international matches they played during this period were accorded retrospective Wallaby status.

War hero Sir Edward "Weary" Dunlop played for Australia before World War II. He played on the side, the first to win the Bledisloe Cup; the first Test to following World War Two was played at Carisbrook, Dunedin between Australia and New Zealand in 1946, which New Zealand won 31–8. Australia did not win on the three match tour. Australia embarked on a tour of the home nations in 1947–48; the successful tour fell short of an undefeated run when the Australia lost to France in their last match, in Paris. Players on the rise included Cyril Burke and Nicholas Shehadie. After returning from the successful European tour, Australia hosted the New Zealand Maori in a three match series in 1949. In September of that year, Australia played the All Blacks twice in New Zealand, winning both games and taking back the Bledisloe Cup for the first time on New Zealand soil. The'Number 1' All Black side was touring South Africa at the time and the wins by Australia against the B-team have sometimes been downgraded.

However, in deference to the apartheid system in operation in South Africa, the NZRU did not select any Maori players for the tour. Many of those regular All Black Maori played against Australia instead and it could be said that the New Zealand team that played Australia was at least as good as the one on tour in South Africa; the British Isles toured Australia in 1950, won both of the Tests against Australia. The following year Australia fell to a three Test whitewash to the All Blacks. Australia won in July 1952, defeating Fiji at the Sydney Cricket Ground – they lost the second Test to Fiji by two points. Australia managed to beat the All Blacks at Lancaster Park after the Fijian series. On this tour they drew against Rhodesia in Kitwe 8–8; the first match of the new decade was the win over Fiji at the SCG in the first match of a three Test series during 1961. This was followed by a second win. Australia headed to South Africa, where they lost to the Springboks in Port Elizabeth and Johannesburg.

After returning home, they faced France at the SCG, who beat them 15–8. In 1962, Australia lost all but a 9 -- 9 draw at Athletic Park. After defeating England 18–9 in 1963 in Sydney, Australia beat the Springboks in consecutive Tests in South Africa. Fewer tests were played throughout

Floyd Collins

William Floyd Collins, better known as Floyd Collins, was an American cave explorer, principally in a region of Central Kentucky that houses hundreds of miles of interconnected caverns within Mammoth Cave National Park, the longest cave system in the world. In the early 20th century, in an era known as the Kentucky Cave Wars, commercial cave owners and explorers in Kentucky entered into a bitter competition to exploit the bounty of caves for commercial profit from tourists, who paid to see the caves. In 1917, Collins had commercialized Crystal Cave on Flint Ridge, but the cave was remote and visitors were few. Collins had an ambition to find another cave he could open to the public closer to the main roads, entered into an agreement with a neighbor to open up Sand Cave, a small cave on the neighbor's property. On January 30, 1925, while working to enlarge the small passage in Sand Cave, Collins became trapped in a narrow crawlway 55 feet below ground; the rescue operation to save Collins became a national newspaper sensation and one of the first major news stories to be reported using the new technology of broadcast radio.

The rescue attempt grew to become the third-biggest media event between the world wars. After four days, during which time rescuers were able to bring water and food to Collins, a rock collapse in the cave closed the entrance passageway, stranding him in the cave, except for voice contact, for more than two weeks. Collins died of thirst and hunger compounded by exposure through hypothermia after being isolated for 14 days, just three days before a rescue shaft reached his position. Collins' body would be recovered two months later. Although Collins was an unknown figure in his lifetime, the fame he gained from his death led to him being memorialized on his tombstone as the "Greatest Cave Explorer Ever Known". William Floyd Collins was born in Auburn, Logan County, the son and third child of Leonidas Collins and Martha Jane Burnett. Collins had five brothers, Floyd, Andy Lee, Marshall Everett and Homer Larkin, as well as two sisters and Nellie. In the period of Kentucky history known as the "Cave Wars," the Floyd Collins family owned their own cave called Crystal Cave, a tourist show cave in the karst region of Mammoth Cave.

Crystal Cave attracted a low number of tourists due to its remote location. Collins hoped to find another entrance to the Mammoth Cave or an unknown cave along the road to Mammoth Cave and draw more visitors and greater profits, he made an agreement with three farmers. If he found a cave, they would form a business partnership and share in the responsibilities of operating this tourist attraction. Working alone, within three weeks, he had explored and expanded a hole that would be called "Sand Cave" by the news media. On January 30, 1925, after several hours of work, Floyd Collins managed to squeeze through several narrow passageways; because his lamp was dying, he had to leave before losing all light to the chamber, but became trapped in a small passage on his way out. Collins accidentally knocked over his lamp, putting out the light, was caught by a rock from the cave ceiling, pinning his left leg; the falling rock weighed only 16 pounds, but because of its position, obstructed rescuers in completing the removal.

Floyd Collins was trapped 150 feet from the entrance. After being found the next day by friends, crackers were sent to him and an electric light was run down the passage to provide him lighting and some warmth. Collins survived for more than a week. On February 4, the cave passage collapsed in two places. Rescue leaders, led by Henry St. George Tucker Carmichael, determined the cave impassable and too dangerous and began to dig a shaft to reach the chamber behind Collins; the 55-foot shaft and subsequent lateral tunnel intersected the cave just above Collins, but when he was reached on February 17, he was dead from exposure. Because he could not be reached from behind, the rescuers could not free his leg, they filled the shaft with debris. A doctor estimated he had died three or four days before he was reached, with February 13 the most date. Newspaper reporter William Burke "Skeets" Miller from The Courier-Journal in Louisville reported on the rescue efforts from the scene. Miller, of small stature, was able to remove a lot of earth from around Collins.

He interviewed Collins in the cave, receiving a Pulitzer Prize for his coverage and playing a part in Collins' attempted rescue. Miller's reports were distributed by telegraph and were printed by newspapers across the country and abroad, the rescue attempts were followed by regular news bulletins on the new medium of broadcast radio. Shortly after the media arrived, the publicity drew crowds of tourists to the site, at one point numbering in the tens of thousands. Vendors set up stalls to sell food and souvenirs; the Sand Cave rescue attempt grew to become the third-biggest media event between the world wars. Since the nearest telegraph station was in Cave City, some miles from the cave, two amateur radio operators with the callsigns 9BRK and 9CHG provided the link to


Fragmen is a 2014 album by Malaysian singer Siti Nurhaliza. It was her sixteenth studio album and her fifteenth Malay-language album, released physically on 30 June 2014 by Universal Music Group in a collaboration with her own record company, Siti Nurhaliza Productions. Most of the songs in the album is inspired by her life and experiences; the production of the album saw a collaboration between Malaysian and Indonesian composers and producers. Fragmen has spawned four singles for the Malaysian market, "Lebih Indah", "Jaga Dia Untukku", "Terbaik Bagimu" and "Seluruh Cinta". In 2014, "Lebih Indah" received two nominations from 2014 World Music Awards in the category of World's Best Song and World's Best Music Video. In the same year, on 17 October, "Lebih Indah" enabled Siti to win Best Artist and Best Song awards from 2014 Anugerah Planet Muzik. Four days on 21 October and its singles were nominated in six different categories for 2014 Anugerah Industri Muzik. On 6 December, "Lebih Indah" and Fragmen enabled Siti to win the Best Vocal Performance in a Song and Best Album from the 2014 Anugerah Industri Muzik.

Her winning for "Lebih Indah" marked the 12th time Siti winning the Best Vocal Performance in Song category. On 21 October 2014, Fragmen was launched in Indonesia. Additional track, a duet with Cakra Khan, "Seluruh Cinta" was released as Fragmen's first single for the Indonesian market on the same day; as of 27 August 2014, the album has been certified Platinum after it has been shipped for more than 10 000 copies. Less than three months Fragmen is estimated to be sold around 50 000 copies. Fragmen is Siti's first debut album through the collaboration of her own record company, Siti Nurhaliza Productions with Universal Music Group since July 2011; the production of the album took place in October 2012 with the release of "Galau" on 11 January 2013. Though it was released digitally in January 2013, "Galau" was first performed during Dato' Siti Nurhaliza – Live in Kuantan 2012 concert in November 2012. However, when Fragmen was slated for release on 30 June 2014, "Galau" was dropped from the final track list.

According to her management, the release of "Galau" was only intended as a promotional single to introduce the collaboration effort between Siti Nurhaliza Productions and Universal Music Group to the public and not suitable for inclusion due to the differences of musical direction. On 15 May, the first official single of the album, "Lebih Indah" was performed during the taping of her 90-minute special television program for Eid al-Fitr with TV2, Konsert Sanggar Lebaran Dato' Siti Nurhaliza; the show was aired much on 8 August. Recorded in 2013, the song is said to reflect the state of her emotions when she has to take care of her husband, involved in a motorcycle accident in New Zealand in December 2012. In July, Universal Music Group's A&R Director, Mujahid Abd Wahab revealed that the overall cost production that Universal has spent for this album reached RM 200 000. According to Mujahid, "The collaboration between Universal Music Malaysia and Siti is not only viewed from the sole perspective of profit only, in contrast, it is more than that.

Universal Music Malaysia is willing to spend a large amount of expenditure for the creation of Siti's newest album since she is the country's asset. As the best singer, it is fitting that the album matches her status." The RM 200 000 is said to only cover the production cost of the album alone. In the process of the creation of the album, the album saw a collaboration of musicians and technicians from multiple countries; the mastering of the album was done by Sterling Sound Studio in New York City. Ade Govinda, music composer from Indonesia who contributed "Terbaik Bagimu" is one of the producers for the album. Out of nine songs that are included in the album, three of them are chosen from her collaboration with "Bengkel Cipta Ekspres Badan Pelindung Hakcipta Karyawan Malaysia" on 25 April 2013. During the workshop, 10 music composers and 10 lyricists that were chosen were given three days to create 10 songs, before they were presented to Siti in order for her to evaluate their suitability to be included in her album.

This marked her second time collaborating with MACP to find new materials for her album since her last traditional album, Lentera Timur. Intended to be the tenth track for the album, "Seluruh Cinta", a duet with an Indonesia singer, Cakra Khan did not make the final cut of the album; the song, recorded in three hours on 29 May 2014 at My Music, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia was revealed by Siti's management to be of a different project, though the possibility of its inclusion was considered. The song was included for the Indonesian version of Fragmen when it was launched and released on 21 October 2014. Shot by Bustamam Mokhtar, the album cover portrays Siti in a black ensemble. Siti explained on her choice of the black ensemble as, "Apart from the result of our discussion with the involved party in the creation of the album cover, I chose black because it is my favourite colour and it is perfect with the concept of elegance that I wanted." The album marked her first cover album with her wearing a hijab.

She explained, "This is my first album. With hijab, I still want uniqueness and in the same time the image, being shown is suitable with the element of pop, present in the album. Therefore, I intentionally chos