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Australian Army Reserve

The Australian Army Reserve is a collective name given to the reserve units of the Australian Army. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, the reserve military force has been known by many names, including the Citizens Forces, the Citizen Military Forces, the Militia and, the Australian Military Forces. In 1980, the current name—Australian Army Reserve—was adopted, it now consists of a number of components based around the level of commitment and training obligation that its members are required to meet. For the first half of the 20th century, due to a widespread distrust of permanent military forces in Australia, the reserve military forces were the primary focus of Australian military planning. Following the end of World War II, this focus shifted due to the changing strategic environment, the requirement for a higher readiness force available to support collective security goals. Since Australian defence policy has been focused more upon the Regular Army, there has been considerable debate about the role of the Army Reserve within defence planning circles.

As the strategic situation has evolved in the post Cold War era, the organisation, structure and role of the Army Reserve has undergone considerable changes, members of the Army Reserve are being used on overseas deployments, not only within Regular Army units, but in units drawn entirely from Reserve units. Despite being the main focus upon which Australian defence planning was based, since Federation Reserve units have been used in the role of home defence and to provide a mobilisation platform during times of war. During World War I Australia's contribution to the fighting came from forces raised outside the citizens forces that were in existence at the time, although many citizen soldiers enlisted in these forces, the Citizens Forces units remained in Australia. With the outbreak of World War II a similar situation evolved, with the establishment of an all volunteer expeditionary force, with the entry of Japan into the war the threat to Australia became more direct and a number of Militia units were called upon to fight in New Guinea and other areas of the South West Pacific.

Following the end of World War II, the decision was made to establish a permanent standing defence force and the role of Reserve forces was reduced to the point where for a while their relevance was called into question. However, there has been a move to develop a more capable Reserve force, as Australia's overseas military commitments in the Pacific and Middle East have highlighted the importance of the Reserves once more; as such, since 2000 units of the Australian Army Reserve have been deployed to East Timor and the Solomon Islands on peacekeeping duties and many more individual Reservists have been used to provide specialist capabilities and to fill in Regular Army formations being sent overseas. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the amalgamation of the military forces controlled by the six separate, self-governing British colonies to form a unified force controlled by the Commonwealth was an inevitable, albeit realised, given that the new Constitution of Australia assigned the defence power to the Commonwealth.

Indeed, this process took some time as, to a large extent, matters of defence were not a priority of the new Australian legislature at the time, there was a considerable diversity in opinion regarding the composition and size of the new national army and role it would play at home and indeed within the wider Imperial defence system. The official transfer of forces from the states to the Commonwealth occurred on 1 March 1901, this date is today celebrated as the birthday of the modern Australian Army. At the outset, the bulk of the Commonwealth military force was to be made up of part-time volunteers; this was arguably due to two factors. Firstly, there was a widespread desire amongst Australian policymakers to keep defence expenditure low, while secondly there was a widespread mistrust or suspicion surrounding the idea of a large standing army. After the initial transfer of forces in March 1901, further progress was slow as administrative and legislative instruments took time to develop. Indeed, it was not until 1 March 1904 that the Defence Act 1903 was proclaimed, providing the Commonwealth Military Forces a statutory framework within which they could operate.

Amidst a background of political manoeuvring and personal agendas, the military forces were reorganised into a more or less unified command structure. As a part of this, state-based mounted units were reformed into light horse regiments, supplemented by the transfer of men from a number of superfluous infantry units, while the remaining infantry were organised into battalions of the Australian Infantry Regiment and engineers and artillery were organised into field companies and garrison artillery batteries. Due to the provisions of the Defence Act which did not provide for the establishment of a regular infantry force, the notion that the Commonwealth Military Forces would be based on a part-time militia was set out in legislation; the lack of importance placed on military matters in Australian political circles continued for some time, the size of the Australian military in this time continued to fall, in part due to the emphasis placed upon mounted units in the new command structure. However, following a number of strategic and political "scares", defence matters began to take on more primacy in the Australian psyche before a review of defence needs was made in 1909 by Field Marshal Lord Kitchener.

The result of this review was the realisation of the need to build a credible defence force that could not only defend the nation

David A. Reid

David Alan Reid is an American politician and retired US Navy Reserve commander. Reid was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 2017, he is a Democrat representing the 32nd District, which includes much of eastern Loudoun County in Northern Virginia. Reid grew up in Rockbridge County, before moving to the United Methodist Children's Home in Richmond, Virginia in 1972. After six years and his youngest brother were adopted and moved to Tahlequah, with a foster family. Reid earned a BA in political science from Northeastern Oklahoma State University in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, he holds a master's diploma in strategic intelligence from the Joint Military Intelligence College located at the Defense Intelligence Agency in Washington, D. C. Reid served 23 years in the US Navy Reserve, as a naval intelligence officer, where he retired as a commander in 2011. While in the navy, Reid made two deployments to one deployment to Iceland. Reid ran for the Virginia House of Delegates in the 2017 elections and defeated incumbent Thomas Greason by a margin of 17%

Interferon gamma

Interferon gamma is a dimerized soluble cytokine, the only member of the type II class of interferons. The existence of this interferon, which early in its history was known as immune interferon, was described by E. F. Wheelock as a product of human leukocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, by others as a product of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes, it was shown to be produced in human lymphocytes. Or tuberculin-sensitized mouse peritoneal lymphocytes challenged with PPD; those reports contained the basic observation underlying the now employed interferon gamma release assay used to test for tuberculosis. In humans, the IFNγ protein is encoded by the IFNG gene. IFNγ, or type II interferon, is a cytokine, critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral, some bacterial and protozoal infections. IFNγ is an important activator of macrophages and inducer of Class II major histocompatibility complex molecule expression. Aberrant IFNγ expression is associated with a number of autoimmune diseases.

The importance of IFNγ in the immune system stems in part from its ability to inhibit viral replication directly, most from its immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory effects. IFNγ is produced predominantly by natural killer and natural killer T cells as part of the innate immune response, by CD4 Th1 and CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte effector T cells once antigen-specific immunity develops. IFNγ is produced by non-cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells, a family of immune cells first discovered in the early 2010s; the IFNγ monomer consists of a core of six α-helices and an extended unfolded sequence in the C-terminal region. This is shown in the structural models below; the α-helices in the core of the structure are numbered 1 to 6. The biologically active dimer is formed by anti-parallel inter-locking of the two monomers as shown below. In the cartoon model, one monomer is shown in the other in blue. Cellular responses to IFNγ are activated through its interaction with a heterodimeric receptor consisting of Interferon gamma receptor 1 and Interferon gamma receptor 2.

IFNγ binding to the receptor activates the JAK-STAT pathway. IFNγ binds to the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate at the cell surface. However, in contrast to many other heparan sulfate binding proteins, where binding promotes biological activity, the binding of IFNγ to HS inhibits its biological activity; the structural models shown in figures 1-3 for IFNγ are all shortened at their C-termini by 17 amino acids. Full length IFNγ is 143 amino acids long, the models are 126 amino acids long. Affinity for heparan sulfate resides within the deleted sequence of 17 amino acids. Within this sequence of 17 amino acids lie two clusters of basic amino acids termed D1 and D2, respectively. Heparan sulfate interacts with both of these clusters. In the absence of heparan sulfate the presence of the D1 sequence increases the rate at which IFNγ-receptor complexes form. Interactions between the D1 cluster of amino acids and the receptor may be the first step in complex formation. By binding to D1 HS may compete with the receptor and prevent active receptor complexes from forming.

The biological significance of heparan sulfates interaction with IFNγ is unclear. IFNγ is secreted by T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, mucosal epithelial cells and NK cells. IFNγ is the only Type II interferon and it is serologically distinct from Type I interferons. IFNγ has antiviral and anti-tumor properties, it alters transcription in up to 30 genes producing a variety of physiological and cellular responses. Among the effects are: Promotes NK cell activity Increases antigen presentation and lysosome activity of macrophages. Activates inducible nitric oxide synthase Induces the production of IgG2a and IgG3 from activated plasma B cells Causes normal cells to increase expression of class I MHC molecules as well as class II MHC on antigen-presenting cells—to be specific, through induction of antigen processing genes, including subunits of the immunoproteasome, as well as TAP and ERAAP in addition to the direct upregulation of MHC heavy chains and B2-microglobulin itself Promotes adhesion and binding required for leukocyte migration Induces the expression of intrinsic defense factors—for example, with respect to retroviruses, relevant genes include TRIM5alpha, APOBEC, Tetherin, representing directly antiviral effects Primes alveolar macrophages against secondary bacterial infections.

IFNγ is the primary cytokine that defines Th1 cells: Th1 cells secrete IFNγ, which in turn causes more undifferentiated CD4+ cells to differentiate into Th1 cells, representing a positive feedback loop—while suppressing Th2 cell differentiation. NK cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells produce IFNγ. IFNγ suppresses osteoclast formation by degrading the RANK adaptor protein TRAF6 in the RANK-RANKL signaling pathway, which otherwise stimulates the production of NF-κB. A granuloma is the body's way of dealing with a substance it can not sterilize. Infectious causes of granulomas include tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis and toxoplasmosis. Examples of non-infectious granulomatous diseases are sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, giant-cell arteritis, granulom

Judy O'Bannon

Judith "Judy" O'Bannon Willsey is the former First Lady of the State of Indiana, serving in that role from January 13, 1997 to September 13, 2003, during the administration of her husband Governor Frank O'Bannon. She has been a leader in community development and historic preservation throughout much of her life, including having helped launch and serving as chair of the Indiana Main Street program, serving on the boards of the Indiana Landmarks foundation, the Indiana State Museum and the National Trust for Historic Preservation, she is an Emmy-winning host and producer of the WFYI-TV public television series Communities Building Community and Judy O'Bannon's Foreign Exchange as well as several one-time specials. Born Judith Asmus in Downers Grove, her family moved to Indianapolis while she was a child. O'Bannon is a graduate of Shortridge High School in Indianapolis, she graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a bachelor's degree in social work from Indiana University. She was selected as a Rockefeller Theological Scholar and was the first woman to attend the Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary.

Frank and Judy O'Bannon met on a blind date. They were married on August 18, 1957 until his death on September 13, 2003, they have three children. On November 29, 2013, Judy married attorney Donald Willsey. O'Bannon served as First Lady of the State of Indiana from January 13, 1997 until September 13, 2003; as First Lady, she led initiatives that were an outgrowth from her life-long advocacy and work in community development, historic preservation and the arts. During her husband's first term, O'Bannon launched the Hoosier Millennium: Communities Building Community initiative to encourage citizens across the state to use the upcoming calendar change of a new millennium as an opportunity to strengthen Indiana communities, asking "Who we are? Where have we come from? and What do we want to be in the future?." O'Bannon delivered Hoosier Millennium toolboxes to communities and organizations throughout the state, traveling in a motor home wrapped in the initiative's logo, with space around the bottom for individuals to sign their names at each stop.

Cities and organizations throughout the state launched community programs as part of the Hoosier Millennium initiative, ranging from downtown revitalization to presentations of Hoosier heritage like the "Ages of Agriculture" production at Purdue University. And the Indiana Department of Transportation's Hoosier Roadside Heritage Program featuring wildflowers and native plants along the state's highways. With broad participation by communities throughout the state, in 2001 the initiative was renamed Indiana 2016 and encouraged Hoosiers to set goals for "Where they want to be in 2016" when the state would celebrate its bicentennial. Welcoming more than 10,000 visitors per year, O'Bannon referred to the Indiana Governor's Residence as the "State's Living Room" and used the high-profile location to bring attention important community issues, including amplifying the education and reading programs that were a cornerstone of her husband's agenda in the Governor's Office. In line with that, she hosted an annual Reading Day at the Residence, which paired graduates of adult literacy programs with school children from throughout the state.

She made the Governor's Residence a showcase for Indiana arts with the creation of the First Lady's Arts Series, featuring new exhibitions each quarter by Indiana artists, the annual Day with the Arts, co-hosted by VSA of Indiana, which welcomed more than 800 children with disabilities and volunteers for arts activities and workshops. O'Bannon, a long-time advocate for people with disabilities, raised more than $1.2 million in private funds to renovate of the Governor's Residence to make it accessible for people with disabilities. As First Lady, O'Bannon led three People to People Ambassador Program international delegations—Russia in 1999 and South Africa in 2001 and 2003—that included Indiana leaders in the areas of education, the arts, foundation leadership, health and HIV/AIDS and community development. During her years as First Lady, O'Bannon participated in the National Governor's Association's Spouses' Program, including hosting seminars for governors' spouses' staff, she co-hosted with her husband the 2003 NGA Annual Meeting in Indianapolis.

O'Bannon was active in joint initiatives with her colleagues in other states, including promoting reading and early childhood education alongside Ohio First Lady Hope Taft and Kentucky First Lady Judi Patton. Working with WFYI-TV, O'Bannon helped develop the public television series Communities Building Community in 2003 as an outgrowth of her focus on communities as First Lady. O'Bannon served as a co-producer and writer for the show; the series, which aired for three seasons, with additional one-time episodes airing featured stories from throughout the state highlighting the many ways Hoosiers "are working to strengthen their communities." In 2008, O'Bannon and co-producer Gary Harrison won the National Academy of Television Arts and Science's Lower Great Lakes Chapter's Emmy award for Regularly Scheduled Public Affairs Program for the Communities Building Community episode 301 "The Neighborhood." More O'Bannon has hosted Judy O'Bannon's Foreign Exchange, which airs periodically on WFYI-TV, offering a collection of stories from various countries focused on "people who are finding new ways to use their mind and spirit to help change their world for the better."

O'Bannon has led development and co-produced several one-time feature programs that have included long-form interviews with notable individuals and perspectives on relevant community issues. In 2012, O'Bannon was once aga


Thalassinidea is a former infraorder of decapod crustaceans that live in burrows in muddy bottoms of the world's oceans. In Australian English, the littoral thalassinidean Trypaea australiensis is referred to as the yabby used as bait for estuarine fishing; the burrows made by thalassinideans are preserved, the fossil record of thalassinideans reaches back to the late Jurassic. The group was abandoned when it became clear that it represented two separate lineages, now both recognised as infraorders: Gebiidea and Axiidea. Recent molecular analyses have shown that thalassinideans are most related to Brachyura and Anomura. There are believed to be 556 extant species of thalassinideans in 96 genera, with the greatest diversity in the tropics, although with some species reaching latitudes above 60° north. About 95 % of species live with only three taxa living below 2,000 metres. Thalassinoides


Ramaleela is a 2017 Indian Malayalam-language political thriller film written by Sachy and directed by debutant Arun Gopy. It stars Dileep, Raadhika Sarathkumar, Kalabhavan Shajohn, Prayaga Martin in lead roles; the film is distributed by Tomichan Mulakuppadam under Mulakuppadam Films. Ramaleela was released in India on 28 September 2017. Advocate Ramanunni is an MLA of Palakkad who gets expelled from his political communist party, the CDP for assaulting the District Secretary Ambadi Mohanan and joins the rival secularist party, the NSP. Ramanunni, receiving threats from CDP activists, decides to take a gun license for self-protection and this becomes a controversy in the news. Ramanunni's mother Ragini disapproves of his decision to join the NSP as they come from a communist-oriented family and his father Raghavan, a CDP activist, believed to have been martyred by NSP activists; the NSP decides to appoint Ramanunni as their candidate in the upcoming election. The decision is opposed by Udayabhanu, a veteran politician of the NSP but this is overlooked by the others.

Ramanunni, along with his sidekick Thomas Chacko, the NSP Youth Wing Secretary, attend an interview where Mohanan assaults Ramanunni. As the promotions for the elections begin, the CDP announces their candidate as Ragini, who they think is the only person who can defeat Ramanunni. While campaigning at a football match, Mohanan is shot dead and Ramanunni and Chacko become the prime suspects; the Investigation Officer, Paulson Devassy, present at the assassination point, finds out that Ramanunni's gun is missing a bullet. Ballistics match the bullet that killed Mohanan with the bullets in Ramanunni's gun, shows that the gun must have been fired from the row where Ramanunni and Chacko were sitting. Ramanunni and Chacko escape police custody and hide in the house of V. G. Madhavan, a journalist and a good friend of Ramanunni. Madhavan's daughter Helena decides to help them. Now in disguise, they leave for a resort on an island off the coast of Goa. Unknown to Ramanunni and Chacko, Helena televises all their actions through hidden cameras under the name of'Hot Pursuit' in order to find the real culprit.

With Ramanunni gone, the NSP appoints Sumesh Venjara, a disliked and weak politician as their new candidate. In Goa, Ramanunni reveals that it was Ambadi Mohanan and Udayabhanu who were behind his father's death and not the NSP activists; as the videos get televised, Officer Paulson Devassy gathers evidence of Mohanan's death that leads to Udayabhanu. Police arrests him, it is revealed that televising Ramanunni's escape was Helena's plan to prove his innocence. Ramanunni goes on to win the election as an independent candidate. In a major twist, it turns out that it was Ramanunni who had assassinated Ambadi Mohanan with the help of a fellow CDP comrade Chandran, he accused Udayabhanu because of his role in his father's death. He explains to his mother, his mother salutes Ramanunni, he does the same back. Dileep as Adv. K. R. Ramanunni MLA Raadhika Sarathkumar as Ragini Raghavan Mukesh as DYSP Paulson Devassy Kalabhavan Shajohn as Thomas Chacko Prayaga Martin as Helena Madhavan Vijayaraghavan as Ambadi Mohanan Siddique as Udayabhanu Suresh Krishna as Theekuni Chandran Renji Panicker as V. G. Madhavan Ashokan as I.

G. Balachandran Saikumar as Sakhavu P. Sugathan G. Suresh Kumar as Sagar Nagambadam Lena as Olga John Sadiq as Rajendran Kalabhavan Shaju as Prakashan Anil Murali as Sudhi Ameer Niyas as CI Deepak Salim Kumar as Sumesh Venjara Sreejith Ravi as Siby Chacko Chali Pala as SI Soman Manju Satheesh as a CDP Member Tomichan Mulakuppadam as Himself Romin Anthony as Ajay Diya Parveen as Journalist Murali as Sakhavu Raghavan Vinod Kedamangalam as Driver Pushpan The film is produced and distributed by Tomichan Mulakuppadam under the production company Mulakuppadam Films, it was made with a budget of ₹14 crore. Gopi Sundar composed the music. Through Ramaleela, Raadhika returned to act in Malayalam cinema after a gap of 23 years. Principal photography began on 9 December 2016 in Kerala. Filming held at Palakkad, Thiruvananthapuram, in Goa-Maharashtra border. Ramaleela's release was delayed on account of actor Dileep's arrest for conspiracy to kidnap and attempt to rape of an Indian film actress. Despite calls for a boycott, the film released in India on 28 September 2017.

It released across 129 screens in Kerala. The film grossed ₹2.13 crore on the opening day from the Kerala box office and collected a total of ₹10.60 crore in the first 4 days. The film grossed ₹20.66 crore from 10 days run in the Kerala box office. It grossed ₹33.2 crore from Kerala in 38 days run. The film grossed ₹50 crore. Music: Gopi Sundar, Lyrics: B. K. Harinarayanan Ivide Ivide Ee Mannil - Madhu Balakrishnan Nenjileri Theeye - Harish Sivaramakrishnan, Gopi Sundar Ramleela - Harish Sivaramakrishnan Sada Kudayana Nethaavu - Madhu Balakrishnan, Afsal Ramaleela on IMDb